Freedom Of Press In Pacific AsiaPresentation Transcript
Freedom of Press in Pacific Asia By Tessie Lopez
"To preserve the freedom of the human mind... and freedom of the press, every spirit should be ready to devote itself to martyrdom; for as long as we may think as we will and speak as we think, the condition of man will proceed in improvement." -Thomas Jefferson to William Green Munford, 1799.
CONCEPTUALIZATION FREEDOM OF PRESS
To communicate through various mediums- including oral, written, and electronic media produced yet not limited to publishing and broadcasting- without interference from a state.
Note: Preservation of such freedoms may exist through constitutional laws or otherwise legal standards protecting the freedom of press (ex: protection of the freedom of press found in the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.)
COMMUNICATIONS The freedom of the press can be mobilized through individual and or organized entities independent from governmental powers. Types of Media Newspapers Magazines Photojournalism Online news sites Television broadcasts Radio broadcasts Film/ Documentaries Purpose of the media- to serve as an informative outlet that seeks to obtain truth of unlimited subjects and to express that truth through communication tools
UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers“ *Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 after WWII
SOURCES Freedom house press index measures the concept of press independence from state and economic influence in each country Reporters San Frontiers (1) covers journalist attacks, murders, harassments, expulsions (2) state monopolies interfering with TV and Radio, (3) Government imposed censorships upon media, (4) Difficulties foreign reporters face, and (5) overall independence of media from government The Committee to Protect Journalists tracks journalist deaths and detentions through independent research with working journalists all over the world. 1.www.freedomhouse.org 2. www.rsf.org 3. www.cpj.org 4. www.un.org
DATA 2009 Reports (CPJ) Philippines- 34 Journalists were killed Maguindanao Massacre. Ranked second most dangerous country to journalists concerning the reported deaths. Iraq is ranked as one. North Korea- Ranked as most censored country. Reporters smuggle news out of the country. Two U.S. journalists have been held for five months. Burma- Government censors all print publications, controls broadcasters. Ranked as worst country to be a blogger in. Eight journalists currently imprisoned. China- 24 journalists imprisoned as of December 2009, most online journalists. Issues include prolonged detentions without charges and vague charges including anti-state and revealing state secrets accusations. Vietnam- 300 cybercafés were set up with equipment and software tracking visits to banned web sites. Harassment and detention for bloggers is considered regular. Thailand- Heavily used lesemajeste laws criminalize criticism of royal family. Attempted assassination on Yellowshirt leader SondhiLimthongkul. Data Collection Focus: identifying press independence from governmental powers Only 17 % of the world's citizens live in countries that enjoy a free press. (FH Press Index) World Wide Stats In 2003 42 journalists were reported murdered and at least 130 journalists were imprisoned (RSF) Nondemocratic states have engaged in firing, blacklisting, imposing death threats, kidnapping, torturing, and assassinating journalists (CPJ)
Statistics from RSF 1(best)– 167 (worst)
FREEDOM HOUSE INDEX Politics/Economy/Law 2008 Free: Hong Kong 10/9/11 Japan 13/6/2 South Korea 12/9/9 Taiwan 7/6/7 Partly Free: Indonesia 22/15/17 Cambodia 22/19/19 East Timor 13/13/12 Philippines 23/11/11 Thailand 24/15/17 Not Free: Brunei 25/22/28 Burma 29/28/30 China 35/21/28 Laos 32/25/26 Malaysia 23/18/24 North Korea 39/29/30 Singapore 24/21/24 Vietnam 33/22/27