004 the mysteriousartandscienceofknowledge-workerperformance_ver1.0

1,590 views
1,549 views

Published on

Published in: Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,590
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

004 the mysteriousartandscienceofknowledge-workerperformance_ver1.0

  1. 1. The Mysterious Art and Science of Knowledge-Worker Performance Thus far, researchers and managers alike have a very limited understanding of what makes knowledge workers tick. But by manipulating two key leverage points, companies can begin to shift the balance from art toward science. Thomas H. Davenport, Robert J. Thomas and Susan Cantrell
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. Peter Drucker Insisted on the need to pay more attention to knowledge work and the people doing such work.
  4. 4. understanding of knowledge-worker productivity We are in the year 2000 roughly where we were in the year 1900 in terms of the productivity of the manual worker. Manual work Knowledge work No Frederick Taylor or Henry Ford Frederick Taylor Henry Ford
  5. 5. Most businesspeople today would agree with Drucker about the importance of knowledge work 1. Knowledge work is at the heart of innovation 2. Recruiting and retaining the best knowledge workers are vital to organizational success 3. Focus on knowledge-worker performance is 3. way of uniting what are often separate tasks, a such as strategic planning, organizational design and IT investment
  6. 6. The problem of knowledge-worker performance 1. One that is too sweet to ignore 2. Sweet problems are not always tractable 3. Truly sweet problems may require the creation of radically new concepts and toosl before they can be solved
  7. 7. Agenda 1. Identify the five key issues that they saw companies struggling with in their handling of knowledge work. 2. Framework that can help organizations think more clearly about how they might go about improving knowledge-worker performance
  8. 8. Identify the five key issues
  9. 9. The five key issues 1. The determinants of knowledge-worker performance are becoming clear. How to integrate them remains murky 2. Many organizations resist the idea that segmentation of knowledge workers is necessary 3. No one seems to own the problem of knowledge-worker performance 4. Companies are experimenting heavily with workplace redesign, but they aren't learning very much 5. There is great reluctance to alter knowledge work, especially at the high end
  10. 10. 1st Issue The determinants of knowledge-worker performance are becoming clear. How to integrate them remains murky.
  11. 11. determinants of white-collar productivity Management information technology workplace design
  12. 12. Ex. Information Technology Functional equivalent of a software Swiss army knife communication Few have figured out how Instant to get knowledge workers collaboration messaging to actually use these tools Integrate It all amounts to expensive e-mail Knowledge E-mail management Virtual teaming
  13. 13. The Still emerging discipline of knowledge management awaits a model or methodology that can bridge the space between IT, workplace design business strategy and people management Business strategy People management Information Workplace technology design
  14. 14. 2nd Issue Many organizations resist that segmentation of knowledge workers is necessary
  15. 15. One major obstacle in the way of developing a useful model lies in the generic use of “knowledge worker.”
  16. 16. Can an organization apply the same solutions?
  17. 17. Can it transfer
  18. 18. Managers weren't ready to Differentiate their employees Authors found substantial differences among the types of people who are called knowledge workers, and advocates of some degree of segmentation. Variety of objections Some managers were concerned about perceptions of elitism in their organization Others felt that segmentation might contradict implicit notions of meritocracy
  19. 19. 3rd Issue No one seems to own the problem of knowledge-worker performance.
  20. 20. What function Contributes to improving knowledge-worker performance?
  21. 21. Who is responsible for enabling higher levers of knowledge-worker performance?
  22. 22. Can't find the time They are expected to focus on current performance
  23. 23. Ex. HR and IT professionals HR Line manager members IT A keen interest in optimizing Fear the disruption of knowledge work existing work Can’t effectively own the problem
  24. 24. Crossing paths with several staff group Someone does get the inspiration to do something innovative in the way knowledge work is organized Workplace resource Get evaluated on criteria like cost per square foot rather than whether it has created space that contributes to innovation The HR department might be more interested in tinkering with compensation and benefits – conventional fixes designed to raise productivity HR IT doesn’t like the kinds of solutions that knowledge-worker teams relish, such as peer-to-peer networking software(which can IT threaten system security)
  25. 25. Ex. Cisco Systems Overseen Executive HR Workplace IT Finance resource Meets biweekly to ensure collaboration aimed at improving employees productivity and satisfaction The team devised and implemented a new workplace design, as well as guidelines that allow individuals to choose from a variety of work settings to support their needs for collaborative, private or mobile work
  26. 26. 4th Issue Companies are experimenting heavily with workplace design, but they aren't learning very much
  27. 27. Measures, controls, hypotheses and even recording of lessons learned are often lacking Faith Fad Fashion Finance
  28. 28. Attempt to increase the likelihood of informal interaction Intend to nourish social life at work Cappuccino Indoor bar boulevard Talk plaza Hearths Creativity room There is little evidence that any particular design increases informal meetings
  29. 29. Social spaces are often empty
  30. 30. Ex. Corning R&D group Director makes a point of showing up regularly for the twice-a-day coffee breaks in the “creativity room” Encourage collaboration
  31. 31. Open-plan environment
  32. 32. IT support for knowledge workers Personal devices are popular but not Artificial intelligence and expert systems have never taken off well integrated into the corporate because of difficulties of knowledge representation and information environment system maintenance
  33. 33. 5th Issue Their is great reluctance to alter knowledge work, especially at the high end
  34. 34. Knowledge work itself can often seem impervious to change, much less to rationalization Sometimes knowledge workers themselves are the ones resisting change
