Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps

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In this contribution, we address exploratory search where a user is faced with an information need concerning a domain he lacks specific knowledge. Based on the work of Delbru et al., which introduced …

In this contribution, we address exploratory search where a user is faced with an information need concerning a domain he lacks specific knowledge. Based on the work of Delbru et al., which introduced metrics to measure the navigational quality of automatically selected facets for RDF data, we apply those findings to the semantically richer TMDM and show how exploratory search functionality can be combined with existing approaches.

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  • 1. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics Facet-based Exploratory Search Prototype in Topic Maps Comparison Summary M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik Telematics Group, Institute of Computer Science Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany 2008 / 10 / 16
  • 2. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Motivation and Objective M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics • The majority of Topic Maps based applications uses Prototype Comparison faceted classification Summary • Still, generic exploratory search interfaces for Topic Maps which shield the user from representational details have hardly been discussed • In the following, we • extend an RDF based approach [Delbru et al. 2006] • discuss combinations with existing user interfaces
  • 3. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Exploratory Search M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics • Exploratory Search addresses information-seeking Prototype Comparison problems where a user needs to find out something Summary about a domain but lacks specific (a-priori) knowledge • In this situation, the user will usually • submit tentative queries • explore the retrieved information in order to selectively seek and passively obtain clues about his next steps
  • 4. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Faceted Classification M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics Prototype • A Faceted Classification System enables Comparison • the assignment of multiple classifications (called facets) Summary to an object • the flexible ordering of these classifications in multiple ways w/o following pre-determined, taxonomic order • A facet is a metadata attribute which should represent a single important characteristic of the classified objects
  • 5. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Facet-based Navigation as M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik decision tree traversal Introduction Metrics Prototype Country Novel Sc` nes de la e Comparison Italy ... vie de Boh` me e ... Summary Contains Source of La Boh` me e La Boh` me e ... Lucca (Leoncavallo) (Puccini) Birthplace of Libretto by Puccini, Giacomo Catalani, Alfredo Giacomo, Guiseppe Illica, Luigi Composed Wrote libretto for Tosca ... Illica, Luigi ... By iteratively choosing a facet (and associated restriction values), the information space is traversed
  • 6. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Automated Facet Identification M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics Prototype • In the context of heterogenous, dynamically changing Comparison Summary datasets new information has to be (re-)classified on-the-fly • In order to simplify the problem of missing/outdated facet-based classifications, a generic heuristic is needed
  • 7. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Facet Identification M. Ueberall, Entity O. Drobnik Introduction http://company.com Metrics Employer Employment Employee Prototype (website) (Employs/Employed by) (job) Company Person Consultant/Programmer Comparison (website) Summary http://product.com (Location) (Location) http://www.frankfurt.de Person entity An entity is a subgraph of an information space, extracted by taking all adjacent vertices (objects) of a given vertex (subject)
  • 8. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Facet Identification M. Ueberall, View O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics http://company.com Prototype Employer Employee Employment (website) (Employs/Employed by) (job) Comparison Company Person Consultant/Programmer (website) Summary http://product.com (Location) (Location) http://www.frankfurt.de Company entity Person entity A view is a set of entities of an information space
  • 9. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Facet Identification M. Ueberall, Facet O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics http://company.com Prototype Employer Employment Employee (website) (job) (Employs/Employed by) Comparison Company Person Consultant/Programmer (website) Summary http://product.com (Location) (Location) http://www.frankfurt.de Company entity Person entity A facet is a set of equally labeled edges in a view
  • 10. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Facet Identification M. Ueberall, Restriction Value O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics http://company.com Prototype Employer Employment Employee (website) (Employs/Employed by) (job) Comparison Company Person Consultant/Programmer (website) Summary http://product.com (Location) (Location) http://www.frankfurt.de Company entity Person entity The set of objects connected to a facet represent the restriction values
  • 11. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Navigation Metrics M. Ueberall, Balance O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics Prototype Comparison Idea: • the balance of a facet indicates its na- Country Novel Sc` nes de la e Italy ... ... Summary Contains La Boh` me e vie de Boh` me e Source of La Boh` me e ... Lucca (Leoncavallo) (Puccini) vigation efficiency (cf. tree traversal) Tosca Puccini, Giacomo Composed Birthplace of ... Catalani, Alfredo Illica, Luigi Giacomo, Guiseppe Libretto by Wrote libretto for ... Illica, Luigi Computation: • determine the (non-linear) normalised variance of the number of subjects for each object
