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Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
Chapter2 slide 2
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Chapter2 slide 2

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  • 1. Training & Development Needs Analysis Training
  • 2. OverviewModels of Learning– Reinforcement Theories– Cybernetic & Information Theories– Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving– Experiential Learning CycleThe ‘learner’ and the organisation’ : transferModel of Training Needs Analysis (TNA) :individual and organisational levels ofanalysisSpecial training and development needs :diversity management
  • 3. Learning‘Training and developmental activities are designed to bring about changes in behaviour’ Arnold, Cooper & Robertson (1998)Learning is ‘a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience’ Bass & Vaughan (1966) How do we learn ? Psychological theories...
  • 4. Reinforcement TheoriesPavlov (1904) ‘Classical Conditioning’ -making dogs dribbleSkinner (1965) ‘Operant Conditioning’ -teaching pigeons ‘ping-pong’Watson & Rayner (1920) ‘little Albert’Nord (1969) application of Skinner’s‘positive reinforcement’ principles toorg./mgmt practicesN.B. Conditioning by punishment ?
  • 5. Cybernetic & Information TheoriesHow information is received and monitored (‘’human thermostats’’ - Stammers & Patrick, 1975) Power Source Monitoring Process (muscular action) (receipt of ‘cues’ through the senses) Feedback Skills Analysis - what ‘cues’ or ‘stimuli’ an experienced worker is being guided by (e.g. typist : ‘hunt & peck’)
  • 6. Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving Reflect the way in which we learn to recognise and define problems or experiment to find solutions – trial & error – deductive reasoning – information seeking Kohler (1973) Theory of ‘Insight Learning’ or ‘Discovery Learning’ (e.g. Chimps, bananas and sticks or Archimedes ‘Eureka!!’)
  • 7. Gagné’s Hierarchy of Learning8 major varieties of learning, hierarchically related, eachbuilding on earlier, more simple abilities (which thereforeact as prerequisites for more complex abilities)– Signal Learning (classical conditioning)– Stimulus-Response Learning (operant conditioning)– Chaining (connecting sequence of 2+ S-R units)– Verbal Association (learning ‘verbal’ chains)– Discrimination Learning (different responses to similar stimuli)– Concept Learning (common response to different stimuli in gp)– Rule Learning (a chain of 2 or more concepts I.e. if ‘A’ then ‘B’)– Problem Solving (recombining old rules into new ones)
  • 8. Experiential LearningKolb (1974) : ‘Learning Cycle’ Concrete Testing experience Observationsimplications of & Reflectionsconcepts in new situations Formation of abstract concepts & generalisationsHoney & Mumford (1986, 1992) : ‘Learning Styles’ – activist : open-minded, actively involved, bored with implementation – reflector : ponder experiences, cautious, ‘back-seat’, ‘bigger picture’ – theorist : adapt & integrate observations, vertical, logical, hierarchical – pragmatist : try out new ideas to see if they work in practice
  • 9. The ‘Learner-Organisation’ Interaction (I)Learner Motivation– Otto & Glaser (1970) : taxonomy of motivational factors in learning : achievement motivation, anxiety, approval, curiosity, acquisitivenessKnowledge of results (feedback)– form of reinforcement– Extrinsic KR– Intrinsic KR– Learning curves & plateauAttitude formation & change– predispose learners to action– having ‘harmonious attitudes’ (Festinger’s concept of cognitive dissonance, 1957)– group discussion, providing new information
  • 10. The ‘Learner-Organisation’ Interaction (II)Age – less brain cells, speeded performance declines – short-term memory deteriorates (increased errors in cognitively complex tasks) – Welford (1962) older less able to cope with large amounts of information and – vocab. and comprehension increase (reasoning and numerical ability test scores decreased) – Vernon (1960) rate of decline slowest in originally high scorers. – Stimulation – Education & Training offset decline in abilities
  • 11. Transfer‘Training transfer occurs when new learning is usedin new settings beyond those employed for trainingpurposes’ (Arnold, Cooper & Robertson, 1998)Positive Learning Transfer– ‘when learning that has already taken place on one task assists later learning on another’– vertical positive transfer : one subject acts as a basis for another (e.g. maths to statistics)– lateral positive transfer : occurs when the same type of stimulus requires the same response (e.g. flight simulators)– N.B. ‘On-’ vs ‘Off-the-job’ TrainingNegative Transfer– ‘when an old learning or past experience can hinder performance on a new task; when the same stimuli requires a different response’ (e.g. driving on right hand side)
  • 12. Factors that assist TransferIndividual Understanding of general principles – facilitated by discovery learning; issue of physical and psychological ‘fidelity’ Overlearning – practising beyond the level of minimum competence Association – getting the trainee to associate new learning with other, previous, learning.Organisational Supportive culture ? Congruent norms/values/attitudes
  • 13. Goldstein (1986, 1991, 1993) Model of Training Needs Analysis Stage One Establish organisation’s commitment and support Stage Two Organisational Analysis Stage Three Requirement Analysis Stage Four‘Needs Assessment’ - Task & KSA analysis of training needs Stage Five ‘Person Analysis’ Stage SixCollate data to input to, and design of, training environment and training evaluation
  • 14. Stage One : Establishing Organisational Commitment and SupportIdentify whose co-operation is needed, i.e. management, workers, clients, other stakeholders.‘Project Parameters’ : rationale of approach(es), time needed, numbers of people involved, admin. (& other) support needed.Glaser & Taylor (1973) – collaborative approach – highly motivated, ‘team-like’ interface – early and active contacts between partiesGoldstein (1993) advocates a ‘liaison team’
  • 15. Stage Two : Organisational Analysis of Training Needs Central Issue = ‘how well is the organisation doing?’N.B. Organisation does not have to be underperforming to need development Importance of the ‘transfer’ climate : system-wide factors that may support/undermine training Goldstein (1993) : 4 stages of OA – Specify training goals (3 types) – Determine training climate – Identify legal constraints (vertical and horizontal) – Determine resources available
  • 16. Stage Three : Requirement AnalysisGoldstein (1993) : 6 stages determine target job to be assessed identify how needs assessment data best collected – interviews, observations, surveys, tests, records, SME’s, focus groups, work samples, etc. determine who is going to provide necessary info ascertain key points of contact and their responsibilities anticipate problems and difficulties develop a TNA protocol
  • 17. Stage Four : Needs Assessment Task AnalysisTA for TNA should provide a job specification(KSA’s/competencies required). Training spec.derived from difference between employees’ currentand ideal levelsReid & Barrington (1997) : 3 main TNA TAapproaches (task identification & task elementanalysis)– Comprehensive Approach– Key Task Analysis– Problem-Centred ApproachTask fidelity (physical and psychological)– e.g. stages and ‘key points analysis’, manual skills analysis, job learning analysis, faults analysis, benchmarking, Critical Incidents Technique.
  • 18. Stage Five : Person AnalysisWho in the organisation needs trainingWhat kind of training is neededKSA deficits - must have suitable performancecriteria– performance appraisal ratings– 360-feedback ratings– KSA’s of new recruits– Development Centre ratings– self-assessments
  • 19. Special Training NeedsRetraining– learning how to learn– the ageing workforceManaging Diversity– cross-cultural training (increasing globalisation, multi-cultural societies)– Equal Opportunities legislationTraining the Unemployed– long-term unemployed (more than 27 weeks continuously)– causes of long-term unemployment (physical, psychological & environmental factors)

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