INTRODUCTION A filmstrip is one of the projective audio visual that a fixed sequence related still on a roll of 35 mm film. The filmstrip can be projected backside of the map as convenience of the teaching situation demand. A large number of subjects come with in the range of filmstrips. The teacher only needs to tap the right type of strip for his teaching purpose.
DEFINITION Filmstrip is a continuous strip of 35 mm or 16mm or 8mm film consisting of individual frames or pictures arranged in sequence, usually with exploratory titles.
PREPARATION OF FILM STRIPS Filmstrips can be prepared either by employing photographic methods or by drawing picture by hand on the film itself. The steps in preparation are Select a suitable topic from the syllabus after considering the possibilities of depicting the subject matter by drawing photographs. Prepare a detail script describing the contents of each frame indicating the method of preparing it. i.e. whether by at work or by photograph.
Make rough sketches of the figure on the paper so as to serve as guide when final sketches are drawn Draw the sketches in suitable size Arrange the drawings $ enlarged photographs the material in correct sequence thus arranged using 36mm film camera & prepare negative. Prepare the guidebook, which is to follow the filmstrips explaining the details of each frame.
METHODES OF USING FILMSTRIPS:- A common manually operated film-strip protector is used in following steps. 1. Place the film-strip projector on a rigid & stable table. 2. Place the screen at an appropriate place so that the whole class can see it. 3. Insert the film – strip on its carrier in its place behind the object lens tube after opening the tube. 4. Mount a film strip on its carrier 5. Insert the projector card plug into the wall socket.
6. Darken the room in which projection is to be carried out. 7. Switch the cooling fan first & than the projection bulb. 8. Focus the image on the screen sharply by moving or objective lens forward & backward. 9. Show the slide the explain your subject matter with its aid. 10. Move the film-strip to get the next frame 11. Present the frames sequentially. 12. After the lesson, switch off the bulb first then the cooling fan unplug the film-stripe projector store it back in its box.
ABOUT PROJECTORThe film strip projector consists of: Projection camp Concave reflector Condenser lenses Heat filter Air blower Rotating film-strip carrier Projection lens
1. Projection lamp It normally used in projection. It is a gas filled tubular lamp. Many projector manufactured today have a halogen lamp of quartz iodine lamp. The quartz iodine lamp gives out a very bright necessary for projection. 2. Concave Reflector It is placed behind the filament assembly. It is used to reflect back the light radiated from the back of the filament assembly. 3. Condenser lenses It condenses the light on the transparency.
4. Heat filter It is kept in between the censer lenses this filter, which is made of special glass, absorbs the heat & projects the transparency from getting heated excessively. 5. Air Blower Cooling in filmstrips using lower voltage lamp are by convection. In some protections it is by air cooler.6. Rotating film-strip carrier This consists of 2 wheels on which the film- strips are cooled. This rotating carrier is rotated manually. Modern projectors have remote control of automatic transport of filmstrips system. 7. Projection lens The projection lens used in projectors is a converging coated compound lens. All surfaces are coated with a film of magnesium fluoride to increase the percentage of transmitted light.
CARE AND OPERATION OFTHE PROJECTOR Handle it gently so as to prevent the damage of lamp tube & photoelectric cells. Protect the projector from shakes, jerks while transporting Never force apart for movement, as misalignment may result in poor operation Frequent and proper cleaning is necessary to assume a smooth operation and prevent damage to the film All projector use 110-120 volts A.C. use proper transformers to change 22o volts. Otherwise film may get burnt.
Check all the cables and connections frequently and replace damage cables and plug. Always hold the film by edges and with slight tension. Do not trail the film on the floor or table as it may lead to scratches. Use carbon tetra chloride to clear films but never use it for color films. The lens and the two glass plates through with the filmstrip pass may be clean with a soft camel hairbrush. In the projector , lamp should not be switched on unless the blower is operating Switching order ON (1) Blower (2) lamp Switching order OFF (1) lamp (2) Blower
WHERE FILM STRIP CAN BE PROJECTEDFilm strip can be projected on the Screen Wall Paper screen Back side the map etc…
ABOUT SCREEN Projection screen are the based on which light from the projectors is incident and the image is formed. There are 2 types of projections. Front projection Rear projection In front projection, the projector and audience are on the same side of the screen. In rear projection, the audience and the projector are separated by translucent projection screen.
TYPE OF SCREEN Matte screen : This screen is ideal for indoor & outdoors. the screen surface when it gets dirty can be washed using soap and with sponge. Beaded screen : On the surface of write plastic base tiny glass beads of diameter about 0.1 mm are spread. The intrinsic brightness of image formed on beaded screen is very high. Processed metallic surface screens: There are special screen of wide viewing angle, with corrugated surface and coated with phosphorescent substances. A beaded screen, of either per table type or fixed is ideal. But for general purpose and use in indoors and outdoors, mettle screen may be preferred.
EQUIPMENT TIP The projection equipment should be placed parallel to the screen to prevent “key stoning” (a projected image that is trapezoidal rather then rectangular) Correction for key stoning , To maintain a parallel relationship between the projection equipment and the screen, may require moving the projector or the projection lens or moving or trying back the bottom of the screen. A screen placed in the corner of the classroom allows for simultaneous use of it. To lesson the amount of ambient light that reaches the screen and reduces images Place the screen in front of windows that have the greatest linkage.
PRECAUTION WHILE USING FILM –STRIP The Film strip, because of its fixed sequence, is not as flexible for individual stills as the slides, which can be in any order. The film strip is a “skill” medium .It cannot portray effectively and is not intended to do so. The film strip is easily damaged and is not easy to repair. For presenting film strips in the class room teacher need to analyses the significance of the use of strip for educational purpose.
Determine the lessons that could be effectively illustrated with a strip. Preview film strip before using them. Show again any part of the film strips needing move specific study. Use film strip to stimulate emotions built attitude and to point out us problem. Use a pointer to direct attention to specific details on screen.
AVAILABILITY Many useful filmstrips are available in:- The state department of education Public museum City libraries Municipal Education Department A wonderful inspiring as well as informative series of 20 film –strip entitled “Bring India to your class –room” has been recently by the Al Mervyns studio Bombay.
A Number of film strip are available &the central film library, government of India, New Delhi. (i) Current affairs – The united nation at work (ii) History –Clive; making of modern Germany (iii) Civics –citizenship (iv) Geography –Switzerland; Japan – life and Industries. (v) Physics –Atomic energy . (vi) Hygiene – Nutrition; care of teeth. (vii) Chemistry –Iron and steel; sulphur and it’s compounds.
ADVANTAGE It is an economical visual materials It is easy to make and convenient to handle and carry. Takes up little space and can be easily stored. Provides a logical sequence to the teaching procedure and the individual picture on the strip can be kept before the student for a length of time. Film –strip can be projected on the screen or wall or paper screen as the convenience and the teaching situation demands. It is available both in color & blank & white. Good to use – afterward, have a discussion to see whether people have understood the subject. DISADVANTAGES Its frame connect be remove or substitute .It this becomes necessary them the strip can be cut into slides & mounted.
USES OF FILM-STRIP ONA.V.AIDS Use of motion –picture films The films strip can be shown at the speed that appears desirable. The entire class can discuss the pictures as they are shown It much less cost & with far greater flexibility.
SUMMARY So far we have been discussed about introduction ,definition, Preparation of film strip , methods of using film strip ,About projector ,about the screen about equipment , advantage & disadvantage of film strip .