Hydrologic  Cycle
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Hydrologic Cycle

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Hydrologic  Cycle Hydrologic Cycle Presentation Transcript

  • WATER, LIFE & CLIMATE
  • Part I: water is life
  • Water is life
    YOU are 60% water and can only live a few days without drinking water
  • Water & Culture
    Indigenous cultures “recognize, honor and respect water as sacred and sustains all life”
    www.indigenouswater.org/user/IPKyotoWaterDeclarationFINAL.pdf
    Water is the blood of mother earth, the giver of life
    Water is worthy of reverence and great respect
  • Water & Culture
    Water plays a central role in most indigenous cultures
    There is a Tohono O’odham song that describes how the red ripe fruit of the saguaro call to the clouds to form overhead. These clouds mark the beginning of the summer monsoons and also the beginning of the new year in the traditional Tohono O’odham calendar
  • Water and society
    Water shortage predicted to become THE major crisis in our future
    Over 50% of the world’s population does not have an adequate supply of safe drinking water
  • WATER & SOCIETY
    Water shortages are due to the growing human population on Planet Earth
  • Human Population History
    WATER & SOCIETY
  • Part II: HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
  • Hydrology
    Water distribution
    70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water
  • Hydrology
    Water distribution
    70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water
    BUT 97.5% of this water is salt water
  • Freshwater
    • Only 2.5% of the planet’s water is freshwater, and only 1% of that exists on Earth’s surface
    • 1%=lakes, rivers
    • 20%=groundwater
    • 79%=ice caps and glaciers
  • Matter Recycling in Ecosystems
    Law of Conservation of Matter: matter is neither created nor destroyed.
    Just moved around and transformed.
    Biogeochemical cycles: the movement of chemicals through the components of the Earth system.
    These components are also called “biogeochemical reservoirs”.
    13
  • components of the Earth SYSTEM
    Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land
  • components of the Earth SYSTEM
    Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land
    Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water
  • components of the Earth SYSTEM
    Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land
    Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water
    Atmosphere: the gaseous Earth; air
  • components of the Earth SYSTEM
    Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land
    Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water
    Atmosphere: the gaseous Earth; air
    Biosphere: living things (organisms)and the parts of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere in which things live
  • components of the Earth SYSTEM
    Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land
    Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water
    Atmosphere: the gaseous Earth; air
    Organisms: living things
    Cryosphere: frozen or solid water such as ice caps, glaciers, snow and permafrost
  • HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
    Hydrologic cycle
    Cycling of water in and out of atmosphere and between all the earth’s components.
    All of the water on our planet is recycled and a given molecule of water is used over and over throughout time.
    Water is the primary medium by which energy and matter move are circulated through the Earth system components.
    19
  • The hydrologic cycle
    • Water enters the atmosphere by evaporation and by transpiration from leaves.
    • It condenses and falls from the atmosphere as precipitation.
    • When water falls as precipitation on land, it has two possible pathways:
    Returns to the hydrosphere by flowing as runoff from the land surface into streams, rivers, lakes, and eventually the ocean.
    Returns to the lithosphere by infiltration into the ground becoming soil water or ground water.
  • Hail
    fog
    Hail
    fog
    Hail
    fog
    Hail
    fog
    Hail
    fog
    Hail
    fog
    Precipitation -
    Any form of water that falls to Earth from the atmosphere
  • Water appears in all 3 of its phases at different times during the hydrologic cycle
    Solid
    • Ice, hail, snow, glaciers, ice caps etc.
    Liquid
    • Water droplets, including clouds, lakes, streams etc.
    Gas
    • Water vapor
  • -
    -
    -
    -
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    O
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    O
    O
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    O
    O
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    H
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    H
    H
    Water Vapor
  • -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    O
    O
    O
    O
    O
    O
    O
    O
    O
    +
    +
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    H
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    Water Condensation
  • FIVE PROCESSES OF THE HYDROLOGIC CYCle
    Precipitation: Any form of water falling from the atmosphere to the ground.
    Condensation: The process of changing from a gas to a liquid
    Evapotranspiration:
    Evaporation: the transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the ground or bodies of water into the overlying atmosphere.
    The source of energy for evaporation is primarily solar radiation
    Transpiration: the release of water vapor from plants into the atmosphere.
    Evaporation + transpiration=evapotranspiration
  • Infiltration and run-off
    Run-off: variety of ways water moves across the land
    • Snowmelt: run off from melting of snow on mountain tops
    • Water can flow to rivers, lakes, reservoirs, oceans or infiltrate into soil
    Infiltration: flow of water from surface into the ground
    • Once in ground can become soil water or ground water
  • Hydrologic Cycle Powered By:
    &
    Solar Energy
    (evaporation)
    • Gravity
    (precipitation)
  • So, where does water go when it falls on earth?
    about 76% lost to evaporation
    32% run-off
    small percent infiltrates into groundwater
  • LE 3-16
    Food for thought…
    Where does the hydrological cycle begin and end?
