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Structure of electrons
What is an atom made of? <ul><li>Subatomic particles:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutron, proton, electrons </li></ul></ul><u...
Organization of electrons in the atom <ul><li>Orbital or electron shell: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentric rings surroundin...
Electron shells <ul><li>Each electron shell that can hold a set number of electrons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st  shell (in...
Valence shell & Chemical Bonds <ul><li>Valence shell: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The outermost shell is called the valence shel...
Valence shell <ul><li>The number of electrons in the valence shell determines the chemical properties of the atom </li></u...
Some examples <ul><li>Helium (He) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has two electrons in outer shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a ...
Some examples <ul><li>Lithium (Li) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has three electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 in 1 st  level, ...
Some examples <ul><li>Neon (Ne) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has ten electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 in 1 st  level, 8 in ...
Some examples <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has six electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 in inner shell and 4 in ...
Orbitals <ul><li>The electron shell models are simplified models to help understand reactivity of chemicals and electronic...
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Structure Of Electrons

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Structure of Electrons

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Transcript of "Structure Of Electrons"

  1. 1. Structure of electrons
  2. 2. What is an atom made of? <ul><li>Subatomic particles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutron, proton, electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A central, dense nucleus (neutrons & protons) surrounded by electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons have a negative charge (-) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protons have a positive charge (+) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atom is held together by the attraction of electrons and protons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrons are neutral </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Organization of electrons in the atom <ul><li>Orbital or electron shell: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentric rings surrounding nucleus that electrons are “represented” as orbiting around the nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A region of space about a nucleus that contains electrons that have approximately the same energy and spend most of their time approximately the same distance from the nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For example, let’s take a closer look at the element of copper (Cu) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Electron shells <ul><li>Each electron shell that can hold a set number of electrons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st shell (innermost)—holds 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd shell –holds 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd shell—holds 18 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 th shell—holds 32 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Valence shell & Chemical Bonds <ul><li>Valence shell: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The outermost shell is called the valence shell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical bonds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of gaining, losing or sharing electrons that hold the atoms together </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Valence shell <ul><li>The number of electrons in the valence shell determines the chemical properties of the atom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The farther the distance between the electrons and the nucleus, the less force of attraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the electron shell is full, then it is less reactive </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Some examples <ul><li>Helium (He) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has two electrons in outer shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a full outer shell (which is also the first energy level) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very stable, non-reactive </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Some examples <ul><li>Lithium (Li) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has three electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 in 1 st level, 1 in second level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second level can hold up to seven more electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, it is very reactive </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Some examples <ul><li>Neon (Ne) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has ten electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 in 1 st level, 8 in second level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second level is full </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, it is very stable </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Some examples <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has six electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 in inner shell and 4 in outer shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valence shell can hold how many more? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 electrons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you predict C to be very reactive? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Orbitals <ul><li>The electron shell models are simplified models to help understand reactivity of chemicals and electronic structure </li></ul><ul><li>The electron shell model is 2-d, but in reality the movement of electrons occurs in 3-dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>And each shell has subshells: s, p, d and n </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s view the movement of electrons </li></ul>
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