Universal Design Learning and Technology in the Elementary Classroom By Theresa Moore 735 Technology for Diverse Population Dr. Wissick – Summer I Children grouped around computer
Research about Technology with Young Children <ul><li>A national sample of school age children 13 and younger found a direct correlation was found between times spent computing at home and cognitive skill, self-esteem and well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>It was determined that children with computers and spent under 8 hours a week computing spent as much time with reading, sports and outside play as children without home computers and scored higher in reading comprehension and math calculating than children without computers in the home. </li></ul><ul><li>It was found that children who spent more than 8 hours a week on a home computer did participate less in sports and outside play activities than non-computer users. Those same children were substantially heavier than other children who did not have computers at home and revealed feelings of loneliness. </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing children to spend more than 8 hours a week on a computer can promote social isolation and obesity. </li></ul>
More Research <ul><li>When comparing the findings of cognitive tests of children with computers and children without computers, significant differences were found. This puts children with no computers at a disadvantage when it comes to academic performance. </li></ul><ul><li>A computer is a tool that can enhance learning and should be made available to all children in order to give children an equal opportunity to achieve academically. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer use also builds young children’s self-confidence, communication skills as well as their abilities to work cooperatively and socialize with their peers. </li></ul>
A Study about Computer Use Among Head Start Children <ul><li>122 Head Start children were analyzed to understand the impact computers have on a child’s cognitive school readiness and psychomotor skills. </li></ul><ul><li>One experimental group of children was given 15 - 20 minutes daily computer time with developmentally appropriate educational software. The controlled group participated in the standard Heard Start curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>After 6 months, four standardized tests were given that measured school readiness, visual motor skills, gross motor skills, and cognitive development. The experimental group out-performed the controlled group on the school readiness test but inconclusive results were found regarding motor skills. </li></ul>
Head Start Study Continued <ul><li>The data from the study suggested a strong impact of computer use and school readiness. Children with computers at home scored significantly higher than the children without home computers. </li></ul><ul><li>The data from the study revealed a greater impact on school readiness and cognitive skills for children who use computers at home only than the experimental children who used computers at school only. </li></ul><ul><li>Further research and comparisons need to be made but this study supports the use of computers at home as well as school for under privileged children. </li></ul>
Universal Design Learning- Technology that Levels the Playing Field <ul><li>Parents, educators, communities, and governments need to establish ways to put computers in the hands of children with sensory, physical, cognitive disabilities as well as children economically disadvantaged. </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive technology benefits young children physically, sensory or cognitively. </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive technology is an equalizer for young children with disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive technology provides the tools to the teacher to promote and enhance a disabled child’s learning and educational experience. Assistive technology provides the tools to the teacher to promote and enhance a disabled child’s learning and educational experience. </li></ul><ul><li>It levels the playing field in a way that builds confidence and encourages inclusion for those children who otherwise would be left out of the game. </li></ul><ul><li>“ In most of these type of learning situations, a disability makes no difference at all.” Behrman, M. (1998) </li></ul>
A Study with Deaf Children and Multimedia Reading Materials <ul><li>A study that was conducted with twenty five deaf children from the ages of 9 to 18 years old given reading instruction by means of the computer in four different formats. </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM generated stories were provided to the children in print only, print plus pictures, print plus sign language, and print plus picture plus sign. </li></ul><ul><li>The four formats were presented in random order with a personal computer and the children completed the readings at their own pace. </li></ul><ul><li>With the completion of each reading activity , using sign language the children’s comprehension performance was analyzed and significant differences were found between the four methods of content delivery. </li></ul>
Findings of Four Formats of Multimedia Reading Material for Deaf Children <ul><li>No significant differences between print only and print with sign language was found </li></ul><ul><li>Nor were there significant differences between print and pictures and print, pictures and sign. </li></ul><ul><li>There was significant difference between print only and print and pictures and print, pictures and sign. </li></ul><ul><li>There was also significant difference between print and sign and print and pictures and print, pictures and sign. </li></ul><ul><li>The results were with computer based text comprehension was lower with print only. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension was at its highest with print and pictures format. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension was a little higher with print and picture than it was with print, picture and sign, but showed no statistical difference. </li></ul>
Results of Four Format Multimedia Reading Delivery for Deaf Children <ul><li>Multi-media presentation of reading material enhanced comprehension among deaf children over a standard print only version, but is not significantly better than standard print with pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>This study also reveals that there is no need to include sign language with print. </li></ul><ul><li>The study does suggest that multi-media is definitely a good tool for increasing reading comprehension among deaf children. </li></ul>
Digital Fluency with Young Children <ul><li>Children will develop digital fluency more comfortably and naturally if they use computers and other technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>For today’s children’s digital fluency will be a requirement to be successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Message boards and Webblogs offer a way to learn and share knowledge. They can be used to discuss topics, ask or answer questions, or express feelings. They are excellent ways for children to exercise their voices and promote digital fluency. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Storytelling and dialogue have always been a part of educating and entertaining our children. The use of digital technologies may actually encourage different types of literacy, including verbal and visual skills, …digital fluency.” Huffaker, D. </li></ul>
