Understanding the nature of
Many of the "The structural approach to cooperative learning
elements of is based on the creation, analysis and systematic
cooperative application of structures, or content-free ways of
learning may organizing social interaction in the classroom.
Structures usually involve a series of steps, with
be used in
proscribed behavior at each step. An important
collaborative cornerstone of the approach is the distinction
situations. between "structures" and "activities".
Spencer Kagan in an article in Educational Leadership (Dec/Jan 1989/1990)
is a philosophy
• Cooperation is a
to facilitate the
an end product or
In all situations where people
come together in groups
The underlying premise of
collaborative learning is • it suggests a way of dealing
based upon consensus with people which respects and
highlights individual group
building through cooperation members' abilities and
by group members, in contributions.
contrast to competition in
• There is a sharing of authority
which individuals best other and acceptance of responsibility
group members. among group members for the
not just a classroom technique
in the classroom
philosophy: at committee meetings
with community groups
within their families
generally as a way of living
with and dealing with other
more directive than a is defined by a set of processes which help
collaborative system people interact together in order to accomplish
a specific goal or develop an end product
which is usually content specific.
closely controlled by
the fundamental approach is teacher
the teacher maintains complete control of
the class, even though the students work in
groups to accomplish a goal
The cooperative teacher asks a specific
question of a course.
The teacher provides additional articles for
the students to read and analyze
the groups present their results to the
whole class and discuss their reasoning.
to help facilitate the group interactions, the
teacher might use specific structures.
the teacher maintains control of the process
at each stage of the students work.
the groups would assume almost total responsibility
for answering the question
the students determine if they had enough
information to answer the question.
The collaborative teacher assess the progress of
each group and provide suggestions about each
group’s approach and the data generated.
The teacher would be available for consultations
and would facilitate the process by asking for
frequent progress reports from the groups
The final product is determined by each group,
after consultation with the teacher.
The students develop a very strong ownership for
Learning Knowledge is discovered
consists of by students and the underlying premise for both
active transformed into concepts collaborative and cooperative learning is
participation by students can relate to. It is founded in constructivist theory.
the student then reconstructed and
versus passive expanded through new
acceptance of learning experiences
sented by an Learning comes about through
expert lecturer. transactions and dialogue among
students and between faculty and
Students learn to understand students, in a social setting
and appreciate different
perspectives through a dialogue
with their peers.
Panitz Ted; A Definition of Collaborative vs
Cooperative Learning (1996) in
learning/panitz-paper.cfm visited in 27/10/2009
Panitz ,Ted, COLLABORATIVE VERSUS COOPERATIVE LEARNING-
A COMPARISON OF THE TWO CONCEPTS WHICH WILL HELP US
UNDERSTAND THE UNDERLYING NATURE OF INTERACTIVE
Visited in 27/10/2009
Science Education, What are the benefits of cooperative
and collaborative learning ?
ndex.html visited in 14 /01/2010