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For our group project we will be looking at evidence of diversity and inclusion of all adult learners. Our areas of focus will be include:
-English as a Second Language
-Cultural Diversity
-Educational background

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  1. 1. For our group project we will be looking at evidence of diversity and inclusion of all adult learners. Our areas of focus will be include: o  Disability o  English as a Second Language o  Cultural Diversity o  Educational background o  Age.
  2. 2. Tamar: Of Brazilian descent, her knowledge base derives from traditional story- telling & cultural beliefs. Martha: 67 year-old retired teacher Jean Claude: who had extensive experience working in the An international student field but no traditional and speaks English as a appraoch to learning. second language. Garry; Sohee: Molly: Is facilitating a class for a diverseA student with Attention group of individuals from across Understands & processes Deficit Hyperactivity the learning spectrum, abilities & information quickly, Disorder & gets cultural backgrounds. He is however she has a teaching a Gen-ed class at the tendency to procrastinatedistracted easily in class. college level which is open to when she becomes bored. different students from different programs for the first time.
  3. 3. Go back to “Student Profiles” Forum inweek one and find someone who: ›  Lives in Brampton ›  Has children ›  Has a full time job ›  Works in the dental field ›  Has worked in their field for over 3 years ›  Is new to online learning ›  Is bilingual ›  Is new to Moodle
  4. 4.   What did this tell you about the learners in this class?  Share an experience you have had in training/education where felt you were part of a diverse group  How can professors accommodate the different needs of students in their class room?
  5. 5.   Canadians reported more than 200 different ethnic origins, and more than 100 languages in completing the census  1 in 5 people in Canada was born in another country, the highest percentage it has been for 75 years  32% of Canadians speak a language other than English at home  28% of the population are immigrants, the highest percentage in the country**  Aboriginal population increased to 3.8% of total (from 3.3% in 2001)  More than 60 different Aboriginal languages are spoken in Canada**  10% of the general population is estimated to be lesbian, gay, bisexual or  13.5% of people in Ontario live with disabilities*  1 in10 people in Canada have some degree of hearing loss (Canadian Hearing Society) *Source: Statistics Canada, Census 2001
  6. 6.   Human Rights and the Duty to Accommodate ›  Accommodation is a shared responsibility. Everyone involved, including the person with disability, should work together to look for accommodation solutions together. ›  There is no set formula for accommodating people with disabilities. Even though some accommodations can benefit many people, you still need to consider individual needs each time a person asks to be accommodated. A solution for one person may not work for someone else.  Some examples of accommodations include: ›  Providing reading materials in alternative formats including digitized text, Braille or large print ›  Posting notes on Webct which can benefit everyone ›  Using technology such as webcasts
  7. 7.   Sohee has ADHD, although she is easily distracted ›  Direct student to Accessible Learning Services so she can get accommodations such as Extra time on exams, sessions with a Learning Strategist ›  Arrange for preferential seating so she can pay attention to class ›  Encourage student to tape record lectures so she can review what she has missed in class ›  Post notes on Web-ct so students can review what she has missed ›  Have student complete a learning style inventory for example “Kolb’s learning styles” ›  Use a multi-sensory approach and provide demonstrations ›  Reinforce verbal presentations with written text and visuals ›  Combine lectures with classroom demonstration, visuals and videos ›  Encourage the use of time management planners
  8. 8.   Jean-Claude is originally from France and speaks English as a second language. He is eager to take the course and improve his skills.  Jean-Claude has expressed concern that he will not be able to quickly and fully understand the concepts used throughout the course, and might struggle to keep up with his classmates.The Language Barrier  Jean-Claude is not alone. Based on a longitudinal survey of immigrants who arrived in Canada between Oct 2000 and Sept 2001, of the newcomers who tried to obtain training after coming to Canada, 40% reported at least one problem, and 27% of these identified language barriers as the most serious obstacle (others include cost, lack of course availability, time constraints, foreign degree/diploma not recognised) (Chui, 2003).
