HOW THE AMERICAS CHANGE: THE LONG 19TH CENTURY Patricia Fonseca February 16, 2012 History 141 31136History of the Americas Since 1800 Professor Arguello
THE AMERICAS IN THE 19TH CENTURY• The San Francisco gold rush helped draw many Chinese immigrants to the Americas in search of fortune.• European and Asian immigrants helped shape the Americas in terms of political, social, and economic development. These immigrants helped to contribute to the labor-force and agricultural aspects of western growth while adding ethnic diversity.• As the United Stated won their independence, they struggled to build societies based on freedom, equality and constitutional government. Considering the large amounts of social, economic, and cultural diversity dispersed throughout the land, this proved to be quite a challenge.• This led to continuous mass migration, explosive economic growth with periods of deep economic stagnation. Other difficulties stemming from civil war, ethnic violence, class conflict, and struggles over sexual equality created an unstable environment.• The westward expansion led to conflicts in several regions with the Native Americans who were occupying those lands, as well as causing tension with Mexico.• Civil war was sparked within different regions
THE AMERICAS IN THE 19TH CENTURY• Despite regional conflicts, Canada was able to avoid civil wars. Canada gained its independence from Britain through gradual negotiations instead of gaining it through war• Canada’s two dominant ethnic groups were British and French Canadians. Despite their ethnic and political differences, these two groups stood strong together against the threat of U.S. invasion in 1812.• After the War of 1812, English-speaking migrants flooded Canada. Bringing rapid growth.• To bring rising tension down, British imperial governors permitted the provinces to govern their own internal affairs between 140-1867.• The British North America Act of 1867 joined Quebec, Nova Scotia, Ontario, and New Brunswick. Britain held jurisdiction over foreign affairs until 1931.• Latin America created written constitutions, although these leaders had little experience wit self-government. This led to social and political instability.• Latin America was thrown into much conflict throughout the nineteenth century. At the end, independence was one at the cost of education, profitable employment, and political representation.
FRONTIERS OF THE AMERICAS: THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE• America, Britain, France, and Spain were all contending for control over the port of New Orleans.• Louisiana was a deserted area at this time and cost more money to maintain than it made. After the end of the French and Indian War, France gave this territory to Spain as a thank you for their aide in the war.• The new French powers wanted to reclaim this land. France was engaged in war with the Haitians. These slaves had formed a revolt against the brutal labor and repression the French were imposing over the sugar crops.• Soon, French troops were succumbing to yellow fever. Out of nearly 30,000 troops only 4,000 were left able to fight. France had to split 20,000 troops between the fight for the New Orleans port and the rebellion of the Haitians. A snow storm trapped the troops headed for the port while the troops lost their battle in Haiti.• A British Bank funded the loan of $15 million for America to purchase Louisiana from Spain in order to keep France from being a power in America.• On December 28, 1803, Louisiana was handed over to America. This was noted as Jefferson’s greatest achievement as it launched America as a global power and a transcontinental nation.
FRONTIERS OF THE AMERICAS: KNIFE DUELING ON A 19TH-CENTURY CATTLE FRONTIER• In Uruguay 1867, violence was running rampant on the frontier. More than half of all criminal cases were the result of murder.• Borderland violence was usually associated with trivial reasons and many times involved alcohol.• Many of these acts are described as symbolic violence which was necessary to seal a man’s place within a social group.• Different acts of violence holds a different meaning within different social groups. The two main cultural boundaries of social groups laid between rural borderlands and townsmen.
CROSSROADS OF FREEDOM• Lincoln appoints George B. McClellan as commander of the Army of Potomac. Soon, McClellan’s actions came into question.• In January 1862, Lincoln became frustrated with McClellan’s inaction and expressive disdain for the Republicans while coping with Halleck and Buell’s inabilities to move against the Confederates.• However, February brought many victories for the Union. New war bonds were issued to help fund the war. Ulysses S. Grant took over the Union troops near the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. This proved important as these waterways led into the center of the Confederate’s lands. Grant, with Halleck’s approval, captured three enemy armies. Buell’s Army took Nashville. Union gunboats advanced to Florence, Alabama.• The taking of the waterways proved to be an important strategy for the Union as they spread out through other ports throughout the South. Although the Confederates experienced a huge victory over Grant near Shiloh, the next day he retaliated and drove the Confederates back. The South lost 13,000 men in the two days alone.
CROSSROADS OF FREEDOM• The Confederates pulled out of Yorktown and Norfolk as McClellan’s army was positioning to strike, giving the North possession of the South’s most important naval yard.• The South tried to engage Britain and France in their plight. First, through the cotton embargo and second, through recognition of the Confederacy as a nation.• The cotton embargo failed as Britain felt they were being used. The Confederates failed at being recognized as a nation when the Union started winning many battles. The Confederates failed to prove their military could sustain them as a nation.• The Confederate’s Jackson won five battles against the Union. General Lee is appointed commander after Johnston is hurt. As McClellan came up with excuses to not attack the South, Lee devised and executed a devastating blow against McClellan. The Union commander decided to retreat after losing just one battle. The Seven Days Battles delayed the Union victory of the war. McClellan’s inaction led to discourse within his army.• Republicans in Congress enacted an article of war forbidding the return of escaped slaves. Union armies started confiscating slaves.
CROSSROADS OF FREEDOM• Lincoln appoints McClellan to take merge his troops with Pope’s after a shift in the war seemed to side with the Confederates.• Lee’s soldiers started to suffer from “battle fatigue” and many began to drop out of the war due to physical reasons.• Confederate battle orders from Lee fell into McClellan’s hands and changed the course of the war and of history.• McClellan was aware of Lee’s strategies but as Harper’s Ferry surrendered, Lee decided to invade Maryland instead of retreating.• McClellan and Lee’s soldiers battled it out on Bloody Lane. Union soldiers finally cleared the area out of all Confederate soldiers. Burnside advanced against Confederate troops at Harper’s Ferry Road after which an intense battle ensued.
CROSSROADS OF FREEDOM• McClellan allowed the Confederates to flee because he didn’t have “absolute assurance of success’ and was the key element to McClellan’s failures. He allowed his enemies to retreat without pursuing and capturing them.• After the battle at Antietam, Lincoln issued the Proclamation of Emancipation. This now made it impossible for the two sides to simply reconcile. Now, one side would have to completely defeat the other. Britain now decided to side with the Union.• Lincoln tries to move McClellan into movement. When all attempts fail, he puts Burnside in charge of McClellan’s army.• Antietam was the battle that the Confederates had placed maximum effort. They had failed. They were about to receive foreign recognition for independence. This allowed the Republican party to accept the Proclamation.
HOW THE AMERICAS CHANGE: THE LONG 19TH CENTURY WORKS CITED “The Louisiana Purchase.” Dir. Jonathon Grupper. A&E Television Network, 2003.HistoryChannel.com. Film. “Violence for Show: Knife Dueling on a 19th-Century Cattle Frontier”, Chasteen, John Charles. 9February 2012. McPherson, James M. Crossroads Of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.