Contabilidade Gerencial: Comparação entre Paises

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Apresentação do Prof. Peter Kajuter no ANPCONT 2012

Apresentação do Prof. Peter Kajuter no ANPCONT 2012

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  • 1. Contabilidade Gerencial: Comparação entre Paises© Lehrstuhl für Internationale Unternehmensrechnung, WWU Münster Prof. Peter Kajüter ANPCONT Annual Conference, Florianópolis, 4th June 2012
  • 2. Comparative Management Accounting – Achievements and Perspectives© Lehrstuhl für Internationale Unternehmensrechnung, WWU Münster Prof. Peter Kajüter ANPCONT Annual Conference, Florianópolis, 4th June 2012
  • 3. Agenda 1. Motivation 2. Comparative Management Accounting Research 3. Example: Cost Accounting Systems in Germany and Japan 4. Conclusions and Outlook© Peter Kajüter 3
  • 4. Motivation “It‘s a small world of management accounting practices” Granlund/Lukka 1998 “Japanese costing has been considered quite different from that found in the West.” Yoshikawa 2001 “Lessons from German Cost Accounting” Management accounting and controllership practices are more highly developed in German-speaking countries … than in the rest of the world. Sharman, Strategic Finance 2004 “Apparently straightforward terms tend to be defined differently in different countries.” Amat et al. 1999© Peter Kajüter 4
  • 5. MotivationExample: USA vs. Germany “cost is the monetary value of goods and services expended to obtain expenses US current or future benefits. … definition costs reflect an outflow of resources, costs of “costs” such as cash, …” (Atkinson et al. 2007, p. 28) expenses Aufwand neutraler Aufwand neutral expenses kostengleicher Aufwand (betriebsfremd, periodenfremd, (non-operating, extraordinary, expenses = costs (Zweckaufwand) audifferent period) ß ergew ö hnlich) German definition aufwandsgleiche Kosten costs = expenses kalkulatorische costs imputed Kosten of “costs” (Grundkosten) (Zusatz - , Anderskosten) costs Kosten consumption of resources in a period to achieve an objective© Peter Kajüter 5
  • 6. MotivationExample: Grenzplankostenrechnung (“GPK”) in German and US firms “While many U.S. businesses have implemented ERP systems like SAP R/3, most don‘t use their full functionality for costing purposes. In fact, German companies I talked with have had great difficulty getting their U.S. affiliates to use GPK methods. DaimlerChrysler in Germany, for example, has a detailed GPK system that‘s part of a long tradition of sophisticated costing methods in the Daimler side of the company. But Chrysler doesn‘t use GPK. It has a different culture, which is common in the U.S., that doesn‘t see the need for so much detail.” (Krumwiede 2005, p. 31)© Peter Kajüter 6
  • 7. Motivation Comparative Management Accounting Theoretical relevance Practical relevance 1. Enlarge our knowledge base 1. Enhance national management (e.g. impact of culture, education etc. on accounting practices management accounting practices) (stimulate innovation) 2. Substitute for experimental conditions 2. Balance standardization and differentiation in management accounting of MNC© Peter Kajüter 7
  • 8. Agenda 1. Motivation 2. Comparative Management Accounting Research 3. Example: Cost Accounting Systems in Germany and Japan 4. Conclusions and Outlook© Peter Kajüter 8
  • 9. Comparative Management Accounting ResearchThere are four approaches to comparative management accounting research. Parochial  Originally designed and conducted in one country research  Comparisons by meta-analysis Impressionistic  Conclusions based on impressions rather than on facts research Replicative  Studies initially designed and conducted in one country are replicated research in another Comparative  Studies designed to be conducted in parallel in at least two countries research© Peter Kajüter 9
  • 10. Comparative Management Accounting ResearchNational specifics of management accounting practices can prevail on different levels. Level Perspective Focus of analysis Example 1 Macro-perspective Adoption rate and Adoption of ABC general assessment Perceived usefulness of ABC 2 Mezzo-perspective Targets and Decision facilitating, decision influencing ... conceptual design Complexity of cost accounting systems 3 Micro-perspective Practice per se, Type Way of using ABC information of use, Meaning Perception of ABC by organisational actors© Peter Kajüter 10
