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Periodic Table Of Elements
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Periodic Table Of Elements

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Transcript

  • 1. Periodic Table of Elements
  • 2. Chemical symbols
    • Chemical symbol:
      • A one- or two-letter designation for an element derived from an elements name
      • To be successful in chemistry (and biology) it is important to know the symbols of common elements
  • 3. How do elements get their names?
    • Helium (He):
      • From the Greek word “helios” because it was first observed in the sun’s corona
    • Chlorine (Cl):
      • From the Greek word “chloros” denoting “greenish yellow”
    • See list for symbols you will need to recognize by next test
  • 4. How many elements are there?
    • 111 elements named
      • Some are natural and some are synthesized
    • Elements 112-116 and 118
      • Have yet to have be named
  • 5. Periodic (what does it mean?)
    • Periodic: happening on a regular basis
        • 6 a.m. comes every morning (period=24 hrs)
        • Monday comes around every seven days (period = 1 week)
        • Christmas comes every year (period=1 year)
  • 6. Periodic Table
    • A tabular arrangement of the elements in order of increasing atomic number
      • Elements having similar chemical behavior are grouped in vertical columns
      • Similar properties are found in every eighth element
    • See Periodic Table
  • 7. Groups of elemental table
    • Group: a vertical column of elements in the periodic table
      • Groups are commonly identified as IA through VIIIA and then IB through IIB
  • 8. Groups
    • Group IA: Alkali metals
      • Soft, shiny metals that readily react with water
        • (excluding H)
    • Group IIA: Alkaline earth metals
      • Soft, shiny metals that are only moderately reactive with water
    • Group VIIA: Halogens
      • Reactive, colored substances that are commonly gases at room temperature
    • Group VIIIA: Noble gases
      • Unreactive gases
  • 9. Chemical Basis of Life
    • Most common elements in living organisms
      • Carbon (C): 9.5%
      • Hydrogen (H): 63%
      • Oxygen (O): 25.5%
      • Nitrogen (N): 1.4%
  • 10. Macrominerals
    • Minerals we need a lot of
      • Calcium ( Ca )
      • Phosphorous ( P )
      • Magnesium ( Mg )
      • Potassium ( K )
      • Sodium ( Na )
  • 11. Microminerals
    • Needed in small quantities
      • Iron ( Fe )
      • Copper ( Cu )
      • Chromium ( Cr )
      • Fluoride ( F )
      • Iodine ( I )
      • Selenium ( Se )
      • Molybdenum ( Mo )
      • Zinc ( Zn )