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Chapter2 slide 2

  1. 1. Training & Development Needs Analysis Training
  2. 2. OverviewModels of Learning– Reinforcement Theories– Cybernetic & Information Theories– Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving– Experiential Learning CycleThe ‘learner’ and the organisation’ : transferModel of Training Needs Analysis (TNA) :individual and organisational levels ofanalysisSpecial training and development needs :diversity management
  3. 3. Learning‘Training and developmental activities are designed to bring about changes in behaviour’ Arnold, Cooper & Robertson (1998)Learning is ‘a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience’ Bass & Vaughan (1966) How do we learn ? Psychological theories...
  4. 4. Reinforcement TheoriesPavlov (1904) ‘Classical Conditioning’ -making dogs dribbleSkinner (1965) ‘Operant Conditioning’ -teaching pigeons ‘ping-pong’Watson & Rayner (1920) ‘little Albert’Nord (1969) application of Skinner’s‘positive reinforcement’ principles toorg./mgmt practicesN.B. Conditioning by punishment ?
  5. 5. Cybernetic & Information TheoriesHow information is received and monitored (‘’human thermostats’’ - Stammers & Patrick, 1975) Power Source Monitoring Process (muscular action) (receipt of ‘cues’ through the senses) Feedback Skills Analysis - what ‘cues’ or ‘stimuli’ an experienced worker is being guided by (e.g. typist : ‘hunt & peck’)
  6. 6. Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving Reflect the way in which we learn to recognise and define problems or experiment to find solutions – trial & error – deductive reasoning – information seeking Kohler (1973) Theory of ‘Insight Learning’ or ‘Discovery Learning’ (e.g. Chimps, bananas and sticks or Archimedes ‘Eureka!!’)
  7. 7. Gagné’s Hierarchy of Learning8 major varieties of learning, hierarchically related, eachbuilding on earlier, more simple abilities (which thereforeact as prerequisites for more complex abilities)– Signal Learning (classical conditioning)– Stimulus-Response Learning (operant conditioning)– Chaining (connecting sequence of 2+ S-R units)– Verbal Association (learning ‘verbal’ chains)– Discrimination Learning (different responses to similar stimuli)– Concept Learning (common response to different stimuli in gp)– Rule Learning (a chain of 2 or more concepts I.e. if ‘A’ then ‘B’)– Problem Solving (recombining old rules into new ones)
  8. 8. Experiential LearningKolb (1974) : ‘Learning Cycle’ Concrete Testing experience Observationsimplications of & Reflectionsconcepts in new situations Formation of abstract concepts & generalisationsHoney & Mumford (1986, 1992) : ‘Learning Styles’ – activist : open-minded, actively involved, bored with implementation – reflector : ponder experiences, cautious, ‘back-seat’, ‘bigger picture’ – theorist : adapt & integrate observations, vertical, logical, hierarchical – pragmatist : try out new ideas to see if they work in practice
  9. 9. The ‘Learner-Organisation’ Interaction (I)Learner Motivation– Otto & Glaser (1970) : taxonomy of motivational factors in learning : achievement motivation, anxiety, approval, curiosity, acquisitivenessKnowledge of results (feedback)– form of reinforcement– Extrinsic KR– Intrinsic KR– Learning curves & plateauAttitude formation & change– predispose learners to action– having ‘harmonious attitudes’ (Festinger’s concept of cognitive dissonance, 1957)– group discussion, providing new information
  10. 10. The ‘Learner-Organisation’ Interaction (II)Age – less brain cells, speeded performance declines – short-term memory deteriorates (increased errors in cognitively complex tasks) – Welford (1962) older less able to cope with large amounts of information and – vocab. and comprehension increase (reasoning and numerical ability test scores decreased) – Vernon (1960) rate of decline slowest in originally high scorers. – Stimulation – Education & Training offset decline in abilities
  11. 11. Transfer‘Training transfer occurs when new learning is usedin new settings beyond those employed for trainingpurposes’ (Arnold, Cooper & Robertson, 1998)Positive Learning Transfer– ‘when learning that has already taken place on one task assists later learning on another’– vertical positive transfer : one subject acts as a basis for another (e.g. maths to statistics)– lateral positive transfer : occurs when the same type of stimulus requires the same response (e.g. flight simulators)– N.B. ‘On-’ vs ‘Off-the-job’ TrainingNegative Transfer– ‘when an old learning or past experience can hinder performance on a new task; when the same stimuli requires a different response’ (e.g. driving on right hand side)
  12. 12. Factors that assist TransferIndividual Understanding of general principles – facilitated by discovery learning; issue of physical and psychological ‘fidelity’ Overlearning – practising beyond the level of minimum competence Association – getting the trainee to associate new learning with other, previous, learning.Organisational Supportive culture ? Congruent norms/values/attitudes
  13. 13. Goldstein (1986, 1991, 1993) Model of Training Needs Analysis Stage One Establish organisation’s commitment and support Stage Two Organisational Analysis Stage Three Requirement Analysis Stage Four‘Needs Assessment’ - Task & KSA analysis of training needs Stage Five ‘Person Analysis’ Stage SixCollate data to input to, and design of, training environment and training evaluation
  14. 14. Stage One : Establishing Organisational Commitment and SupportIdentify whose co-operation is needed, i.e. management, workers, clients, other stakeholders.‘Project Parameters’ : rationale of approach(es), time needed, numbers of people involved, admin. (& other) support needed.Glaser & Taylor (1973) – collaborative approach – highly motivated, ‘team-like’ interface – early and active contacts between partiesGoldstein (1993) advocates a ‘liaison team’
  15. 15. Stage Two : Organisational Analysis of Training Needs Central Issue = ‘how well is the organisation doing?’N.B. Organisation does not have to be underperforming to need development Importance of the ‘transfer’ climate : system-wide factors that may support/undermine training Goldstein (1993) : 4 stages of OA – Specify training goals (3 types) – Determine training climate – Identify legal constraints (vertical and horizontal) – Determine resources available
  16. 16. Stage Three : Requirement AnalysisGoldstein (1993) : 6 stages determine target job to be assessed identify how needs assessment data best collected – interviews, observations, surveys, tests, records, SME’s, focus groups, work samples, etc. determine who is going to provide necessary info ascertain key points of contact and their responsibilities anticipate problems and difficulties develop a TNA protocol
  17. 17. Stage Four : Needs Assessment Task AnalysisTA for TNA should provide a job specification(KSA’s/competencies required). Training spec.derived from difference between employees’ currentand ideal levelsReid & Barrington (1997) : 3 main TNA TAapproaches (task identification & task elementanalysis)– Comprehensive Approach– Key Task Analysis– Problem-Centred ApproachTask fidelity (physical and psychological)– e.g. stages and ‘key points analysis’, manual skills analysis, job learning analysis, faults analysis, benchmarking, Critical Incidents Technique.
  18. 18. Stage Five : Person AnalysisWho in the organisation needs trainingWhat kind of training is neededKSA deficits - must have suitable performancecriteria– performance appraisal ratings– 360-feedback ratings– KSA’s of new recruits– Development Centre ratings– self-assessments
  19. 19. Special Training NeedsRetraining– learning how to learn– the ageing workforceManaging Diversity– cross-cultural training (increasing globalisation, multi-cultural societies)– Equal Opportunities legislationTraining the Unemployed– long-term unemployed (more than 27 weeks continuously)– causes of long-term unemployment (physical, psychological & environmental factors)

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