  • 11. Comparative Management Accounting ResearchNational specifics vs. international convergence of management accounting practices Economic and legal Influence of MNC on environment their Subsidiaries National IFRS Financial Reporting Global Consultancy Education Industry Standardised History and Culture ERP Systems (eg SAP) Contingency Cultural Contingency Societal Effects New Theory Approach Approach Institutionalism© Peter Kajüter 11
  • 12. Comparative Management Accounting ResearchNational specifics vs. international convergence of management accounting practices ? Contingency Cultural Contingency Societal Effects New Theory Approach Approach Institutionalism© Peter Kajüter 12
  • 13. Comparative Management Accounting ResearchComprehensive review of prior empirical research (1978-2010) 148 papers published Most often the US is compared with other countries, emerging economies are underrepresented. 70% survey research Majority with a broad focus 35 Number of publications (total) 30 Number of Hofstede-inspired 25 publications Studies on cost accounting 20 15 10 5 0 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 -5 - - - - - - - - - - - 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1999 2001 2004 2007 2010 Source: Moeschler (2012), p. 59.© Peter Kajüter 13
  • 14. Comparative Management Accounting ResearchLittle theoretical and practical contribution due to shortcomings in methodological issues. Methodological Prior comparative research Suggested improvements issue Conceptual and  Findings potentially distorted  Objective characteristics response equivalence  Shortcomings hardly reported  7-point-Likert scale Control variables  Hardly used (even company size)  Use of control variables Methodological  Use of several theoretical  Lack of theory perspective perspectives Statistical methods for  Simplistic  Multiple regression analysis data analysis© Peter Kajüter 14
  • 15. Comparative Management Accounting ResearchExamples Bhimani et al. (2007): adoption and success of ABC in seven countries Wijewardena/de Zoysa (1999): adoption of cost accounting practices in Australia and Japan Australia Japan % % Job order costing 30 40 Process costing 52 46 Hybrid costing 9 27 Batch costing 15 4 Product life cycle costing 5 13 Activity based costing (ABC) 23 2 Responses: 221 in Australia, 215 in Japan Source: Wijewardena/de Zoysa 1999, p. 63© Peter Kajüter 15
  • 16. Agenda 1. Motivation 2. Comparative Management Accounting Research 3. Example: Cost Accounting Systems in Germany and Japan 3.1 Research Questions and Hypotheses Funded by 3.2 Research Design IMA and Melco Foundation 3.3 Empirical Results 4. Conclusions and Outlook© Peter Kajüter 16
  • 17. Cost Accounting Systems in Germany and Japan Main research objective Research questions 1. Descriptive research question: - To what extent do cost accounting systems differ between Germany and Japan? 2. Explicative research question: - Why do German and Japanese cost accounting systems differ? Contribution 1. Sensitize management accountants in MNC for cross-national differences in cost accounting systems 2. Evidence for the relative importance of country vs. industry differences in cost accounting systems© Peter Kajüter 17
  • 18. Review of Prior Research Characteristics of the Studies ● 17 comparative studies on cost accounting. ● Predominantly application rates of instruments (e.g., ABC) were addressed. ● Most studies are with Anglophone participation.© Peter Kajüter 18
  • 19. Theoretical Perspectives and Hypotheses Development  Cultural contingency approach Theoretical perspective (Hofstede 2001, Bhimani 1999)  Societal effects approach (Maurice 1979, Sorge and Warner 1986) National culture Cost accounting systems Institutional environment of cost accounting© Peter Kajüter 19
