Periodic Table Of Elements

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Periodic Table Of Elements

  1. 1. Periodic Table of Elements
  2. 2. Chemical symbols <ul><li>Chemical symbol: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A one- or two-letter designation for an element derived from an elements name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be successful in chemistry (and biology) it is important to know the symbols of common elements </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How do elements get their names? <ul><li>Helium (He): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the Greek word “helios” because it was first observed in the sun’s corona </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chlorine (Cl): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the Greek word “chloros” denoting “greenish yellow” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See list for symbols you will need to recognize by next test </li></ul>
  4. 4. How many elements are there? <ul><li>111 elements named </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are natural and some are synthesized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elements 112-116 and 118 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have yet to have be named </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Periodic (what does it mean?) <ul><li>Periodic: happening on a regular basis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 a.m. comes every morning (period=24 hrs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monday comes around every seven days (period = 1 week) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christmas comes every year (period=1 year) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Periodic Table <ul><li>A tabular arrangement of the elements in order of increasing atomic number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements having similar chemical behavior are grouped in vertical columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar properties are found in every eighth element </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See Periodic Table </li></ul>
  7. 7. Groups of elemental table <ul><li>Group: a vertical column of elements in the periodic table </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups are commonly identified as IA through VIIIA and then IB through IIB </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Groups <ul><li>Group IA: Alkali metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft, shiny metals that readily react with water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(excluding H) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Group IIA: Alkaline earth metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft, shiny metals that are only moderately reactive with water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group VIIA: Halogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive, colored substances that are commonly gases at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group VIIIA: Noble gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unreactive gases </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Chemical Basis of Life <ul><li>Most common elements in living organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon (C): 9.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen (H): 63% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O): 25.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (N): 1.4% </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Macrominerals <ul><li>Minerals we need a lot of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium ( Ca ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorous ( P ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium ( Mg ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium ( K ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium ( Na ) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Microminerals <ul><li>Needed in small quantities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron ( Fe ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper ( Cu ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromium ( Cr ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluoride ( F ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine ( I ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selenium ( Se ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molybdenum ( Mo ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc ( Zn ) </li></ul></ul>

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