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Hydrologic  Cycle
 

Hydrologic Cycle

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    Hydrologic  Cycle Hydrologic Cycle Presentation Transcript

    • WATER, LIFE & CLIMATE
    • Part I: water is life
    • Water is life
      YOU are 60% water and can only live a few days without drinking water
    • Water & Culture
      Indigenous cultures “recognize, honor and respect water as sacred and sustains all life”
      www.indigenouswater.org/user/IPKyotoWaterDeclarationFINAL.pdf
      Water is the blood of mother earth, the giver of life
      Water is worthy of reverence and great respect
    • Water & Culture
      Water plays a central role in most indigenous cultures
      There is a Tohono O’odham song that describes how the red ripe fruit of the saguaro call to the clouds to form overhead. These clouds mark the beginning of the summer monsoons and also the beginning of the new year in the traditional Tohono O’odham calendar
    • Water and society
      Water shortage predicted to become THE major crisis in our future
      Over 50% of the world’s population does not have an adequate supply of safe drinking water
    • WATER & SOCIETY
      Water shortages are due to the growing human population on Planet Earth
    • Human Population History
      WATER & SOCIETY
    • Part II: HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
    • Hydrology
      Water distribution
      70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water
    • Hydrology
      Water distribution
      70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water
      BUT 97.5% of this water is salt water
    • Freshwater
      • Only 2.5% of the planet’s water is freshwater, and only 1% of that exists on Earth’s surface
      • 1%=lakes, rivers
      • 20%=groundwater
      • 79%=ice caps and glaciers
    • Matter Recycling in Ecosystems
      Law of Conservation of Matter: matter is neither created nor destroyed.
      Just moved around and transformed.
      Biogeochemical cycles: the movement of chemicals through the components of the Earth system.
      These components are also called “biogeochemical reservoirs”.
      13
    • components of the Earth SYSTEM
      Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land
    • components of the Earth SYSTEM
      Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land
      Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water
    • components of the Earth SYSTEM
      Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land
      Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water
      Atmosphere: the gaseous Earth; air
    • components of the Earth SYSTEM
      Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land
      Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water
      Atmosphere: the gaseous Earth; air
      Biosphere: living things (organisms)and the parts of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere in which things live
    • components of the Earth SYSTEM
      Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land
      Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water
      Atmosphere: the gaseous Earth; air
      Organisms: living things
      Cryosphere: frozen or solid water such as ice caps, glaciers, snow and permafrost
    • HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
      Hydrologic cycle
      Cycling of water in and out of atmosphere and between all the earth’s components.
      All of the water on our planet is recycled and a given molecule of water is used over and over throughout time.
      Water is the primary medium by which energy and matter move are circulated through the Earth system components.
      19
    • The hydrologic cycle
      • Water enters the atmosphere by evaporation and by transpiration from leaves.
      • It condenses and falls from the atmosphere as precipitation.
      • When water falls as precipitation on land, it has two possible pathways:
      Returns to the hydrosphere by flowing as runoff from the land surface into streams, rivers, lakes, and eventually the ocean.
      Returns to the lithosphere by infiltration into the ground becoming soil water or ground water.
    • Hail
      fog
      Hail
      fog
      Hail
      fog
      Hail
      fog
      Hail
      fog
      Hail
      fog
      Precipitation -
      Any form of water that falls to Earth from the atmosphere
    • Water appears in all 3 of its phases at different times during the hydrologic cycle
      Solid
      • Ice, hail, snow, glaciers, ice caps etc.
      Liquid
      • Water droplets, including clouds, lakes, streams etc.
      Gas
      • Water vapor
    • -
      -
      -
      -
      -
      -
      -
      -
      -
      O
      O
      O
      O
      O
      O
      O
      O
      O
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      H
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      H
      H
      H
      Water Vapor
    • -
      -
      -
      -
      -
      -
      -
      -
      -
      O
      O
      O
      O
      O
      O
      O
      O
      O
      +
      +
      +
      +
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      H
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      Water Condensation
    • FIVE PROCESSES OF THE HYDROLOGIC CYCle
      Precipitation: Any form of water falling from the atmosphere to the ground.
      Condensation: The process of changing from a gas to a liquid
      Evapotranspiration:
      Evaporation: the transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the ground or bodies of water into the overlying atmosphere.
      The source of energy for evaporation is primarily solar radiation
      Transpiration: the release of water vapor from plants into the atmosphere.
      Evaporation + transpiration=evapotranspiration
    • Infiltration and run-off
      Run-off: variety of ways water moves across the land
      • Snowmelt: run off from melting of snow on mountain tops
