• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Atoms And  Subatomic Particles
 

Atoms And Subatomic Particles

on

  • 9,967 views

Structure of atoms

Structure of atoms

Statistics

Views

Total Views
9,967
Views on SlideShare
9,959
Embed Views
8

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
216
Comments
0

4 Embeds 8

http://www.slideshare.net 4
http://cursos.itesm.mx 2
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com 1
http://www.leadlms.com.sg 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Atoms And  Subatomic Particles Atoms And Subatomic Particles Presentation Transcript

    • Atoms and Subatomic Particles
    • How big is an atom?
      • An atom is incredibly small
        • The diameter of an atom would have to be increased 200 million times to have the diameter of a penny
        • If an apple were enlarged to the size of the Earth, the atoms in the apple would be the size of cherries
    • What is an atom made of?
      • Subatomic particles:
        • Neutron, proton, electrons
        • A central, dense nucleus (neutrons & protons) surrounded by electrons
          • Electrons have a negative charge (-)
          • Protons have a positive charge (+)
          • Atom is held together by the attraction of electrons and protons
          • Neutrons are neutral
    • How much does an atom weigh? (What is it’s mass?)
      • Atoms are so small that it is impractical to use grams
        • 1 atom ͌ 10 -23 g
      • Instead atoms are measured in atomic mass units or amu’s
        • One carbon atom is 12.0 amu’s and all atoms are compared to this
    • Atoms - Molecules - Ions Particle Mass (kg) Mass (amu) Charge Electron 9.10939 x 10 -31 0.00055 -1 Proton 1.67262 x 10 -27 1.00728 +1 Neutron 1.67262 x 10 -27 1.00728 0 Most of the mass in an atom is in the nucleus Subatomic Particles
    • ATOMIC FACTS
      • Most of the mass of an atom is in the nucleus: the protons and neutrons
      • The size of the neutron relative to the size of the atoms is like a penny in the middle of a baseball field
      • The number of protons and electrons need to be equal so that the atom has no charge
    • ATOMIC NUMBER
      • The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
        • Atomic numbers of naturally occurring elements:
          • Lowest=Hydrogen (H)
            • Z=1
          • Highest=Uranium (U)
            • Z=92
      • Periodic Table of Elements
    • ATOMIC NUMBER
      • Remember,
        • The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom equal the number electrons so,
          • Atomic number=
          • Number of protons=
          • Number of electrons
    • Mass Number
      • Sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of the atom:
        • Mass number=# of protons + # of neutrons
        • And…..
          • Mass number=atomic number + # of neutrons
          • # of neutrons=mass number – atomic number
    • Isotopes
      • Atoms of an element that have the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons.
        • Hydrogen isotopes
          • Hydrogen has 1 proton, 1 electron and 0 neutrons
          • Deuterium has 1 proton, 1 electron and 1 neutron
            • Therefore, it is heavier than hydrogen but has similar chemical properties and slightly different physical properties
          • Tritium has 1 proton, 1 electron and 2 neutrons
    • Atomic Masses
      • Atomic mass ͌ Mass number
        • They are close but not the same
      • Here’s why
        • Mass number is an exact number & atomic mass is a weight so it’s an inexact number
          • Hydrogen has a mass number of 1 (1 protron + 0 neutrons),
          • But weighs: 1.00728 amu
        • Atomic masses are calculated based on the percentage of isotopes present in natural world
          • H=99.985%; D=.015%; T=trace
          • Atomic mass of H is: 1.00794
          • Periodic table of elements
    • Chemical Basis of Life
      • Most common elements in living organisms
        • Carbon (C): 9.5%
        • Hydrogen (H): 63%
        • Oxygen (O): 25.5%
        • Nitrogen (N): 1.4%
    • Macrominerals
      • Minerals we need a lot of
        • Calcium ( Ca )
        • Phosphorous ( P )
        • Magnesium ( Mg )
        • Potassium ( K )
        • Sodium ( Na )
    • Microminerals
      • Needed in small quantities
        • Iron ( Fe )
        • Copper ( Cu )
        • Chromium ( Cr )
        • Fluoride ( F )
        • Iodine ( I )
        • Selenium ( Se )
        • Molybdenum ( Mo )
        • Zinc ( Zn )