Digital Fluency and the Positive Social Impact for Children <ul><li>Online forums and virtual communities, including message boards, Weblogs, and instant messaging software allow children places to share ideas and feelings, discuss issues and projects, ask and answer each other’s questions, and promote healthy positive social interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Children love to tell stories and as they get older if they have been allowed to tell stories to interested listeners when it is developmentally appropriate they become writers, then readers and then better writers. </li></ul><ul><li>Online communication with the guidance of parents and educators can help children read, write and share from other children around the world. </li></ul>
National Association for the Education of Young Children: Technology and Young Children <ul><li>Technology does now and will continue to play a significant role. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of technology on children’s learning and development are well researched and documented. </li></ul><ul><li>The developmentally appropriate use of computers must supplement or be a part of the early childhood curriculum, but not replace the important activities of art, books, music, house center, dramatic play, blocks, and sand and water. </li></ul>
NAEYC – Thoughts continued… <ul><li>The sounds and graphics attract the children. </li></ul><ul><li>The children want to play on the computers that they see their parents use. </li></ul><ul><li>Developmentally appropriate software can engage the children in creative play, mastery learning, problem solving and conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>The children can individualize the computers in areas of pacing and activities. </li></ul><ul><li>They can experiment with various activities, make decisions, repeat a process, advance an activity level, and share their discoveries and creations. </li></ul>
… Technology and Young Children <ul><li>Computers encourage positive socialization among young children and their peers. </li></ul><ul><li>When children work with a computer, they want to share and work with their classmates. </li></ul><ul><li>With the access to the Internet and user friendly networks young children can communicate with children everywhere and take electronic field trips that bring to their world the cultures and places from all over the world. </li></ul>
Computer Environment <ul><li>Computers should be visible and accessible to the children in the classroom because this set-up has more of an impact on learning than if the computers are in a lab. </li></ul><ul><li>Chairs need to be available and room for their use around a computer in order to promote collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet access should be available to bring outside learning to the classroom. Virtual tours to zoos, aquariums and special places of interest can bring many educational topics to life. The sites usually have interactive activities that are beneficial to the child’s learning. </li></ul>
Teachers’ Roles <ul><li>Must be trained to understand computers and their role in students’ curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar with software and take time to evaluating new software. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers need to guide the children in their use of computers so that the time and interaction is effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan computer time and activities and observe the children when computing. </li></ul><ul><li>They must find ways to encourage computer usage among all children to decrease educational inequity among genders, races and abilities. </li></ul>
Children’s roles <ul><li>Should understand how the keys work and their control of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Children should find meaning in the images. </li></ul><ul><li>They need to be able to make connections between what is on the screen and what they know in real-life. </li></ul><ul><li>Use developmentally appropriate software that allows children to paint and draw, design things, create picture stories, think logically. </li></ul><ul><li>Should use programs that encourage cooperation or taking turns. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be in control of the computer experience so that he can manipulate the activity according to his pace, need and development therefore the computer use will be developmentally appropriate. </li></ul>
Do’s and Don’ts for Computer usage and Young Children <ul><li>Don’t use in computers predominantly in school for drill and practice, most schools do. </li></ul><ul><li>Do let the children work with teacher-directed computer activities that match their curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Do match software programs with children’s level of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t, teachers, intervene too quickly, children will explore with the computer successfully. </li></ul><ul><li>Do give the children freedom to make choices when using the computer </li></ul>
More Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Do allow children to work in groups at the computer this is beneficial to the students at this age. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t have children work with more than four to a computer. Three is a good number. </li></ul><ul><li>Do make sure children have equal access. </li></ul><ul><li>Do implement technology into classrooms, everyone will learn to greatly appreciate the significance computers will have on the lives of students’ learning. </li></ul>
Final Thoughts <ul><li>The time with technology should not replace the time that young children have with learning experiences of play, music, and art. </li></ul><ul><li>Early childhood teachers must be prepared to use technology to benefit the children because in future technology will be significant in their life. </li></ul><ul><li>The research that supports those young children given the opportunity to explore with computers enhances their social, language, and cognitive skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers properly used with administrative support teacher training, correct software, right environment, attentive to time, needs, abilities, and developmentally appropriate activities, technology will have a positive impact on young children’s learning. </li></ul>Two girls at a computer.
References <ul><li>Attewell, P., Belkis, S. & Battle, J. (2003 Fall). Computers and young children: Social Benefit or Social Problem. Social Forces, 82 (1), 277-296. </li></ul><ul><li>Behrman, M. (1998). Assistive technology for young children in special education : It makes a difference. Retrieved on June 26, 2008 from http://www.edutopia.org/assistive-technology-young-children-special-education . </li></ul><ul><li>Haughland, S. (2000). Computers and young children. ERIC: Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Retrieved on June 26, 2008 from http://ericece.org . </li></ul><ul><li>Huffaker, D. (2004, Winter). Spinning yarns around the digital fire: Storytelling and dialogue among youth on the internet. First Monday 9(1). Retrieved on June 25, 2008 from http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_1/huffaker/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Gentry, M., Chinn, K., & Moulton, R. (2004- 2005). Effectiveness of multimedia reading materials when used with children who are deaf. American Annals of Deaf, 149(5), 394 – 403. </li></ul><ul><li>National Association for the Education of Young Children. Technology and young children -- ages 3 through 8. Retrieved from the NAEYC on June 25, 2008 from http://www.naeyc.org/about/positions/PSTECH98.a .Young </li></ul><ul><li>Scoter, J., Ellis, D. & Railsback, J. (2001). Technology in early childhood education. Northwest Regional Library, 1 - 51 . Retrieved on June 26, 2008 from www.nwrel.org . </li></ul><ul><li>Xiaoming, L., Atkins, M., & Stanton, B. (2006, Spring) Effects of home and school computer use on school readiness and cognitive development among head start children: A randomized controlled pilot trial. Merril-Palmer Quarterly, 52(2) 239-263. </li></ul>
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