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Performance appraisal

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  • 1. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Surendra Sharma Asisst. Professor Amity University, Gurgoan
  • 2. INTRODUCTION A continual and troublesome question facing nurse managers today is why some employees perform better than others. Each employee is different in many respects. A manager needs to ask how such differences influence the behaviour and performance of the job requirements. Ideally, the manager performs this assessment when the new employee is hired. In reality, however, many employees are placed in positions without the managers having adequate knowledge of their abilities and / or interests. This often results in problems with employee performance, as well as conflict between employees and managers.
  • 3. MEANING Performance appraisal means the systematic evaluation of the performance of an expert or his immediate superior. Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the work spot, normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance.  Performance here refers to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual's job. It indicates how well an individual is fulfilling the job demands.
  • 4. DEFINITION Performance appraisal is a systematic, periodic and so far as humanly possible, an impartial rating of an employee‘s excellence in matters excellence in matters pertaining to his present job and to his potentialities for a better job‖
  • 5. OBJECTIVES OF APPRAISAL To determine the effectiveness of employees on their present jobs so as to decide their benefits. To identify the shortcomings of employees so as to overcome them through systematic guidance and training. To find out their potential for promotion and advancement.
  • 6. PURPOSES AND BENIFITS  To provide backup data for management decisions concerning salary standards, merit increases, selection of qualified individuals for hiring, promotion or transfer, and demotion or termination of unsatisfactory employees.  To serve as a check on hiring and recruiting practices and as validation of employment tests.  To motivate employees by providing feedback about their work.  To discover the aspirations of employees and to reconcile them with the goals of the organisation,  To provide employees with recognition for accomplishments,  To improve communication between supervisor and employee, and to reach an understanding on the objectives of the job.
  • 7. PURPOSES AND BENIFITS To help supervisors observe their subordinates more closely, to so a better job, and to give supervisors a stronger part to play in personnel management and employee development, To establish standards of job performance. To improve organisational development by identifying training and development needs to employees and designing objectives for training programmes based on those needs, To mark candidates for supervisory and management developments To help the organisation determine if it is meeting its goals.
  • 8. IMPORTANCE  Performance appraisal helps the management to take decision about the salary increase of an employee.  The continuous evaluation of an employee helps in improving the quality of an employee in job performance.  The Performance appraisal brings out the facilities available to an employee, when the management is prepared to provide adequate facilities for effective performance.  It minimises the communication gap between the employer and employee.  Promotion is given to an employee on the basis of performance appraisal.  The training needs of an employee can be identified through performance appraisal.
  • 9. The decision for discharging an employee from the job is also taken on the basis of performance appraisal. Performance appraisal is used to transfer a person who is misfit for a job to the right placement. The grievances of an employee are eliminated through performance appraisal. The job satisfaction of an employee increases morale. This job satisfaction is achieved through performance appraisal. It helps to improve the employer and employee relationship.
  • 10. CONCEPT OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL  The appraisal should be in writing and carried at least once a year.  The performance appraisal information should be shared with the employee.  The employee should have the opportunity to respond in writing to the appraisal.  Employees should have a mechanism to appeal the results of the performance appraisal.  The manager should have adequate opportunity to observe the employees job performance during the course of the evaluation period.  Anecdotal notes on the employee‘s performance should be kept during the entire evaluation period.  Evaluator should be trained to carry out the performance appraisal process.  As for as possible, the performance appraisal should focus on employee behaviour and results rather than on personal traits or characteristics.
  • 11. CHARECTERISTICS The philosophy, purpose, and objectives of the organisation are clearly stated so that performance appraisal tools can be designed to reflect these. The purposes of performance appraisal are identified, communicated, and understood. Job descriptions are written in such a manner that standards of job performance can be identified for each job. The appraisal tool used is suited to the purposes for which it will be utilised and is accompanied by clear instructions for its use.
  • 12. Evaluators are trained in the use of the tool. The performance appraisal procedure is delineated, communicated, and understood. Plans for policing the appraisal procedure and evaluation appraisal tools are developed and implemented. Performance appraisal has the full support of top management. Performance appraisal is considered to be fair and productive by all who participate in it.
  • 13. PRINCIPLES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Single employee is rated by two ratters. Then, the comparison is made to get accurate rating. Continuous and personal observation of an employee is essential to make effective performance appraisal. The rating should be done by an immediate superior of any subordinate in an organization. A separate department may be created for effective performance appraisal.
  • 14.  The rating is conveyed to the concerned employee. It helps in several ways. The employee can understand the position where he stands and where he should go.  The plus points of an employee should be recognised. At the same time, the minus points should not be highlighted too much, but they may be hinted to him.  The management should create confidence in the minds of employees.  The standard for each job should be determined by the management.  Separate printed forms should be used for performance appraisal to each job according to the nature of the job.
