Cooperative Freedom


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Cooperative Freedom

  1. 1. Cooperative Freedom Morten F Paulsen An Online Education Theory By Teresa Rafael Presentation based in.
  2. 2. In accordance with Keegan <ul><li>There are six major elements define a distance education program </li></ul>
  3. 3. Elements that define a distance education program : <ul><li>The separation of teacher and learner ( which distinguishes it from face-to-face learning); </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of an educational organization , ( which distinguishes it from private study) </li></ul><ul><li>The use of technical media , usually print, to unite teacher and learner and carry the educational content; </li></ul><ul><li>The provision of two-way communication </li></ul><ul><li>The possibility of occasional meetings for both didactic and socialization purposes ; </li></ul><ul><li>The participation in an industrialized form of education which, if accepted, contains the genus of radical separation of distance education from other forms . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Use of CMC ( Mason and Kaye (1990)) <ul><li>three major implications for distance education </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The breaking down of conceptual distinctions between distance education and place based education; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The changing of traditional roles of faculty, administrative and support staff, and adjunct tutors; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The provision of an opportunity , which never existed before, to create a network of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>scholars, “space” for collective thinking , and access to peers for socializing and erendipitous exchange. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Distance Education Theories <ul><li>three theoretical positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories of autonomy and independence (1991 ), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moore perceives dialogue as interaction between learner and instructor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories of industrialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peters’ (1988) the teaching process is gradually restructured through increasing mechanization and mass production . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories of interaction and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holmberg’s theory is developed with a focus on correspondence courses and one-to-one communication. Consequently, it does not give much consideration to group communication. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Theory of Cooperative Freedom <ul><ul><li>can be classified as a theory of autonomy and independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is influenced by Knowles’s (1970) theory of andragogy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asserts that adult learners perceive themselves as self-directing human beings and define themselves in terms of their personal achievements and experience </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Theory of Cooperative Freedom <ul><li>adult and juvenile distance learners are perceived as: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>motivated, self-directing students with a desire to control their learning outcomes. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The theory of cooperative freedom suggests <ul><ul><li>independently of motivational orientation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distance students need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cooperation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual freedom . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Houle (1984) education is a cooperative rather than an operative art : it implies voluntary interaction among individuals during learning .
  10. 10. Cooperation can be <ul><li>Hard to achieve in distance education. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>loneliness results from limited access to student peers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>collaboration is even harder to achieve than cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>However, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>audio conferencing, video conferencing, and computer conferencing have been devised to facilitate cooperation at a distance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore the term cooperation is deliberately chosen in this theory. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The theory of cooperative freedom <ul><li>professes that students should have a high level of freedom to choose rather than be restrained by a rigid distance education program </li></ul>freedom is crucial in distance education
  12. 12. For many people <ul><li>the need for </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuing education </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lifelong learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is increasing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Today’s students need flexible education that allows them to combine job, family, and education in a manageable way
  14. 14. theory of cooperative freedom <ul><li>facets of special importance to distance education </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>time, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>space, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pace, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>medium, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>access, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>content </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Cooperative freedom. <ul><li>is a fabricated term </li></ul>
  16. 16. Freedom of time <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the message is stored in the communication medium until the receivers find it convenient to retrieve it. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Freedom of time <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>inflexible , but allows people to communicate in real time, as they do face-to-face or on the telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling communication varies in flexibility . </li></ul>
  18. 18. Freedom of time A high level of freedom allows students to communicate whenever it is convenient for them.
  19. 19. Ideally <ul><li>online education </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>completely independent of time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It gives instantaneous access to information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is no need to synchronize the operation among communication partners </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Freedom of space <ul><li>the separation of teacher and learner does not necessarily imply much freedom of space </li></ul>
  21. 21. Freedom of space <ul><li>Distance education programs with a high level of freedom </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>let students choose where they want to study. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Online education can be accessed worldwide , </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wherever there is an Internet connection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Pacing <ul><li>Pacing can be individual or collective </li></ul><ul><li>implies meeting deadlines for </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>starting a course, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>examinations, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assignments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Deadlines , however, can be flexible or rigid. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Freedom of pace. <ul><li>A high level of freedom allows students to choose the pacing they prefer. </li></ul><ul><li>they should be allowed to spend the time they require to complete a course </li></ul><ul><li>Other people would like to choose when to start a course and how fast to progress in it. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Pacing techniques (Wells -1992) <ul><li>three pacing techniques available with CMC </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group assignments that urge coherent pacing within group </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a technique that denies students access to information before they have completed all prerequisite assignments . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>limited time access to services such as conferences, databases, and guest speakers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Freedom of medium Nipper (1989) <ul><li>three generations of distance education: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>first generation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>uses correspondence teaching based on printed and written material </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>second generation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is based on broadcast media , </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>third generation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>uses computer conferencing systems . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Each generation utilizes the media devised in earlier generations </li></ul>
  26. 26. Programs with a high level of freedom <ul><li>provide students with access to several media or sources of information : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>print, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>video, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>face-to-face meetings, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>computer conferencing, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>support different learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>prevent exclusion of students </li></ul>
  27. 27. Freedom of access <ul><li>“ open education” </li></ul><ul><li>Escotet (cited in Keegan 1986) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less restricted, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exclusive , </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>privileged than traditional education; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>as flexibly paced; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>encourage new relationships between professors and students; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wille to credit the value of students’ life experiences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A flexible system can enroll all students who want to study </li></ul>
  28. 28. Accessibility: <ul><li>programs that aspire to a high level of freedom must eliminate discrimination on the basis of social class, entry qualifications, gender, age, ethnicity, or occupation </li></ul>
  29. 29. Accessibility: <ul><li>programs should not ask students to document prior education ; </li></ul><ul><li>students should decide for themselves whether they are capable of pursuing the course of study </li></ul>
  30. 30. Freedom of content <ul><li>A high level of freedom </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows students to choose among a range of courses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and to transfer credits between programs and universities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Online education has the potential </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to increase inter-college collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It could imply a free flow of virtual mobile students in Europe and across the globe </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Freedom, Flexibility and Cooperation <ul><li>Freedom is </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a multi-dimensional construct . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>All distance education programs will have some freedom in each dimension. </li></ul><ul><li>Each dimension should be regarded as: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous rather than dichotomous, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relative , not absolute. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Factors that constrain learning flexibility <ul><li>flexibility could be : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unmanageable, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not acceptable, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not affordable, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not realistic . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ One person’s time flexibility is another’s time delay.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burge (1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the traditional college </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more flexible than the distance education institution with regard to content and medium . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scarce resources and rigid educational regulations often inhibit flexible distance education </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. cooperative learning pedagogical challenges <ul><li>How can </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>senior students who are in the final stage of a course benefit from collaboration with junior students who have just enrolled on the course? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual freedom </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is hard to combine with an industrialized model of education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can hardly compete in terms of cost-effectiveness with industrialized mass education </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Conclusion <ul><li>Future adult students will seek individual flexibility and freedom . </li></ul><ul><li>These aims are difficult to combine </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>when integrated with other media online education </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can be the means of joining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual freedom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collective unity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>into </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>truly flexible, cooperative distance education programs . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>work powered by Teresa Rafael </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universidade Aberta </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PPEL /MPEL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>October 2009 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>based on </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morten F. Paulsen Cooperative Freedom: an Online Education Theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Images : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe photoshop </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Powered by Google </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>