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Powerpoint on Matter

Powerpoint on Matter

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  • 1. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER STATES OF MATTER CHANGES IN MATTER
  • 2.
    • Anything that has mass and occupies space
    • All matter is composed of atoms
    • Atom:
      • Extremely small chemically indivisible particle
      • Atom is Greek for “that which cannot be divided”
        • Greek philosopher Democritus is given credit for idea
        • Modern science can now divide an atom, so new definition includes chemically indivisible
        • An atom cannot be divided and retain it’s chemical properties
  • 3.
    • Element : any substance that cannot be broken up into simpler substances by chemical means
      • silver, copper, hydrogen, oxygen nitrogen
    • Compound: a substance formed when atoms of two or more elements join together
      • H 2 0 (water), CO 2 (carbon dioxide)
    • Mixture: a material of two or more substances that are not chemically bound to each other and can be separated
      • Blood: water-based mixture including
        • Proteins, sugars, salt, oxygen, carbon dioxide
  • 4.
    • Properties of matter are distinguishing characteristics of a substance that are used in its identification and description
      • Chemical properties
      • Physical properties
  • 5.
    • Characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing substance into another substance
      • Color
      • Odor
      • Taste
      • Size
      • Physical state (liquid, gas, or solid)
      • Boiling point
      • Melting point
      • Density
  • 6.
    • Characteristic of a substance that describes how substances react with other substances such as water, air or fire to form a new substance
      • Digestion
      • Combustion
      • Photosynthesis
  • 7. Carbon Dioxide Water Carbohydrate or Sugar Oxygen Solar Energy + 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + chemical (heat) energy
  • 8.
    • Chemical changes
      • involve formation of a new substance
    • Physical changes occur when a substance changes
      • color, size, shape, temperature or state
      • States of matter: solid, liquid, gas
  • 9.
    • SOLID
      • Holds shape
      • Fixed volume
    • LIQUID
      • Indefinite shape
      • definite volume
    • GAS
      • Indefinite shape
      • Indefinite volume
  • 10.
    • Plasma
      • The fourth state
      • Gas that is so hot that it has ionized
        • The gas is electrically charged and is affected by magnetic and electric fields
        • Sun’s corona
    • Colloidal suspension
      • Mixture of two states completely dispersed in the other (i.e., solid in liquid) liquid that appear like solution
        • i.e., milk, cheese, gelatin
      • Characteristics of solid and liquid
  • 11.
    • Melting:
      • solid to liquid
    • Freezing:
      • liquid to solid
    • Evaporation:
      • liquid to gas
    • Condensation:
      • gas to liquid
  • 12.
    • Can rocks melt?
      • Yes, if it gets hot enough
    • So, what determines states of matter?
      • Temperature
      • & Pressure