Human resource management 1and2
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  • Employee organisations: work group trade union organisations (needs solidarity) notions of trade union density oligarchy managers of discontent employer organisations: wage setting more private, less collective inaccurate information CBI was set up by a Labour government as an aid to national economic planning State bodies: Statutory bodies e.g. ACAS / MSC legal system DfEE Military Church of England
  • Employee organisations: work group trade union organisations (needs solidarity) notions of trade union density oligarchy managers of discontent employer organisations: wage setting more private, less collective inaccurate information CBI was set up by a Labour government as an aid to national economic planning State bodies: Statutory bodies e.g. ACAS / MSC legal system DfEE Military Church of England

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  • 1. Human Resource Management in the Defence Context Dr Teri McConville
  • 2. Human Resource Management• Human resource management … seeks to achieve competitive advantage [operational effectiveness] through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of cultural, structural and personal techniques. • (John Storey, 1995)
  • 3. Views of HRM (1)• HARD HRM• Focus on using people to add value and achieve organisational goals• Concentrates on quantitative, measurable criteria, control and performance management.• Emphasises: – The interests of management – The strategic approach. – Processes and performance management – The need for a strong corporate culture (through mission and value statements; communications, training and performance management process.
  • 4. Views of HRM (2)• Soft HRM• Identifies employees as valued assets, a source of advantage/capability through their commitment, adaptability and high quality of output.• Emphasises – The need to gain commitment of employees – The interests of management and employees should coincide – Integration and team work
  • 5. The Standard Agenda• Employment Relations • Performance & Reward – Contracts Management • Written – Appraisal systems • Unwritten – Pay structures and systems – Communications – Equity and motivation – Legal obligations of employers and employees• People Planning & • Training & Development Resourcing – Career planning – Forecasting – Human resource – Planning development – Recruitment – Training Needs Analysis – Selection – Training & educations programmes – Severance – Succession Planning
  • 6. Integrating Human Resources Organisational Strategic Analysis & Planning Human Resources Strategy Human Resource Management Practice HR Planning Employment Performance Development & Resourcing Relations Rewards & Training Organisational Outcomes (advantages) Integration Flexibility Commitment Quality
  • 7. Managing the Employment RelationshipEXPECTATIONS IN THE WORKPLACE
  • 8. Structure of the Employment Relationship The Contract GOVERNMENT of Employment State InstitutionsEMPLOYER EMPLOYEE Local LocalEmployers’ Labour Trade BusinessAssociations Groups Unions Groups Local Government Political Political Parties Parties
  • 9. Security Sector Quirk The ContractGOVERNMENT of State Employment InstitutionsEMPLOYER EMPLOYEE Who looks after the employees’ interests?
  • 10. Contracts & the Employment RelationshipEmployment Contract Psychological Contract• Written • Unwritten• Legally binding • Morally binding• Statement of terms and • Perceptions of the conditions of the obligations implied in the effort-reward bargain. employment relationship.
  • 11. Security Sector Quirks• Concept of public service • The X factor: lives put at risk - the public service ethos therefore there is a trust• Criteria relevant to the armed element. services • Military/police etc may need - comparable terms and to be available 24/7 conditions in different service • Forces must grow their own: branches – Military want ‘young’• A strategic move away from people - business orientated models – Wide range of skills and theories needed – Competition with the private sector
  • 12. The Military CovenantValued by the Nation Fair Treatment & Reward Fighting SpiritValued by the Service
  • 13. The Military Covenant Able to feel thatmy job is worthwhile My family & I are secure (whatever might happen) Fighting Spirit Able to enjoy my life
  • 14. People ResourcingMAINTAINING THE WORKFORCE
  • 15. Personnel flow Directors Senior Management Regional Management Middle Management Supervisors Junior employeesDevelopment & upward mobility Lateral development, experience, flexibility, diversificationLateral mobility Job rotation, personal development, diversificationRecruitment Replacements, growth, business objectives, diversificationWastage 15 Age structure, opportunities, diversification, new technology Teri McConville
  • 16. Security Sector Quirk Recruitment Wastage General Ranks Senior OfficersSingleEntry Majors & Lt ColsPoint Captains Lieutenants Cadets The Internal Labour Market
  • 17. HR Planning Process Business HR Strategy Strategy (Resourcing) HR Planning Scenario Resourcing; Flexibility Planning Retention; Development Labour Turnover Forecasting Labour Market Analysis Demand & Supply AnalysisHR Planning 17 10/01/13
  • 18. The Labour Market• Who do we want to recruit?• Age• Gender• (Ethnicity)• Skills• Experience The future Sudanese security force?
