Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Hydrologic  Cycle
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Hydrologic Cycle

9,897

Published on

1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
9,897
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
445
Comments
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. WATER, LIFE & CLIMATE<br />
  • 2. Part I: water is life <br />
  • 3. Water is life<br />YOU are 60% water and can only live a few days without drinking water<br />
  • 4. Water & Culture<br />Indigenous cultures “recognize, honor and respect water as sacred and sustains all life”<br />www.indigenouswater.org/user/IPKyotoWaterDeclarationFINAL.pdf<br />Water is the blood of mother earth, the giver of life<br />Water is worthy of reverence and great respect<br />
  • 5. Water & Culture<br />Water plays a central role in most indigenous cultures<br />There is a Tohono O’odham song that describes how the red ripe fruit of the saguaro call to the clouds to form overhead. These clouds mark the beginning of the summer monsoons and also the beginning of the new year in the traditional Tohono O’odham calendar<br />
  • 6. Water and society<br />Water shortage predicted to become THE major crisis in our future<br />Over 50% of the world’s population does not have an adequate supply of safe drinking water<br />
  • 7. WATER & SOCIETY<br />Water shortages are due to the growing human population on Planet Earth<br />
  • 8. Human Population History<br />WATER & SOCIETY<br />
  • 9. Part II: HYDROLOGIC CYCLE <br />
  • 10. Hydrology<br />Water distribution<br />70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water<br />
  • 11. Hydrology<br />Water distribution<br />70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water<br />BUT 97.5% of this water is salt water<br />
  • 12. Freshwater<br /><ul><li>Only 2.5% of the planet’s water is freshwater, and only 1% of that exists on Earth’s surface
  • 13. 1%=lakes, rivers
  • 14. 20%=groundwater
  • 15. 79%=ice caps and glaciers</li></li></ul><li>Matter Recycling in Ecosystems<br />Law of Conservation of Matter: matter is neither created nor destroyed.<br />Just moved around and transformed.<br />Biogeochemical cycles: the movement of chemicals through the components of the Earth system.<br />These components are also called “biogeochemical reservoirs”.<br />13<br />
  • 16. components of the Earth SYSTEM<br />Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land<br />
  • 17. components of the Earth SYSTEM<br />Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land<br />Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water<br />
  • 18. components of the Earth SYSTEM<br />Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land<br />Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water<br />Atmosphere: the gaseous Earth; air<br />
  • 19. components of the Earth SYSTEM<br />Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land<br />Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water<br />Atmosphere: the gaseous Earth; air<br />Biosphere: living things (organisms)and the parts of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere in which things live<br />
  • 20. components of the Earth SYSTEM<br />Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land<br />Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water<br />Atmosphere: the gaseous Earth; air<br />Organisms: living things<br />Cryosphere: frozen or solid water such as ice caps, glaciers, snow and permafrost<br />
  • 21. HYDROLOGIC CYCLE<br />Hydrologic cycle<br />Cycling of water in and out of atmosphere and between all the earth’s components. <br />All of the water on our planet is recycled and a given molecule of water is used over and over throughout time.<br />Water is the primary medium by which energy and matter move are circulated through the Earth system components.<br />19<br />
  • 22.
  • 23. The hydrologic cycle<br /><ul><li>Water enters the atmosphere by evaporation and by transpiration from leaves.
  • 24. It condenses and falls from the atmosphere as precipitation.
  • 25. When water falls as precipitation on land, it has two possible pathways:</li></ul>Returns to the hydrosphere by flowing as runoff from the land surface into streams, rivers, lakes, and eventually the ocean. <br />Returns to the lithosphere by infiltration into the ground becoming soil water or ground water. <br />
  • 26. Hail<br />fog<br />Hail<br />fog<br />Hail<br />fog<br />Hail<br />fog<br />Hail<br />fog<br />Hail<br />fog<br />Precipitation - <br />Any form of water that falls to Earth from the atmosphere<br />
  • 27. Water appears in all 3 of its phases at different times during the hydrologic cycle<br />Solid<br /><ul><li>Ice, hail, snow, glaciers, ice caps etc.</li></ul>Liquid<br /><ul><li>Water droplets, including clouds, lakes, streams etc.</li></ul>Gas<br /><ul><li>Water vapor</li></li></ul><li>-<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />Water Vapor<br />
  • 28. -<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />Water Condensation<br />
  • 29. FIVE PROCESSES OF THE HYDROLOGIC CYCle<br />Precipitation: Any form of water falling from the atmosphere to the ground.<br />Condensation: The process of changing from a gas to a liquid<br />Evapotranspiration:<br />Evaporation: the transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the ground or bodies of water into the overlying atmosphere.<br />The source of energy for evaporation is primarily solar radiation<br />Transpiration: the release of water vapor from plants into the atmosphere. <br />Evaporation + transpiration=evapotranspiration<br />
  • 30. Infiltration and run-off<br />Run-off: variety of ways water moves across the land<br /><ul><li>Snowmelt: run off from melting of snow on mountain tops
  • 31. Water can flow to rivers, lakes, reservoirs, oceans or infiltrate into soil</li></ul>Infiltration: flow of water from surface into the ground<br /><ul><li>Once in ground can become soil water or ground water</li></li></ul><li>Hydrologic Cycle Powered By:<br />&<br />Solar Energy<br />(evaporation)<br /><ul><li> Gravity</li></ul>(precipitation)<br />