  • 20. Theoretical Perspectives and Hypotheses Development Implications of national culture and institutional envionment on cost accounting ● Germany Culture Cost accounting environment Purposes of cost accounting Individualism Responsibility accounting Motivate responsible persons to operate efficiently Strict rules that govern workplace Enhance decision facilitating Uncertainty behavior avoidance Preference for comprehensive cost Specialization and theoretical information education of cost accountants ● Japan Culture Cost accounting environment Purpose of cost accounting Less cost information required for performance Collectivism Permanent employment evaluation, more emphasis on feedforward control Long-term General and practical qualification Seniority system orientation of cost accountants© Peter Kajüter 20
  • 21. Theoretical Perspectives and Hypotheses Development Hypotheses ● Cross-national differences in the institutional environment of cost accounting H1a: The degree of specialisation of cost accountants differs between Germany and Japan. H1b: The extent of theoretical knowledge of cost accountants differs between Germany and Japan. H1c: The relationship of cost accounting towards financial and management accounting differs between Germany and Japan.© Peter Kajüter 21
  • 22. Theoretical Perspectives and Hypotheses Development Hypotheses ● Cross-national differences in the conceptual design of cost accounting systems Cost-benefit considerations when implementing cost accounting systems are likely to be influenced by national culture and the institutional environment. H2a: German companies run more complex cost accounting systems than their Japanese counterparts. H2b: German companies run timelier cost accounting systems than their Japanese counterparts.© Peter Kajüter 22
  • 23. Agenda 1. Motivation 2. Comparative Management Accounting Research 3. Example: Cost Accounting Systems in Germany and Japan 3.1 Research Questions and Hypotheses 3.2 Research Design 3.3 Empirical Results 4. Conclusions and Outlook© Peter Kajüter 23
  • 24. Research design Survey - Industries: food and beverage, mechanical engineering, hospital Population - Firm size: between 250 and 2,000 employees - Period of data collection: October – December 2010 Data - Germany: First contact by telephone; online questionnaire was collection sent to participants thereafter process - Japan: Written questionnaire was sent to accounting department. - Returned questionnaires: 480 in Germany and 146 in Japan Sample - Response rate: 36.1% and 12.3% respectively - Nearly representative sample - No non-response bias© Peter Kajüter 24
  • 25. Sample Elimination of industry and company size biases German sample (n=480) Adjusted German sample (n=292) Japanese sample (n=146) Food and beverage 21% Food and beverage Food and beverage 34% 34% Mechanical engineering 34% Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering 45% 45% Hospitals 45% Hospitals Hospitals 21% 21% ● Similar procedure for company size:© Peter Kajüter 25
  • 26. Dependent variables: systems’ complexity and timeliness Objective and multifarious measurement of cost accounting systems to ensure conceptual equivalence© Peter Kajüter 26
  • 27. Independent variables Independent variables to explain cross-national differences: ● Specialization: Functional specialisation of cost accountants ● Theoretical knowledge: Sources of knowledge ● Relation MA / FA Responsible bodies for cost accounting Distribution of cost accountants‘ workload Control variables: ● Context factors Industry Company size IT systems quality Top management support ● Cost accounting objectives 12 indicators, measured on a 7-point Likert scale© Peter Kajüter 27
  • 28. Agenda 1. Motivation 2. Comparative Management Accounting Research 3. Example: Cost Accounting Systems in Germany and Japan 3.1 Research Questions and Hypotheses 3.2 Research Design 3.3 Empirical Results 4. Conclusions and Outlook© Peter Kajüter 28
  • 29. Empirical results: Country Specifics H1a: The degree of specialisation of cost accountants differs between Germany and Japan. Functional specialication of cost accountants To what extent do the following characteristics apply to your company’s cost accountants? (1=not at all; 7=completely) Germany Japan Highly specialized exclusively in cost accounting 3.62 *** 3.17 Qualified to enhance and run cost accounting systems 5.03 *** 4.08 H1a Rather qualified for requirements in financial than in managerial accounting. (R) 5.06 *** 3.81 *** (**; *) statistically different at 99% (95%; 90%) confidence level (two-tailed).© Peter Kajüter 29