  • 19. recruitment and selection StrategyHR Planning Identify Vacancy Attract Job Suitable Selection Induction Analysis Candidates
  • 20. Factors in Labour Turnover• Push factors (most • Involuntary turnover common) an individual has not - undesirable features of chosen to leave but has a individual’s job, so they been required to do so by start to search for their employer alternatives. (redundancy, dismissal.) • Unavoidable turnover reasons that are beyond• Pull factors = Attractive the control of the alternatives. employer (retirement, sickness, or family circumstances.)
  • 21. Royal Navy Personnel Intending to Leave (From Defence Analysis & Statistics Agency) 80 70 60 50 Chief Petty OfficerPercent 40 Petty Officer 30 20 10 0 No 21 Yes Already applied
  • 22. (From Defence Analysis & Statistics Agency)British Forces (Officers)
  • 23. Developing the Human ResourceDEVELOPING POTENTIAL
  • 24. Security Sector Quirk Recruitment Wastage General Ranks Senior OfficersSingleEntry Majors & Lt ColsPoint Captains Lieutenants Cadets The Internal Labour Market
  • 25. Alternatives To Training• Selection  High costs of recruitment and• Work Re-allocation selection  Recruitment: are there enough• Change Reward System people with the requisite• Re-design Of skills? Methods/Equipment  The pace of change makes it increasingly costly not to• Change Organisation attend to organisational Structure learning• Change Organisation  ‘Training & development’ is a Culture vital component in managing employee relations  Most of these won’t work in defence
  • 26. Systematic Training: The Training Cycle HRM Strategy Organisational Training & Strategy Development Strategy Analysis of Monitor & Training Needs Evaluate Plan/Design Deliver Training Training Programmes Programmes
  • 27. Reward ManagementFOR MOTIVATION & PERFORMANCE
  • 28. Pay systems and conflict All pay systems contain two elements that contradict each other:Cooperation between Tensions and conflict are worker and employer or generated through the logic manager is an essential for that makes the ‘buying’ of the employment labour a reward for one relationship and is built up group and a cost for the by the logic of financial gain other. for the worker. This fundamental tension makes the employment relationship an unstable contract
  • 29. Objectives of the reward systemSupport the organisation’s Motivate employees tostrategy perform at the maximumRecruit qualified employees Strengthen theRetain capable employees psychological contractEnsure quality (internal and Promote good external) organisational citizenshipBe sustainable (within Comply with legal financial limitations) regulations Be efficiently administered
  • 30. Motivation: Process TheoriesExpectancy Theory: Behaviour depends on the outcomes that an individual values and the expectation that a particular type of behaviour will lead to those outcomesEquity Theories: Behaviour is affected by different levels of reward for the same amount of effortGoal Theories: Behaviour is affected by goals which are determined by the individual’s values and wants
  • 31. Reward Management Economic Intrinsic Rewards RewardsOverlap = Needs andExpectations in the Socialworkplace Relationships
  • 32. TYPES OF REWARD Group-related Security-driven: Tradition-driven: • • • Corporate prestige • PerksNon-Money Money-related related Employability-driven: Contribution-driven: • • • Personal career plans • Merit bonus Individual-related
  • 33. HRM in Defence: The UK Approach• Statement of vision, Five areas of intention: guidance and direction • Cultivate for armed services • Obtain personnel areas. • Retain• Aims to: • Sustain – maintain services’ operational readiness • Remember – ensure that European and other regulations Armed Forces Overarching are accommodated Personnel Strategy (AFOPS) (2000-3)
  • 34. AFOPS Policies • Cultivate • Sustain – Youth Policy – Health and Welfare • Obtain – Living Accommodation – Recruitment; Training; – Pastoral Care; Sport & Reserve Forces Recreation • Retain – Families – Manpower Structures • Remember Policy – Resettlement and Pensions – Conditions of Service – Veterans – Career Management – Bereaved Families – Pay, Allowances and Charges – Complaints & Discipline01/10/13 34
  • 35. Conclusion• People are, for most • Military and civil service organisations, the largest, must offer a rewarding single expense and most career to attract/retain flexible asset good people – Manage them well • Defence sector has no• Service personnel and monopoly on getting the civil servants all need best out of people - so appropriate and fair learn from others management