  9. 9.   Learners who experience language barriers benefit greatly from: ›  a clear framework of course standards, ›  clearly identified skills to be learnt ›  assessment and clear feedback of progress ›  varied learning formats (“Breaking the Language Barriers”, 2000)  Within any training program it is important to acknowledge and support the needs of second language learners (Hancock & Beach, 2011). It is also important to assess progress, evaluate level of learning throughout the course, and provide regular feedback. Instructors should: ›  assess if the student understands how the task needs to be completed, and ›  gage if the student understands why it is important (“Breaking the Language Barriers”, 2000)
  10. 10.   Students are provided with school policies and a detailed course outline, including: ›  course objectives, skills to be learnt ›  due dates for tests and assignments ›  Topics to be covered each class ›  a Definitions List of key terms/concepts that will be covered (students are encouraged to add to this list throughout the course). ›  assignment details, and marking schemes will be provided and clearly explained to students well in advance of due dates.  Students are asked to complete a short questionnaire regarding: ›  motivations for taking the course, and goals ›  any issues/questions of concern ›  learning preferences. This information is used to design/modify subsequent lesson plans and exercises to meet the specific needs of students.
  11. 11.   Classes are designed to include a variety of teaching and learning formats including: ›  lectures and PowerPoint slides ›  use of audio and visual examples of the application of information learned (eg-video clip, on-site visit/observation) ›  hands on practice using the information learned (eg-case studies, role playing, simulation exercises) ›  group work
  12. 12.   Handouts of course material (eg-PowerPoint slides) are provided to students at the beginning of each class (and include references for further self-study, if desired).  At the end of each class students have the opportunity to identify any terms/concepts, theories, and practices that they are having difficulties with, and would like clarified. There is time allocated to addressing these items at the beginning of each class.  Assessment (both formal and informal) of learning will take place throughout the course. Feedback will be provided to students on a consistent basis, and any areas of difficulty will be reviewed.  Lines of communication are always open. Instructors are available by phone, email, and in person during office hours, and students are encouraged to contact their instructor with any questions or concerns. The instructor is also available to assist the student in locating resources, and problem-solving.
  13. 13.   Molly has an MA in Accounting and a BA in Computers. She understands and processes information quickly. She has a tendency to procrastinate when she becomes bored.  Challenge: Molly has a low motivation for learning because she does not feel challenged in the classroom.  How can the teacher make Molly feel included and increase her learning motivation?
  14. 14.   To understand how a student in Molly’s situation feels, I conducted a short survey comprised of 7 questions to 3 different individuals with different educational backgrounds and with high averages. The questions are as follows: 1) After you learned the information and understood it, did you feel bored or restless having to listen to it being repeated for others? 2)If yes, to answer 1, then what did you do to pass the time? 3)Since you were able to process and access the information at a faster rate than others, did it make you feel less motivated to attend or to even learn, since no further effort was required on your part? 4)Would you have liked to have been challenged further as a student? 5)What do you feel could have been done to challenge you more or use your time wisely? 6)Did helping others (if you had to perform that task) help you to remember the information better because you were explaining it to someone else? 7) Is there something in your educational background that enabled you to understand what was being taught to you better? Or process the information faster? Or organize yourself or tasks more efficiently?
  15. 15. 3.5 32.5 2 No1.5 Yes 10.5 0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7
  16. 16.   The survey covered different educational backgrounds: Computer, Accounting, and Business Management. The survey proved helpful in understanding students that find themselves in Molly’s situation. Based on the responses, educational background can be helpful in a classroom situation, particularly when others are struggling in an area that is the expertise of the student. The student becomes engaged with their peers, they take on an advisory role and by helping others they retain the information taught in the lecture.  The trainer/teacher can group the students with different educational backgrounds together so that they enhance each others learning, because while they may excel in one area of the subject or lesson being taught, there might be other areas in which they need help themselves. In which case the cultivating the various educational backgrounds would enable the student to acknowledge a different point of view and perhaps include it in their own critical thinking.