  • 30. Empirical Results: Country Specifics H1b: The extent of theoretical knowledge of cost accountants differs between Germany and Japan. Sources of knowledge100%80%60% Germany40% Japan20% H1b 0% University Professional In-house training At work learning Other bodies by doing*** (**; *) statistically different at 99%(95%; 90%) confidence level (two-tailed).© Peter Kajüter 30
  • 31. 5. Empirical Results: Country Specifics H1c: The relationship of cost accounting towards financial and management accounting differs between Germany and Japan.80% Responsible bodies for cost accounting60% Germany40% Japan20%0% Specific Management Accounting/ Operational Other H1c department for cost accounting Finance departments accounting department department Distribution of cost accountants workloadGermany 53% 23% 24% Management accounting Financial accounting Japan 34% 38% 29% Other*** (**; *) statistically different at 99%(95%; 90%) confidence level (two-tailed).© Peter Kajüter 31
  • 32. Empirical Results: Country Specifics The institutional environment differs internationally: German cost accountants are more specialized and have more theoretical knowledge. German cost accountants have a higher potential to run complex and timely cost accounting systems.© Peter Kajüter 32
  • 33. Empirical Results: Complexity of cost accounting systems Number of cost types*** Contribution 1,00 Distinction margin fixed and 0,80 accounting*** variable costs Operating 0,60 Imputed income 0,40 costs*** statement*** 0,20 H2a: 0,00 Time Product German firms run reference of more complex costing costs* systems. Second Number of stage cost allocation centers*** Cost First stage variance allocation*** analysis*** Germany (mean = 0.576***) Japan (mean = 0.427) *** (**; *) statistically different at 99% (95%; 90%) confidence level (two-tailed).© Peter Kajüter 33
  • 34. Empirical Results: Timeliness of cost accounting systems Distinction fixed and variable costs 1,00 Operating 0,80 Standard income 0,60 costs** statement *** 0,40 0,20 H2b: 0,00 German firms run more timely Cost systems. Product costs variances*** Cost rates for Cost rates for overhead support cost allocation centers* bases Germany (mean = 0.501***) Japan (mean = 0.411) *** (**; *) statistically different at 99% (95%; 90%) confidence level (two-tailed).© Peter Kajüter 34
  • 35. Empirical Results: Regression analysis Dependent variable Cost accounting complexity Cost accounting timeliness R 0.629 0.401 R² 0.396 0.161 adjusted R² 0.379 0.137 F 24.089 6.737 Significance 0.000 0.000 VIFmax 2.174 2.099 Durbin-Watson statistic 2.028 1.999 Independent variables Standardized coefficients (Beta) Standardized coefficients (Beta) Country (0 = Germany; 1 = Japan) -0.509 *** -0.238 *** Company size 0.176 *** 0.045 Industry food and beverage 0.146 *** 0.297 *** Industry mechanical engineering 0.198 *** 0.227 *** Factor IT systems quality 0.006 0.134 ** Factor top management support 0.111 ** 0.001 Factor decision facilitating objectives 0.050 -0.038 Factor decision influencing objectives 0.044 0.117 * Factor cost planning objectives 0.089 -0.026 Factor cost control objectives 0.087 0.087© Peter Kajüter 35
  • 36. Agenda 1. Motivation 2. Comparative Management Accounting Research 3. Example: Cost Accounting Systems in Germany and Japan 4. Conclusions and Outlook© Peter Kajüter 36
  • 37. Conclusions and OutlookCMA research is complex, but offers many opportunities. CMA research can enhance our knowledge base and provide practically relevant insights. Research Opportunities  Traditional and emerging economies  Adaptation of “Western” management accounting practices in emerging economies?  Novel ideas from management accounting practices in emerging economies?  Management control systems as a package  Technical control vs. behavioural control  Behavioural aspects (level 3)  Use of management accounting information© Peter Kajüter 37
  • 38. Contact Prof. Dr. Peter Kajüter University of Münster Chair of International Accounting Universitätsstr. 14-16 48149 Münster Germany Tel.: +49-251-83-22840 Email: peter.kajueter@wiwi.uni-muenster.de© Peter Kajüter 38