Navigating the Changing World of Adult Learning
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Navigating the Changing World of Adult Learning



Not Your Grandma’s Oldsmobile: Navigating the Changing World of Adult Learning ...

Not Your Grandma’s Oldsmobile: Navigating the Changing World of Adult Learning

The adult learner is becoming more paradoxical. He/she is becoming more technologically dependent, yet more ubiquitous, searching for equilibrium, yet looking for applicative answers to real world questions, attending courses with the intention of learning, yet desperately in need of being inspired. The world of learning theory has been addressing these issues, but bringing it altogether is the difficult part. So how does one create a learning environment for the 21st century ubiquitous, technology savvy learner who is desperate to be inspire and inspire others? Instructional Design Scholar, author and award winning educator, T M “Tim” Stafford will help unwrap this learning “trilemma” and help create an understanding of the evolution of learning, an understanding of epistemology and how to move towards transformative practice. This fun and engaging time together will inspire you to embrace the shifts in paradigm for the new breed of learner and a new level of instructional design.



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Navigating the Changing World of Adult Learning Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  NotYour Grandma’s Oldsmobile: Navigating the ChangingWorld of Adult Learning IACETWebinar – January 16, 2013 T M ”Tim” Stafford, MS MA Director of Digital Media Center & Sr. Instructional Designer Liberty Building Forensics Group® - Zellwood, Florida
  • 2. Introduction: Goals of this Session  Create a theoretical framework for current andragogy.  Evaluate some technological implications for the expansion of models of higher order thinking skills like Bloom’s Taxonomy.  Analyze the connection between objectives and evaluations  Analyze the emerging theory of connectivism and how it reflects a change in andragogy.  Questions and answers
  • 3. Theoretical Framework of Adult Learning
  • 4. KeyTheories of Adult Learning  McClusky’s Theory of Margin  Illeris’s Three Dimensional Learning Model  Jarvis’s Learning Process  Brookfield’s Reflective Teaching Model
  • 5. McClusky’sTheory of Margin  The adult learner seeks to strike a balance (L:P) between:  The Load of Life (L) which acts like an independent variable  The Power of Life (P) which is the power to manage L  Impact: Education becomes a load that can become dispensable if it becomes overwhelming to the power to perform.
  • 6. Illeris’Three Dimensional Learning Model  The adult seeks to strike a balance (C:E:S) between:  Cognition – The ability to understand  Emotion – The ability to maintain balance with personal issues  Social – The ability to ping ideas against cultural norms and mores and reconcile them.  Impact 1: Adults need to understand the WHY of learning  Impact 2: Adults need to understand HOW it will impact THEIR world
  • 7. Considering ReflectiveTeaching  4 Critical Lenses of Reflective Teaching  The lens of autobiography – What has been my experience?  The lens of the student – Who am I in the process?  The lens of experience in relation to colleagues – How are others affecting me with what they know?  The lens of theoretical literature – What do I know and where are there gaps in my knowledge? Where are there biases and assumptions in my knowledge? Brookfield’s Reflective Teaching Model
  • 8. Epistemology and the Learning Process  Connections between belief and learning (Markman, 2012)  Connections between experience and learning (Jarvis, 2984)  A simple world view structure – connected beliefs about:  Politics  Education  Economics  Religion  Social Issues ©2011 The Nehemiah Institute Used with permission
  • 9. SOWHAT?!!? Theory  McClusky’s Theory of Margin  Illeris’ Three Dimensional Learning Model  Brookfield’s Reflective Teaching Model  Epistemological Connections Practical Application to Instructional Design  Instructional design needs to address the balance that is needed for a learner’s personal success.  Instructional design needs to address the impact of the learning on the world of the learner.  Instructional design has to be reflective – This is a key element of transformative learning (Mezirow, 1997)  Instructional design needs to understand the worldview issues that impact the learner.
  • 10.  Higher OrderThinking Skills
  • 11. The Expansion of Bloom’sTaxonomy  Traditional Bloom’s Taxonomy Revealed the Principles of Higher Order Thinking Skills.  An Updated Version Tackles Technological Culture Advancements.  How to Effectively Utilize Technology in the Development of Higher Order Thinking Skills.
  • 12. Revised Bloom’sTaxonomy
  • 13. Expanded Bloom’sTaxonomy
  • 14. ConnectingTechnology and HOTS
