Adult Andragogy and E-learning

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Talk about Adult Andragogy and E-learning given at the 2011 New Learning Technologies Conference on Orlando, Florida, sponsored by SALT.

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Adult Andragogy and E-learning

  1. 1. Adult Development and Andragogy in Online Learning<br />Tim Stafford, MS MA<br />Director of Image Building/Instructional Design - Liberty Building Forensics Group<br />
  2. 2. Introduction – GaryT. Marx and Futuring Education<br />5 Profound Trends That will Impact Education in the Future<br />The old are outnumbering the young<br />Technology will continue to make everything faster and amplified<br />Education will be looked to for the release of human ingenuity<br />A need for personal meaning is driving education to be transformative<br />A need for equilibrium will demand the need for seasoned educators<br />
  3. 3. Understanding the Aging Mind<br />McClusky’s Theory of Margin<br />Illeris’s Three Dimensional Learning Model<br />Introduction to Epistemic Issues<br />Jarvis’s Learning Process<br />Transformative Learning<br />
  4. 4. McClusky’s Theory of Margin<br />The adult seeks to strike a balance (L:P) between:<br />The Load of Life (L) which acts like an independent variable<br />The Power of Life (P) which is the power to manage L<br />Impact: Education becomes a load that can become dispensable if it becomes overwhelming to the power to perform. <br />
  5. 5. Illeris’s Three Dimensional Learning Model<br />The adult seeks to strike a balance (C:E:S) between:<br />Cognition – The ability to understand<br />Emotion – The ability to maintain balance with personal issues<br />Social – The ability to ping ideas against cultural norms and more’s and reconcile them.<br />Impact 1: Adults need to understand the Why of learning<br />Impact 2: Adults need to understand how it will impact their world<br />
  6. 6. Issues Surrounding Epistemology<br />Defining knowledge as a whole is difficult<br />What can be absolutely known and what can only be understood given rational opinion?<br />How is knowledge obtained?<br />What is the role of skepticism in knowing or not knowing?<br />How is knowledge valuable?<br />
  7. 7. Jarvis’s Learning Process<br />The adult brings many qualified realities to the table:<br />Prior Knowledge<br />Prior Experience<br />Flow of time with a history and present and a future<br />Noetic Structure: The basis of connected beliefs<br />A filtering worldview<br />
  8. 8. Jarvis’s Learning Process<br />A simple world view structure – connected beliefs about:<br />Politics<br />Education<br />Economics<br />Religion<br />Social Issues<br />©2011 The Nehemiah Institute <br />Used with permission<br />
  9. 9. Conclusion: Considering Transformative Learning<br />4 Critical Lenses of Reflective Teaching<br />The lens of autobiography <br />The lens of the student <br />The lens of experience in relation to colleagues <br />The lens of theoretical literature<br />Brookfields Reflective Teaching Model<br />
  10. 10. Conclusion: Considering Transformative Learning<br />Meizrow and Chapman’s Principles of Transformative Learning:<br />Adults exhibit two kinds of learning: instrumental (e.g., cause/effect)) and communicative (e.g., feelings)<br />Learning involves change to meaning structures (perspectives and schemes). <br />Change to meaning structures occurs through reflection about content, process or premises.<br />Learning can involve: refining/elaborating meaning schemes, learning new schemes, transforming schemes, or transforming perspectives. <br />
  11. 11. References<br />Brookfield, S. D. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.<br />Cashman, K. (1998). Leadership from the inside out: Becoming a leader for life. Minneapolis, MN: TCLC, llcLeaderSource<br />Chapman, S. A. (2007). Adaptive leadership and transformative learning: A case study of leading by part time faculty. In J. F. Wergin (Ed.), Leadership in place (pp. 51-75). Boston: Anker Publishing Company, Inc.<br />Chisholm, L. (2007). ee-Learning: The best road to adulthood? Innovate Journal of Online Education, 3(6), 1-13. Retrieved August 18, 2007, from Innovate Journal of Online Education Web site: http:/​/​www.innovateonline.info<br />Gamoran, A. (2001). American schooling and educational inequality: A forecast for the 21st century. Retrieved July 24, 2008, from Sociology of Education: Currents of Thought: Sociology of Education at the Dawn Web site: http:/​/​proquest.umi.com.library.capella.edu/​<br />
  12. 12. References<br />Hartshorne, C. (1984). Creativity in American Philosophy. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.<br />Jarvis, P. (1987) 'Malcolm Knowles' in P. Jarvis (ed.) Twentieth Century Thinkers in Adult Education, London: Croom Helm.<br />Lundt, J. C. (2006). Learning for ourselves: A new paradigm for education. The Futurist, 38(6), 18-22.<br />Marx, G. (2006). Future-focused leadership: preparing schools, students, and communities for tomorrow's realities. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.<br />Marx, G. (2006). Sixteen trends, their profound impact on our future: Implications for students, education, communities, countries, and the whole of society. Alexandria, VA: Gary Marx and Educational Research Service.<br />Maxwell, J. (2006). The difference maker: Making your attitude your greatest asset. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, Inc.<br />Meizrow, J. (1997). Transformation theory of adult learning. In P. Cranton (Ed.), In defense of the lifeworld (pp. 39-70). State University of New York Press. <br />
  13. 13. References<br /> Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, R. M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (Third ed.). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.<br />Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kemp, J. E., & Kalman, H. K. (2007). Designing effective instruction (5th edition). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.<br />Plantinga, A., & Wolterstorff, N. (1984). Faith and rationality: Reason and belief in God. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press <br />Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models (Vol. II, pp. 5-29). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.<br />Storey, V. A., & Tebes, M. L. (2008). Instructor’s privacy in distance (online) teaching: Where do you draw the line? The Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 11(2), 1-10. <br />Think scenarios. rethink education. (2006). Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development.<br />Williams, M. (2001). Problems with knowledge: A critical introduction to epistemology. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.<br />Yankelovish, D. (2005). Ferment and change: Higher education in 2015. Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(14), B6-B9.<br />

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