  • 12. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Navigation Metrics M. Ueberall, Cardinality O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics Prototype Idea: Comparison • a suitable facet has a limited amount of restriction Summary values to choose from Computation: • determine the number of different objects (restriction values) for each facet • normalise result using a function based on the gaussian density (cf. bell-shaped curve)
  • 13. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Navigation Metrics M. Ueberall, Frequency O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics Idea: Prototype • suitable facets occur frequently inside the collection Comparison Summary • the more distinct concepts are covered, the more useful the respective facet is in dividing the information space Computation: • determine the number of subjects in the dataset for which the facet has been defined • normalise result as a fraction of the total number of subjects
  • 14. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Navigation Metrics M. Ueberall, Example (1) O. Drobnik Introduction http://company.com Metrics Employer Employment Employee Prototype (website) (Employs/Employed by) (job) Company Person Consultant/Programmer Comparison (website) Summary http://product.com (Location) (Location) http://www.frankfurt.de Company entity Person entity facet balance(f) card(f) freq(f) score Employment 1.0 0.72615 1.0 0.72615 (website) 1.0 0.72615 0.5 0.36308 (job) 1.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 (location) 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0
  • 15. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Navigation Metrics M. Ueberall, Example (2) O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics http://company.com Employer Employee Prototype (website) Employment (job) (Employs/Employed by) Company Person Consultant/Programmer Comparison (website) Summary http://product.com (Location) (Location) http://www.frankfurt.de facet balance(f) card(f) freq(f) score Employment 1.0 0.72615 0.33333 0.24205 (website) 0.9 0.78270 0.5 0.35222 (job) 1.0 0.72615 0.33333 0.24205 (location) 0.9 0.78270 0.5 0.35222
  • 16. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Additional Facet Classes M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik Introduction • Basic requirements of a facet browser: Metrics • present the instances of all available types Prototype • the relations need to be made explicit, selectable Comparison Summary • Previous example focused on relations between topics: • association types • occurrence types • Exploratory Search is also about filtering: • topic types • association roles types • scope (scoping topics)
  • 17. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Prototype M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics Prototype Comparison Summary based on the /facet user interface [Hildebrand et al. 2006] Objectives: • support both TMAPI1 and TMAPI2 interfaces • provide light-weight module for multiple query engines
  • 18. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Topic Map Exploration M. Ueberall, “Classic” generic views O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics Associations (18) Internal Occurrences (4) Born in Bibliography Prototype Lucca Budde n, Julia n: quot;P uccini: His Life a nd W o rk squot;, O x ford Unive rsity P re ss (O x fo rd, 2002) Composed Sa die , Sta nle y (e d): quot;P uccini a nd His O pe ra squot;, Ma cm illa n (Lo ndo n, 2000) Comparison La Bohèm e Edgar Date of birth 1858-12-22 La fanciulla del W est Date of death Gianni Schicchi Summary Madam a Butterfly 1924-11-29 Manon Lescaut External Occurrences (12) La rondine Article Suor Angelica http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giacom o_Puccini - Scope: Web; Wikipedia Il Tabarro http://localhost:8080/operam ap/occurs/snl/puccini.htm - Scope: Local; Store Nors ke Leks ikon Tosca http://www.ontopia.net/topicm aps/exam ples/opera/occurs/snl/puccini.htm - Scope: Store Nors ke Leks ikon; Web Turandot Gallery Le Villi http://localhost:8080/operam ap/occurs/puccini-gallery.htm - Scope: Local Died in Illustration Brussels http://localhost:8080/operam ap/occurs/com poser/puccini.gif - Scope: Local Exponent of Sound clip verism o http://www.puccini.it/files/vocepucc.wav - Scope: Centro s tudi Giacomo Puccini; Italian; Web Pupil of Web page Angeloni, Carlo http://localhost:8080/operam ap/occurs/hnh-puccini.htm - Scope: Local; Naxos Bazzini, Antonio http://www.naxos.com /com poser/btm .asp?fullnam e=Puccini,%20Giacom o - Scope: Naxos ; Web Ponchielli, Am ilcare http://www.operone.de/kom ponist/puccini.htm l - Scope: Web http://www.r-ds.com /opera/pucciniana/gallery.htm - Scope: OperaRes ource; Web Web site (a) (b) http://www.landofpuccini.com http://www.puccini.it - Scope: Centro s tudi Giacomo Puccini; Italian; Web
  • 19. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Topic Map Exploration M. Ueberall, Stylized, facet-based display O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics score=0.72614 Prototype http://www.landofpuccini.com score=0.78270 http://www.puccini.it Comparison http://en.wikipedia/. . . score=0.98012 http://localhost:8080/. . . Summary Web site http://www.ontopia.net/. . . La Boh` me e Article Edgar Composed by La fanciulla del West (Composed) Puccini, Giacomo Gianni Schicchi Work Composer Madame Butterfly ... Web page score=0.83527 Bibliography score=0.72614 http://localhost:8080/. . . http://www.noxos.com/. . . http://www.r-ds.com/. . . Budden, Julian: “Puccini. . . http://www.operone.de/. . . Sadie, Stanley (ed): “Puccini. . .