  17. 17.   The trainer/teacher could introduce a problem that stimulates critical thinking in the students get them to develop their ability to “identify central issues and assumptions in an argument, recognize important relationships, make correct inferences from the data, deduce conclusions from information or data provided, interpret whether conclusions are warranted based on given data, and evaluate evidence or authority.” (tsui, 2007, page 201)  The Creating Learning Centred Classrooms journal refers to a similar practice known as problem based learning, where the trainer/teacher would provide the information needed to solve the problem, and then create a problem that would encourage the student(s) to use the knowledge gained in the classroom (Kenzie, 1998, pg. 47).  An encouragement in this practice would provide the students like Molly with the mental tools necessary to address the issues presented in their work/life scenario
  18. 18.   Group work is a great way to address student’s like Molly who procrastinate when bored in class. It can also be described as collaborative learning and it supports the idea that “hearing others’ ideas and receiving immediate feedback on proposed solutions stimulated group members’ understanding” (Kenzie 1998, pg. 46)  While trading ideas between members, Molly’s mind is being stimulated and she is retaining the information that she has learned.  When the trainer/teacher creates the group, it would be important for that individual to create a task that is impossible to do by oneself. The task should evoke others to contribute and share different ideas (Grace, 2009, pg. 164). Sharing ideas and different points of view will encourage learning and critical thinking.
  19. 19. •  Create a respectful environment which involves reflectivediscussions, with the older trainees acting as mediators, thusencouraging a positive outcome in this “psychological” levelof Maslow’s hierarchy. For the traditionalist generation(1922-1945) in particular, respect is their top psychologicalneed and their expectations of younger generations oftencause friction (Wieck, p. 366).•  Provide optional computer and technology-based tutorials that will assist oldertrainees in developing these skills needed for the workplace. It is essential to equipolder learners with computer skills, as few older adults are adept members of theinformation society (Field, p. 21).•  Assign older trainees to provide work-related mentoring sessions in order to fosteracceptance. In light of Knowles’ theory, connecting past experiences to currentmaterial will make the learning experience more meaningful (Russell, p. 350).• Be sure to include handouts and well-organized written material to supplementany use of audio-visual material or other contents presented without print.
  21. 21. Tamar is 45 years old and originally from Brazil. She arrived in Canada 10 years ago but still has a Brazilian accent. She was educated in a small village school and much of her knowledge comes from information passed down through story-telling.Challenge: Tamar is struggling with feeling accepted in the larger group and identifies herself as a minority. She feels that her accent and different knowledge excludes her from the class and is having a hard time participating and contributing. At times she feels that there are members of the group who dominate in order to show their power and put her down.
  22. 22. Zeichner, Kenneth M. “Education Teachers for Cultural Diversity.” NCRTLSpecial Report, National Centre for Research on Teaching Learning,September 1992.
  23. 23.   Cultural identity groups tend to be associated with power differentials: some groups have higher status and greater access to resources than other groups (Foldy).  Eg. (Broad generalization) In Western countries, men tend to have more power than women, Caucasian people generally have more resources than people of colour, and so on (Foldy). Question: Why/how does cultural diversity affect group dynamic and learning?
  24. 24. 1) Individuals are generally more comfortable when they are surrounded by people they perceive as more like them. We look for familiarity and similarity; we are reassured when others think, talk and act like we do.2) Group members come with different life experience that have shaped their values, approaches and perspectives. Members of culturally diverse groups may be more likely than those of homogenous groups to differ in how they define a problem, structure a discussion, view potential solutions, or come to a decision.3) Group Membership is associated with different representation within the group. Members of the group in the minority are more aware of their identity and of being different from the norm and therefore may feel less comfortable or less welcome.4) Diverse groups may also have different dynamics because of the power differences associated with cultural differences. In culturally diverse groups, members of dominant identity groups are often more powerful members of such groups and therefore may consciously or unconsciously act in ways that reinforce their dominance (Foldy).
  25. 25.   Authors Ely and Thomas propose the concept of “Diversity Perspectives,” arguing that diverse groups who hold the perspective that cultural identity is a resource for learning and growth are more likely to learn from difference, resulting in higher performance.  The authors propose the concept as the key moderator of the relationship between diversity and performance. Diversity perspective is the way that group members think about the cultural differences among them. “The integration and learning perspective argues that heterogeneous groups function better when they believe that cultural identities can be tapped as sources of new ideas and experiences about work” (Foldy).
  26. 26. •  The authors identify three diversity perspectives: o  The Discrimination and Fairness perspective: Concerned with the recruitment and retention of people from protected groups. This perspective presumes that cultural dimensions of diversity do not have important consequences for group dynamics and nothing is to be gained by acknowledging and engaging differences. o  The Access and Legitimacy perspective: Celebrates cultural differences in a simplistic and narrow way. o  The Integration and Learning perspective: Seeks to build deeply and comprehensively on the varied skills and experiences and ways of thinking of a diverse group. It suggests the incorporation of perspectives into the main curriculum. Differences can be a source of growth, learning and insight, but only if they are acknowledged and constructively explored.
