Chemical Nomenclature

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Chemical Nomenclature

  1. 1. CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE
  2. 2. Chemical Nomenclature <ul><li>System of names used to distinguish compounds from each other and the rules needed to devise these names </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ionic vs Molecular compounds <ul><li>Separate system for each, so the first step is to identify whether the compounds are ionic or molecular </li></ul><ul><li>Here are two general rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic= metal + non-metal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular=non-metal + metal </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Binary ionic compounds <ul><li>Binary=two </li></ul><ul><li>A binary compound is a compound in which only two elements are present </li></ul><ul><li>A binary ionic compound is an ionic compound in which one element present is a metal and the other is a non-metal, such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NaCl </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Rules for naming binary ionic compounds <ul><li>First word=name of metal </li></ul><ul><li>Second word=stem name of nonmetal + ide </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s try a few: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NaCl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium chloride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MgF 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium flouride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Na 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium oxide </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Binary molecular compounds <ul><li>A molecular compound in which only two non-metallic elements are present </li></ul><ul><li>Rule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First word: numerical prefix + full name of nonmetal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second word: numerical prefix + stem name of second nonmetal + ide </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Binary molecular compounds <ul><li>Common numerical prefixes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mono=1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Di=2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tri=3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetra=4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penta=5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hexa=6 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Binary Molecular Compounds <ul><li>Let’s try a few: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N 2 0 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dinitrogenpentoxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PF 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorous trifluoride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SiCl 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon tetrachloride </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Binary Molecular Compounds that have Common Names <ul><li>Common name: not based on IUPAC* rules and has no information about composition of compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O=water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O 2 =hydrogen peroxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NH 3 =ammonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CH 4 =methane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*IUPAC=International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry </li></ul>

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