  • 15. KINDS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Ranking method Paired Comparison Method Forced distribution method Grading  Checklist Forced choice method Critical Incident method Field review method Essay evaluation
  • 16. Ranking method This method is very old and simple form of performance appraisal. An employee is ranked one against the other in the working group under this method. Example: if there are ten workers in the working group, the most efficient worker is ranked as number one and the least efficient worker is ranked as number ten.
  • 17. Paired Comparison Method This method is a part of ranking method. Paired comparison method has been developed to be used in a big organization. Each employee is compared with other employees taking only one at a time. The evaluator compares two employees and puts a tick mark against an employee whom he considers a better employee.
  • 18. Forced distribution method method which forces the rater to distribute the ratings of the overall performance of an employee is known as forced distribution method. Group wise rating is done under this method. This method is suitable to large organisations Example: a group of workers doing the same job would fall into the same group as superior, at and above average, below average and poor. The rator rates 15% of the workers as superior, 35% of the workers as at and above average, 35% of workers as below average and 15% of workers as poor.
  • 19. Grading Certain categories of abilities or performance of employees are defined well in advance to fall in certain grades under this method. Such grades are very good, good, average, poor and very poor. Here the individual traits and characteristics are identified.
  • 20. Checklist The appraisal of the ability of an employee through getting answers for a number of questions is called the method of check list. There are two columns provided to each question as yes or no. A model check list is given below. A. Is the employee satisfied with the job? Yes No B. Does he finish the job accurately? Yes No
  • 21. Critical Incident method The performance appraisal of an employee is done on the basis of the incidents occurred really to the concerned employee. Some incidents occurred due to the inability of the employee, but the rating is done on all the events occurred in a particular period. Some of the events or incidents are given below. a. Refused to co-operate with other employees b. Unwilling to attend further training c. Got angry over work or with subordinates d. Suggested a change in the method of production e. Suggested a procedure to improve the quality of goods f. Suggestion of a method to avoid or minimize wastage, spoilage and scrap. g. Refused to obey orders h. Refused to follow clear cut instructions
  • 22. Field review method An employee‘s performance is appraised through an interview between the rator and the immediate superior or superior of a concerned employee. The rator asks the superiors questions about the performance of an employee, the personnel department prepares a detail report on the basis of this collected information. A copy of this report is placed in the personnel file of the concerned employee after getting approval from the superior. The success of this type of appraisal method is based on the competence of the interviewer.
  • 23. Essay evaluation With easy evaluation technique the nurse manager is required to describe the employee‘s performance over the entire evaluation period by writing a narrative detailing the strength and weaknesses of the appraise. If done correctly this approach can provide a good deal of valuable data for discussion in the appraisal interview.
  • 24. APPRAISAL INTERVIEW Once the manager completes an accurate evaluation of performance, he/she should arrange an appraisal interview. The appraisal interview is the first step in employee development. 1. They provide feedback to an employee which enables him to improve his performance in future. 2. They help management to ascertain and assess the training needs of individual employees. 3. They enable management to know the problems and difficulties experienced by subordinates in discharging their responsibilities and also their suggestions for removing these difficulties.
  • 25. Types of appraisal interview Tell and sell interview Tell and listen interview Problem solving interview
  • 26. Tell and sell interview It is based on the assumption that employees have some deficiencies but they need to be convinced about these deficiencies. The purpose of this interview is a. To let the employee to know how well he is doing. b. To draw up a plan of improvement for him. c. To gain the employees acceptance of the evaluation.
  • 27. Tell and listen interview The objective of this interview is to communicate the evaluation to the employee and then listen sympathetically to his reactions. It consists of two parts The first part covers the strong and week points of the employee‘s performance. The second part is used to explore thoroughly the employee‘s feelings about the evaluation.
  • 28. Problem solving interview In this interview the aim is not appraisal but development of an employee. Therefore, the interviewer takes himself out of his usual role as a judge and puts himself in the role of a helper. He does not communicate the evaluation to the employee. He does not communicate the evaluation to the employee. He does not point out the areas of improvement; rather he stimulates the employee into thinking about improving his own performance. He does not supply remedies or solutions but considers all ideas on job improvement suggested by the employee. This he does by skilful questions Example. Can you plan to deal with emergencies?
  • 29. LIMITATIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL The following are the limitations of performance appraisal: 1. The performance appraisal methods are unreliable. 2. If an employee is well known to an employer, the performance appraisal may not be correct. 3. The inability of supervision to appraise an employee does not bring out the accurate performance appraisal. 4. Some qualities of an employee can not be easily appraised through any performance appraisal method. 5. A supervisor may appraise an employee to be good to avoid incurring his displeasure. 6. Uniform standards are not followed by the supervisors in the performance appraisal.
  • 30. THANK U