  • 32. So, where does water go when it falls on earth?<br />about 76% lost to evaporation<br /> 32% run-off<br /> small percent infiltrates into groundwater<br />
  • 33. LE 3-16<br />Food for thought…<br />Where does the hydrological cycle begin and end?<br />Atmosphere<br />13,000<br />Evaporation<br />425,000<br />Precipitation<br />111,000<br />71,000<br />Ice caps, glaciers,<br />and snowfields<br />33,000,000<br />Precipitation<br />385,000<br />Evaporation<br />Transpiration<br />Rivers<br />Extraction<br />Runoff<br />40,000<br />Land plants<br />Uptake<br />Human use<br />Infiltration<br /><11,000<br />Water<br />table<br />Extraction<br />Soil water 122,000<br />Oceans<br />1,350,000,000<br />Aquifer<br />Groundwater<br />15,300,000<br />
  • 34. QUESTION: Testing Your Comprehension<br />Water enters the atmosphere through the process of…?<br />a. Precipitation<br />b. Transpiration<br />c. Infiltration<br />d. Runoff<br />
  • 35. QUESTION: Testing Your Comprehension<br />Water enters the atmosphere through the process of…?<br />a. Precipitation<br />b. Evaporation<br />c. Infiltration<br />d. Runoff<br />
  • 36. QUESTION: Testing Your Comprehension<br />Water enters the lithosphere through the process of…?<br />a. Precipitation<br />b. Transpiration<br />c. Infiltration<br />d. Runoff<br />
  • 37. Part IiI: HYDROLOGIC CYCLE & climate <br />
  • 38. Climate Concepts: rise or sink<br />Warm air rises<br />Open the oven, you feel the heat on your face<br />Cold air sinks<br />Open the freezer, you feel the cold at your feet<br />
  • 39. Warmer Air<br />Cooler Air<br />Equal Air Temp<br />Cooler Air<br />Warmer Air<br />Equal Air Temp<br />Statically unstable<br />Statically neutral<br />Statically stable<br />http://science.howstuffworks.com/hot-air-balloon.htm<br />
  • 40. Climate Concepts: rise or sink<br />When air rises, it cools<br />Top of mountain is cooler than the base of the mountain. <br />When air sinks, it warms<br />The base of the mountain is warmer than the top of the mountain. <br />
  • 41. Climate Concepts: warm or cold<br />Warm air holds more water<br />Cold air holds less water<br />
  • 42. Climate Concepts: water in air<br />As air rises, it cools<br />Cooler air holds less water vapor. <br />If it gets even cooler, then it rains<br />RISING AIRRAIN<br />
  • 43. Climate Concepts: water in air<br />As air descends, it dries<br />warmer air holds more water vapor. <br />As air dries, it is less likely to rain<br />DESCENDING AIRDRY<br />
  • 44. Climate Concepts: water in air<br />The temperature to which the air had to cool to become totally saturated is called:<br />Dew point: the temperature at which the relative humidity = 100%<br />
  • 45. Dew Point <br />The temperature at which dew (condensation) begins to form<br />Dew is the water you find on your grass or car early in the morning.<br />Frost is when water is deposited as small ice crystals.<br />Frozen dew is liquid dew that freezes.<br />If the temperature reaches the dew point temperature, then dew (or frost) will form.<br />http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/idm3020/tut_folder/nick_tutorial/<br />
  • 46. Climate Concepts: Review<br />Warm air holds (more or less?) water vapor; cold air holds (more or less?) water vapor.<br />As air cools down, the chance of rain increases or decreases?<br />As air rises, the chance of rain increases or decreases?<br />
  • 47. What causes Precipitation?<br /><ul><li>Rain = moisture + cooled down air
  • 48. No Rain = low moisture and/or heated up air</li></li></ul><li>Hydrologic cycle & climate<br />Solar radiation is most intense at the equator for two reasons:<br /> 1) the sun’s rays are concentrated in a smaller area <br /> 2) the sun moves through less atmosphere<br />
  • 49. Hydrologic cycle & climate<br />Tropics are<br />hot<br />
  • 50. Hydrologic cycle & climate<br />Hot air<br />rises<br />
  • 51. Hydrologic cycle & climate<br />Air cools asit rises; sinks30°N and S<br />
  • 52. Hydrologic cycle & climate<br />Each convectioncell is called aHadley Cell<br />
  • 53. Hadley cells<br />http://uk.encarta.msn.com/media_461550429_781534817_-1_1/hadley_cells_and_the_itcz.html<br />
  • 54. Hydrologic cycle & climate<br />Descending air at30°N & S is warmand dry<br />
  • 55. 30th Degree Latitude Deserts<br />30th degree N & S are areas of sinking air / areas of high pressure<br />
  • 56. HYDROLOGIC CYCLE & CLIMATE CHANGE<br /><ul><li>Scientists have measured an intensification of the hydrological cycle due to global warming:
  • 57. Globally, the average atmospheric water vapor concentrations have increased.
  • 58. It is predicted that this will lead to increased precipitation rates in some areas.
  • 59. The largest increases in precipitation are expected to occur near polar regions, for two reasons.
  • 60. One, observations and climate models indicate that the warming rate has been and will continue to be the highest there, and warmer air can hold more water vapor.
  • 61. Two, the warming will reduce the extent of sea ice , thereby allowing more evaporation from open water. </li></li></ul><li>Cycles of wet and dry periods are normal, however, <br />When the hydrological cycle is out of balance (or intensified due to climate change), these can lead to more extreme flooding and drought cycles<br />
  • 62. HYDROLOGIC CYCLE SUMMARY<br /><ul><li>Cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere and between all the earth’s components.
  • 63. Water evaporates from the surface of the earth, rises and cools, condenses into rain or snow and falls again to the surface. The water falling on land collects in rivers and lakes, soil, and porous layers of rock, and much of it flows back into the ocean.
  • 64. Plays an important role in
  • 65. determining climatic patterns
  • 66. plant growth
  • 67. heat energy transfer
  • 68. erosion rates
  • 69. rates of rock weathering</li>

×