    Atmosphere
    13,000
    Evaporation
    425,000
    Precipitation
    111,000
    71,000
    Ice caps, glaciers,
    and snowfields
    33,000,000
    Precipitation
    385,000
    Evaporation
    Transpiration
    Rivers
    Extraction
    Runoff
    40,000
    Land plants
    Uptake
    Human use
    Infiltration
    <11,000
    Water
    table
    Extraction
    Soil water 122,000
    Oceans
    1,350,000,000
    Aquifer
    Groundwater
    15,300,000
  • QUESTION: Testing Your Comprehension
    Water enters the atmosphere through the process of…?
    a. Precipitation
    b. Transpiration
    c. Infiltration
    d. Runoff
  • QUESTION: Testing Your Comprehension
    Water enters the atmosphere through the process of…?
    a. Precipitation
    b. Evaporation
    c. Infiltration
    d. Runoff
  • QUESTION: Testing Your Comprehension
    Water enters the lithosphere through the process of…?
    a. Precipitation
    b. Transpiration
    c. Infiltration
    d. Runoff
  • Part IiI: HYDROLOGIC CYCLE & climate
  • Climate Concepts: rise or sink
    Warm air rises
    Open the oven, you feel the heat on your face
    Cold air sinks
    Open the freezer, you feel the cold at your feet
  • Warmer Air
    Cooler Air
    Equal Air Temp
    Cooler Air
    Warmer Air
    Equal Air Temp
    Statically unstable
    Statically neutral
    Statically stable
    http://science.howstuffworks.com/hot-air-balloon.htm
  • Climate Concepts: rise or sink
    When air rises, it cools
    Top of mountain is cooler than the base of the mountain.
    When air sinks, it warms
    The base of the mountain is warmer than the top of the mountain.
  • Climate Concepts: warm or cold
    Warm air holds more water
    Cold air holds less water
  • Climate Concepts: water in air
    As air rises, it cools
    Cooler air holds less water vapor.
    If it gets even cooler, then it rains
    RISING AIRRAIN
  • Climate Concepts: water in air
    As air descends, it dries
    warmer air holds more water vapor.
    As air dries, it is less likely to rain
    DESCENDING AIRDRY
  • Climate Concepts: water in air
    The temperature to which the air had to cool to become totally saturated is called:
    Dew point: the temperature at which the relative humidity = 100%
  • Dew Point
    The temperature at which dew (condensation) begins to form
    Dew is the water you find on your grass or car early in the morning.
    Frost is when water is deposited as small ice crystals.
    Frozen dew is liquid dew that freezes.
    If the temperature reaches the dew point temperature, then dew (or frost) will form.
    http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/idm3020/tut_folder/nick_tutorial/
  • Climate Concepts: Review
    Warm air holds (more or less?) water vapor; cold air holds (more or less?) water vapor.
    As air cools down, the chance of rain increases or decreases?
    As air rises, the chance of rain increases or decreases?
  • What causes Precipitation?
    • Rain = moisture + cooled down air
    • No Rain = low moisture and/or heated up air
  • Hydrologic cycle & climate
    Solar radiation is most intense at the equator for two reasons:
    1) the sun’s rays are concentrated in a smaller area
    2) the sun moves through less atmosphere
  • Hydrologic cycle & climate
    Tropics are
    hot
  • Hydrologic cycle & climate
    Hot air
    rises
  • Hydrologic cycle & climate
    Air cools asit rises; sinks30°N and S
  • Hydrologic cycle & climate
    Each convectioncell is called aHadley Cell
  • Hadley cells
    http://uk.encarta.msn.com/media_461550429_781534817_-1_1/hadley_cells_and_the_itcz.html
  • Hydrologic cycle & climate
    Descending air at30°N & S is warmand dry
  • 30th Degree Latitude Deserts
    30th degree N & S are areas of sinking air / areas of high pressure
  • HYDROLOGIC CYCLE & CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Scientists have measured an intensification of the hydrological cycle due to global warming:
    • Globally, the average atmospheric water vapor concentrations have increased.
    • It is predicted that this will lead to increased precipitation rates in some areas.
    • The largest increases in precipitation are expected to occur near polar regions, for two reasons.
    • One, observations and climate models indicate that the warming rate has been and will continue to be the highest there, and warmer air can hold more water vapor.
    • Two, the warming will reduce the extent of sea ice , thereby allowing more evaporation from open water.
  • Cycles of wet and dry periods are normal, however,
    When the hydrological cycle is out of balance (or intensified due to climate change), these can lead to more extreme flooding and drought cycles
  • HYDROLOGIC CYCLE SUMMARY
    • Cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere and between all the earth’s components.
    • Water evaporates from the surface of the earth, rises and cools, condenses into rain or snow and falls again to the surface. The water falling on land collects in rivers and lakes, soil, and porous layers of rock, and much of it flows back into the ocean.
    • Plays an important role in
    • determining climatic patterns
    • plant growth
    • heat energy transfer
    • erosion rates
    • rates of rock weathering