      • Water can flow to rivers, lakes, reservoirs, oceans or infiltrate into soil
      Infiltration: flow of water from surface into the ground
      • Once in ground can become soil water or ground water
    • Hydrologic Cycle Powered By:
      &
      Solar Energy
      (evaporation)
      • Gravity
      (precipitation)
    • So, where does water go when it falls on earth?
      about 76% lost to evaporation
      32% run-off
      small percent infiltrates into groundwater
    • LE 3-16
      Food for thought…
      Where does the hydrological cycle begin and end?
      Atmosphere
      13,000
      Evaporation
      425,000
      Precipitation
      111,000
      71,000
      Ice caps, glaciers,
      and snowfields
      33,000,000
      Precipitation
      385,000
      Evaporation
      Transpiration
      Rivers
      Extraction
      Runoff
      40,000
      Land plants
      Uptake
      Human use
      Infiltration
      <11,000
      Water
      table
      Extraction
      Soil water 122,000
      Oceans
      1,350,000,000
      Aquifer
      Groundwater
      15,300,000
    • QUESTION: Testing Your Comprehension
      Water enters the atmosphere through the process of…?
      a. Precipitation
      b. Transpiration
      c. Infiltration
      d. Runoff
    • QUESTION: Testing Your Comprehension
      Water enters the atmosphere through the process of…?
      a. Precipitation
      b. Evaporation
      c. Infiltration
      d. Runoff
    • QUESTION: Testing Your Comprehension
      Water enters the lithosphere through the process of…?
      a. Precipitation
      b. Transpiration
      c. Infiltration
      d. Runoff
    • Part IiI: HYDROLOGIC CYCLE & climate
    • Climate Concepts: rise or sink
      Warm air rises
      Open the oven, you feel the heat on your face
      Cold air sinks
      Open the freezer, you feel the cold at your feet
    • Warmer Air
      Cooler Air
      Equal Air Temp
      Cooler Air
      Warmer Air
      Equal Air Temp
      Statically unstable
      Statically neutral
      Statically stable
      http://science.howstuffworks.com/hot-air-balloon.htm
    • Climate Concepts: rise or sink
      When air rises, it cools
      Top of mountain is cooler than the base of the mountain.
      When air sinks, it warms
      The base of the mountain is warmer than the top of the mountain.
    • Climate Concepts: warm or cold
      Warm air holds more water
      Cold air holds less water
    • Climate Concepts: water in air
      As air rises, it cools
      Cooler air holds less water vapor.
      If it gets even cooler, then it rains
      RISING AIRRAIN
    • Climate Concepts: water in air
      As air descends, it dries
      warmer air holds more water vapor.
      As air dries, it is less likely to rain
      DESCENDING AIRDRY
    • Climate Concepts: water in air
      The temperature to which the air had to cool to become totally saturated is called:
      Dew point: the temperature at which the relative humidity = 100%
    • Dew Point
      The temperature at which dew (condensation) begins to form
      Dew is the water you find on your grass or car early in the morning.
      Frost is when water is deposited as small ice crystals.
      Frozen dew is liquid dew that freezes.
      If the temperature reaches the dew point temperature, then dew (or frost) will form.
      http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/idm3020/tut_folder/nick_tutorial/
    • Climate Concepts: Review
      Warm air holds (more or less?) water vapor; cold air holds (more or less?) water vapor.
      As air cools down, the chance of rain increases or decreases?
      As air rises, the chance of rain increases or decreases?
    • What causes Precipitation?
      • Rain = moisture + cooled down air
      • No Rain = low moisture and/or heated up air
    • Hydrologic cycle & climate
      Solar radiation is most intense at the equator for two reasons:
      1) the sun’s rays are concentrated in a smaller area
      2) the sun moves through less atmosphere
    • Hydrologic cycle & climate
      Tropics are
      hot
    • Hydrologic cycle & climate
      Hot air
      rises
    • Hydrologic cycle & climate
      Air cools asit rises; sinks30°N and S
    • Hydrologic cycle & climate
      Each convectioncell is called aHadley Cell
    • Hadley cells
      http://uk.encarta.msn.com/media_461550429_781534817_-1_1/hadley_cells_and_the_itcz.html
    • Hydrologic cycle & climate
      Descending air at30°N & S is warmand dry
    • 30th Degree Latitude Deserts
      30th degree N & S are areas of sinking air / areas of high pressure
    • HYDROLOGIC CYCLE & CLIMATE CHANGE
      • Scientists have measured an intensification of the hydrological cycle due to global warming:
      • Globally, the average atmospheric water vapor concentrations have increased.
      • It is predicted that this will lead to increased precipitation rates in some areas.
      • The largest increases in precipitation are expected to occur near polar regions, for two reasons.
      • One, observations and climate models indicate that the warming rate has been and will continue to be the highest there, and warmer air can hold more water vapor.
      • Two, the warming will reduce the extent of sea ice , thereby allowing more evaporation from open water.
    • Cycles of wet and dry periods are normal, however,
      When the hydrological cycle is out of balance (or intensified due to climate change), these can lead to more extreme flooding and drought cycles
    • HYDROLOGIC CYCLE SUMMARY
      • Cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere and between all the earth’s components.
      • Water evaporates from the surface of the earth, rises and cools, condenses into rain or snow and falls again to the surface. The water falling on land collects in rivers and lakes, soil, and porous layers of rock, and much of it flows back into the ocean.
      • Plays an important role in
      • determining climatic patterns
      • plant growth
      • heat energy transfer
      • erosion rates
      • rates of rock weathering