  • 20. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Topic Map Exploration M. Ueberall, Selection tree and resulting tolog query O. Drobnik Introduction Giacosa, Guiseppe Metrics Prototype Libretto by $A Comparison Summary $X Audio recording ... Composed by $B $C ... Born in ... Located in Italy [Omnigator] Query results http://localhost:8080/omnigator/plugins/tolog/query.jsp?codeexample=exR Query: A B C X libretto-by($X : opera, giacosa : librettist), 5 56301 2 Puccini, Giacomo Lucca Manon Lescaut audio-recording($X, $A), OPD-1265 Catalani, Alfredo Lucca Loreley composed-by( $X : work, $B : composer), 423 567-2 Puccini, Giacomo Lucca Madama Butterfly born-in( $B : person, $C : place), 7 47175 8 Puccini, Giacomo Lucca Tosca located-in($C : containee, italy : container)?
  • 21. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Perspectives M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics • Navigation process for large information spaces can be Prototype Comparison improved by reducing the initial number of different Summary facets associated with a view • Additional metrics: concept of semantic distance between vertices [Andres/Naito2008] • Minimal sub-graph of a given list of interested topics as starting point [Dichev/Dicheva/Fischer2007]
  • 22. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Summary and Outlook M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik Introduction • The presented exploratory search interface for topic Metrics maps may enhance existing navigation aids Prototype • It can be used to construct queries just by following Comparison Summary links between concepts of interest, regardless of the underlying query engine/legend • A stand-alone, TMAPI1/TMAPI2 based implementation with both basic text-based and graphical interfaces will be available shortly • Currently, the forementioned functionality is being integrated in the user interface of an Eclipse based prototype for software engineering support
  • 23. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics Prototype Comparison Summary Thank you! e-mail to: ueberall@tm.informatik.uni-frankfurt.de
  • 24. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Example scenario in LTM notation M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik [employer = quot;Employerquot;] Introduction [employee = quot;Employeequot;] Metrics [employment = quot;Employmentquot; Prototype = quot;Employsquot; / employer = quot;Employed byquot; / employee] Comparison employment([person = quot;Personquot;] : employee, Summary [company = quot;Companyquot;] : employer) [website = quot;Websitequot;] [location = quot;Locationquot;] [job = quot;Jobquot;] {company, website, quot;http://company.com/quot;} ∼ company-website {company, website, quot;http://product.com/quot;} ∼ product-website {company, location, quot;http://www.frankfurt.dequot;} ∼ company-location {person, location, quot;http://www.frankfurt.dequot;} ∼ person-location {person, job, [[consultant/programmer]]} ∼ person-job
  • 25. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps Merging heterogenous topic maps M. Ueberall, Bibliography example O. Drobnik Introduction Metrics [kcc_title = quot;The Knowledge-Creating Companyquot;] Prototype [kcc_year = quot;1995quot;] Comparison [nonaka = quot;Ikujiro Nonakaquot;] Summary [takeuchi = quot;Hirotaka Takeuchiquot;] reference( kcc_title :title, book :bibtype, kcc_year :year, nonaka :author, takeuchi :author ) [kcc :book = quot;The Knowledge-Creating Companyquot;] { kcc, author, [[Ikujiro Nonaka]] } { kcc, author, [[Hirotaka Takeuchi]] } { kcc, year, [[1995]] }
  • 26. Facet-based Exploratory Search in Topic Maps How to combine different scopes? M. Ueberall, O. Drobnik Introduction • Problem of lack of formal semantics [Garshol2008] Metrics Prototype • A user must get an explanation/decide how scoping Comparison topics are handled (and/or problem) Summary • Concepts from views of different scope can be handled in two ways: • list only valid concepts using quot;mergedquot; scope • individual concepts retain their original scope • Either way, facets representing scoping topics cannot easily be handled like other classes of facets (i.e., user cannot be shielded from representational details)