  35. 35. Two dominant approaches to the design and management of knowledge work 1. Process perspective that works from the assumption that engineering principles can be applied to all forms of work 2. Practice perspective emphasizes the implicit coordination and exploration that produces things to do
  36. 36. Process perspective 1980s – 1990s now structured Repeatable processes in a linear growing number of less structured tasks repetitive Order fulfillment Benefits administration Product design Invoicing Accounts management
  37. 37. Ex. Partners HealthCare real-time IT system Constantly updated Database Histories Clinical information Enter an order for a test or a medicine Relevant information and suggestions that the doctor may or may not choose to accept
  38. 38. Practice perspective Process Practice Hierarchical Implicit coordination Explicit command-and-control The structure that gets things done exploration that produces things to do Hire smart people and leave them alone
  39. 39. Ex. IDEO Recruit and assembling the right team If your put a good project manager together with the right people, the project will be good Organizational approach IDEO's structure is relatively flat and the visible perquisites of hierarchy are few Because high-end-knowledge workers tend to dislike hierarchy
  40. 40. Blend of process and practice Continuously iterated prototyping process may be the right mixture of practice and process
  41. 41. Toward More Productive Knowledge Work 1. It is mistake to lump all knowledge workers into one category 2. Some degree of choice in how and where to work goes a long way toward making knowledge workers happy
  42. 42. Framework
  43. 43. Mandatory Modular High One-size-fits-one Degree of Segmentation specialization made-to-order Moderate Fixed Configurable Individualized typologies categories segmentation Mass Mass Low One-size-fits-all customization personalization Low Moderate High Degree of Choice
  44. 44. Mandatory Modular High One-size-fits-one Degree of Segmentation specialization made-to-order Moderate Fixed Configurable Individualized typologies categories segmentation Mass Mass Low One-size-fits-all customization personalization Low Moderate High Degree of Choice
  45. 45. Mandatory Modular High One-size-fits-one Degree of Segmentation specialization made-to-order Moderate Fixed Configurable Individualized typologies categories segmentation Mass Mass Low One-size-fits-all customization personalization Low Moderate High Degree of Choice
  46. 46. Mandatory Modular High One-size-fits-one Degree of Segmentation specialization made-to-order Moderate Fixed Configurable Individualized typologies categories segmentation Mass Mass Low One-size-fits-all customization personalization Low Moderate High Degree of Choice
  47. 47. Mandatory Modular High One-size-fits-one Degree of Segmentation specialization made-to-order Moderate Fixed Configurable Individualized typologies categories segmentation Mass Mass Low One-size-fits-all customization personalization Low Moderate High Degree of Choice
  48. 48. Mandatory Modular High One-size-fits-one Degree of Segmentation specialization made-to-order Moderate Fixed Configurable Individualized typologies categories segmentation Mass Mass Low One-size-fits-all customization personalization Low Moderate High Degree of Choice
  49. 49. Mandatory Modular High One-size-fits-one Degree of Segmentation specialization made-to-order Moderate Fixed Configurable Individualized typologies categories segmentation Mass Mass Low One-size-fits-all customization personalization Low Moderate High Degree of Choice
  50. 50. Mandatory Modular High One-size-fits-one Degree of Segmentation specialization made-to-order Moderate Fixed Configurable Individualized typologies categories segmentation Mass Mass Low One-size-fits-all customization personalization Low Moderate High Degree of Choice
  51. 51. Mandatory Modular High One-size-fits-one Degree of Segmentation specialization made-to-order Moderate Fixed Configurable Individualized typologies categories segmentation Mass Mass Low One-size-fits-all customization personalization Low Moderate High Degree of Choice
  52. 52. Mandatory Modular High One-size-fits-one Degree of Segmentation specialization made-to-order Moderate Fixed Configurable Individualized typologies categories segmentation Mass Mass Low One-size-fits-all customization personalization Low Moderate High Degree of Choice
  53. 53. Segmenting Work Environments Low Companies with a low level of segmentation provide one standard work setting for all Segmentation employees Inexpensive efficient Produce a misfit Moderate Companies group their employees into a limited number of categories and define work Segmentation settings for each. Familiar categorization schemes High Specifically tailored to small groups of people on a one-off basis Segmentation Enables tiger degree of fit expensive Time-consuming
  54. 54. Providing individual Choice Low Choice Work environments are fixed and immutable Employees cannot configure their workstations or work at home as they see fit Easy to manage Don’t necessarily save money Moderate Some companies will allow their employees to make some choice, but only within a menu Choice of defined options Align work styles and preferences Real budgetary limitations A few companies allow their knowledge workers to determine numerous aspects of their High Choice own work settings Employees may be encouraged to purchase their own furniture or technology solutions
  55. 55. Choosing a Solution
  56. 56. How homogeneous is your organization?
  57. 57. How important is it for your organization to align knowledge workers’ need and their work settings?
  58. 58. What level of resources are you willing to dedicate?
  59. 59. Closing
  60. 60. Whichever solution one choose, it won't work if it isn't carefully implemented It must be remembered, that all solutions eventually fail Organization therefore monitor the changing needs of their knowledge workers and keep abreast of how new technologies may enable new ways of working
  61. 61. No one has all the answers on how to improve knowledge work, but managers shouldn't feel paralyzed They are correct not to attempt to engineer or program knowledge work, but that doesn't mean such work lacks structure, cyclicality or leverage points for change
  62. 62. The keys are to maintain a balance between process and practice, to treat workers doing different kinds of work in appropriate ways, and to focus on more than simply hiring better knowledge workers

×