  • 15. SOWHAT?!!? Subject  Bloom’s Taxonomy  Technological Considerations Practical Application to Instructional Design  Instructional design needs to address the highest order of thinking skills  Technology can be leveraged to help learners achieve the highest order of thinking skills.  Social learning is on the rise and technology will be the driver behind robust changes in instructional design.
  • 16. Connecting Objectives and Assessments
  • 17. Objectives and Assessments: Bookends of the Learning Journey Bookend#1 • Define the objectives. Bookend#2 • Create assessments to prove that the objectives were met.
  • 18. Bookend #1 – Define the Objectives  Objectives are clearly beyond – “Students will be able to… (SWBAT)”  Objectives have the power to position the coursework in a much more holistic framework. Questions to consider:  How do the objectives connect with the subject matter?  How do the objectives connect with the company’s mission?  How do the objectives connect with the industry at large?
  • 19. Bookend #1: Define the Objective Framework Industry Mission Corporate Mission Departmental Mission Course Objectives
  • 20. Bookend #1: Example - IACET Presentation The Mission of Instructional Design as a Discipline The Mission of ASTD The mission/ objectives of the local chapter Tim’s Objectives
  • 21. Kirkpatrick’ s 4 Levels of Evaluation (1994)  Reaction - how the learners react to the learning process  “Was the learning worth my time?”  Learning - the extent to which the learners gain knowledge and skills  What knowledge was acquired?  What skills were developed or enhanced?  What attitudes were changed?  Behavior - capability to perform the learned skills while on the job  “Do people use their newly acquired learning on the job?”  Results - includes such items as ROI, efficiency, morale, etc.
  • 22. Bookend #2: Framework for Evaluation Reaction Learning Behavior Results Aligning the Objectives
  • 23. SOWHAT?!!? Subject  Bookend#1: Objectives  Bookend #2: Evaluations  Future Bookend: Collaboration – Learner collaboration is not just a fad, but will be the driver in corporate business learning. Practical Application to Instructional Design  Instructional design needs to address the intertwining objective structure that exists when designing coursework.  Instructional design needs to create evaluations that align to the objectives.  Instructional design needs to follow a more robust framework of evaluations that speak to all aspects of the learning success.
  • 24. Framework for Networked Learning
  • 25. Eight Principles of Networked Learning (Siemens, 2006)
  • 26. SOWHAT?!!? Element of Theory of Connectivism  Connectivism  Network Learning Theory  Ubiquitous Learning (u- learning: a combination of e- learning and m-learning) (Sung, 2009) Practical Application to Instructional Design  Connectivism harnesses the power to combine the strengths of the learner with the rich networking of social media to create new learning spheres.  NLT gives principles by which the complete diversity found in the connectivist theory has the promise to empower an exponential yield from collaborate and ubiquitous learning.  U-learning gives instructors the ability to facilitate and coach learners towards areas of advancement that intrinsically motivate them, while capitlizing on teir areas of strength as an internal SME (consider MOOC’s)
  • 27. Trends of the Changing Adult Learner (Marx, 2006)  Technology will increase the speed of communication and the pace of advancement or decline.  Release of human ingenuity will become a primary responsibility of education and society.  Social and intellectual capital will become economic drivers, intensifying competition for well-educated people.  Greater numbers of people will seek personal meaning in their lives in response to an intense, high-tech, always on, fast- moving society.
  • 28. References  Brookfield, S. D. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.  Marx, G. (2006). Sixteen trends, their profound impact on our future: Implications for students, education, communities, countries, and the whole of society. Alexandria, VA: Gary Marx and Educational Research Service.  Mayer, R. E., & Clark, R. C. (2010). Instructional strategies for receptive learning environments. In K. H. Silber & W. R. Foshay (Eds.), Handbook of improving performance in the workplace (Vol. 1, pp. 298- 328). San Francisco: Pfeiffer, An Imprint of Wiley.  Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformation theory of adult learning. In P. Cranton (Ed.), In defense of the lifeworld (pp. 39-70). State University of New York Press.  Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, R. M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (Third ed.). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  Siemens, G. (2005, November 5). Connectivism: Learning as network-creation [Weblog post]. Retrieved from  Sung, J.-S. (2009, December). U-learning model design based on ubiquitous environment. International Journal of Science and Technology, 13, 77-88. Retrieved from EBSCOhost database.
  • 29. Contact information  Tim Stafford, MS, MA  E-mail –  Phone – 407 703 1319  Website   Twitter - @tmstaffordllc