  27. 27. •  The integration and learning perspective best activates learning in a culturally diverse group because the discrimination and access and legitimacy perspectives ignore the ongoing differences in experiences among cultural groups, glossing over the very different histories of cultural groups, diminishing different types of knowledges and lived experiences. “Failure to acknowledge cultural differences also makes it impossible to consider how cultural backgrounds influence our ideas and our contributions (Foldy).”
  28. 28.   The Integration and Learning Perspective must be coupled with learning frames, therefore activating learning.  Employing High Learning Behaviours or Model II Learning frames enable learning in culturally diverse groups.  Chris Agryis et al say Model II Behaviours enhances learning, includes suggesting ways to test one’s advocacies and attributions and encourages inquiring into why others view things the way they do.  In order to address Tamar’s challenges in the classroom and to encourage learning in culturally diverse groups, discourse must be promoted and differences must be acknowledged in a productive and constructive manner. See Table 3. Foldy, Erica Gabrielle. “Learning from Diversity: A Theoretical Exploration.” Public Administration Review, Volume 64, Issue 5, August 27th 2004.
  29. 29. Argyris, Chris, Robert Putnam, and Diana McLain Smith. 1985. ActionScience. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Ely, Robin., and David A. Thomas. 2001. Cultural Diversity at Work: TheEffects of Diversity Perspectives on Work Group Processes andOutcomes. Administrative Science Quarterly 46(2): 22-73.Zeichner, Kenneth M. “Education Teachers for Cultural Diversity.”NCRTL Special Report, National Centre for Research on TeachingLearning, September 1992.Foldy, Erica Gabrielle. “Learning from Diversity: A TheoreticalExploration.” Public Administration Review, Volume 64, Issue 5, August27th 2004.Field, J. (2011). Minding the generation gap. Adults Learning. 23 (2),20-21.
  30. 30. Russell, S.S. (2006). An overview of adult learning processes. UrologicNursing. 26(5), 349-370.Wieck, K.L. (2007). Motivating an intergenerational workforce: scenariosfor success. Orthopedic Nursing. 26 (6), 366-371.Grace, S. & Gravestock P. (2009). Inclusion and Diversity: Meeting theNeeds of All Students. New York. Routledge.Tsui L. (2007). Cultivating Critical Thinking: Insights from an Elite Liberal ArtsCollege. Journal of General Education, 56, 200-227.Kinzie, J., Muller, P.A., Simmons, A., & Stage, F. (1998). Creating LearningCentered Classrooms: What Does Learning Theory have to say?. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 26 (4), 33-49.Breaking the Language Barriers: the report of the working group onEnglish for speakers of other languages (ESOL). (2000). London: LifelongLearning. Retrieved from http://www.lifelonglearning.co.uk/esol/index.htm
  31. 31. Renner, P. (2005). The art of teaching adults. (10th ed.). Vancouver, BC:Training Associates.Sherow, S. (2006). Theory to Practice: Adult Teaching and LearningStrategies for Tutors. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ed.psu.edu/isal/PDFs/Lit_Corps_Theory_to_Practice.pdfKnowles, M. (1984). Andragogy in action: Applying modern principles ofadult learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as the source oflearning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Guide to Disabilities and Academic Accommodations Sheridan CollegeInstitute of Technology and Advanced Learning, Oakville, Brampton,Mississauga. (n.d.). Sheridan College | Institute of Technology andAdvanced Learning | Oakville Brampton Mississauga Ontario Canada.Retrieved from http://www.sheridancollege.ca/Services/Student%20Learning%20Services/Disability%20Services/Faculty-Staff/Guide%20to%20Disabilities%20and%20Academic%20Accommodations.aspx
  32. 32. Hancock, S., & Beach, K (2011). Overcoming Language Barriers inTraining Programs. AIB Update, May/June, 2011, Manhattan: AIBInternational. Retrieved from https://www.aibonline.org/newsletter/Magazine/May_Jun2011/6Education.pdfChui, Tina. (2003). Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada: process,progress and prospects (No. 89-611-XWE). Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Retrieved from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=89-611-X&lang=eng