IAPD e-Training Webinar

Sponsored By:
PVC 101: Overview
I.
II.

Why PVC?
Polyvinyl Chloride: The Basics of
Raw Materials & Compounding
A.
B.
C.

What material g...
Why Use PVC in Manufacturing Products?
PVC’s Key Features

Benefits for Manufacturers

Inherent Flame
Resistance

PVC is i...
PVC Usage
•

Commercial Markets
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

•

Strip Doors
Clean Rooms
Computer and Electrical
Equipment Enclosures
S...
Polyvinyl Chloride
The Basics of Raw Materials

• PVC Resin
– The Building Block
– Product of salt and oil/natural gas
– T...
Polyvinyl Chloride
The Basics of Raw Materials

• Plasticizer
– Additive that gives flexibility and pliability
– Types Inc...
Polyvinyl Chloride
The Basics of Raw Materials

• The Remaining 10-20%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

Fillers
Stabilizers
Process Aids
Fun...
Polyvinyl Chloride
The Basics of Raw Materials

• Pricing in the PVC Sheeting
Market is Driven by Two Primary
Items:
– Oil...
Making Polymers
Process for Making Most Polymers

Additives
Hydrocarbons
(Oil, Nat Gas)

Intermediate
Chemicals

Polymer
C...
Polyvinyl Chloride
Global Demand (2010 figures)
Vinyl is the second largest polymer
manufactured globally.
• World Polymer...
PVC is Used in a Variety of Plastic Processing

Blow
Molding
Sheet
Extrusion

Calendering
Profile
Extrusion

Injection
Mol...
Polyvinyl Chloride
Eco-Friendly

• Advancements in Eco-Friendly Raw
Materials
– Bio-based plasticizers
• Plant based
• Sma...
Polyvinyl Chloride
Safe, Non-Toxic Polymer

PVC Has Been Safely
Used for Over 50 Years
•

•
•
•
•
•
•

Vinyl chloride mono...
Phthalates and Children's Toys
Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act:
Phthalates Provision for Toys
CPSIA Restrictions A...
Polyvinyl Chloride
The Basics of Compounding

• Compounding basics
– Mix raw materials
• Intensive vs. ribbon

– Transfer ...
Sheet Extrusion Process
Sheet Extrusion Process: Equipment Basics
Sheet Extrusion Made
Practical & Simple
• Compounded raw materials are moved
to the manufacturing area, typically in
boxes...
Sheet Extrusion Made
Practical & Simple

• Material is conveyed through the
screw and into a sheet die
– Compound is re-me...
Sheet Extrusion Made
Practical & Simple

• After exiting the die, the PVC is
then forced through a series of
chrome rolls
...
Sheet Extrusion Made
Practical & Simple

• The formed sheet then goes
through a cooling process, that
can include:
– Water...
Sheet Extrusion Made
Practical & Simple

• Knives or slitting equipment such
as crush cutters are set to slit
wide sheet i...
Sheet Extrusion Made
Practical & Simple

• PVC sheet then is pulled into a
wind-up where it is wound onto
cores
• Typical ...
Market Applications
Strip Doors

Data Centers
Market Applications
Tank Lining

Enclosures
Summary
PVC 101:
I.
Compounding
A.

II.

Raw materials are mixed and extruded
as pellets

Extruding
A.

Pellets go through...
Questions?
• Resources, Additional Questions & Information
– TMI, LLC
• www.tmi-pvc.com | 1.800.888.9750

– American Chemi...
Appendix

Phthalates and Children's Toys
Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act: Phthalates Provision for Toys

In August...
Appendix

Phthalates and Children's Toys, What You Need to Know
The CPSIA sets specific standards on the presence of certa...
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PVC 101: Secrets Unveiled

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Learn what goes into polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the PVC sheet extrusion process.

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PVC 101: Secrets Unveiled

  1. 1. IAPD e-Training Webinar Sponsored By:
  2. 2. PVC 101: Overview I. II. Why PVC? Polyvinyl Chloride: The Basics of Raw Materials & Compounding A. B. C. What material goes into PVC PVC versus Other Polymers/Plastics Environmental/Toxicity of PVC III. Sheet Extrusion Made Practical & Simple IV. Market Applications
  3. 3. Why Use PVC in Manufacturing Products? PVC’s Key Features Benefits for Manufacturers Inherent Flame Resistance PVC is inherently flame resistant • Thicker material is more resistant Faster Part Approval • Material meets agency flame ratings which reduces part testing Chemical Resistance Resists discoloration or stress cracking from cleaners, foods, oils, detergents, insecticides and many chemicals UV Resistance Enhanced Image • Parts look newer longer because they resist discoloration due to UV exposure Cost Performance Reduced Manufacturing Costs By: • Rigid vinyl can replace higher cost engineered materials like FR ABS, PC+ABS and PC • Flexible PVC can replace higher cost thermoplastic elastomers and rubber • Flexible PVC is the most versatile and cost effective plastic on the market Improve Manufacturing Efficiency • Lower Scrap Rates • 100% recyclable
  4. 4. PVC Usage • Commercial Markets • • • • • • • • • Strip Doors Clean Rooms Computer and Electrical Equipment Enclosures Sound Block Automotive Tank Lining Geomembranes Many Others Other Markets • Laminated Products • • • • • • • • Banners Tents Awnings Wallcovering and Wallboards Swimming Pool Liners Tapes and Labels Advertising (signs) Many Others
  5. 5. Polyvinyl Chloride The Basics of Raw Materials • PVC Resin – The Building Block – Product of salt and oil/natural gas – Two primary manufacturing methods: • suspension method • dispersion method – Accounts for approximately 50% of content for flexible sheet
  6. 6. Polyvinyl Chloride The Basics of Raw Materials • Plasticizer – Additive that gives flexibility and pliability – Types Include Phthalates, Adipates and Phosphates – Accounts for 30-40% of flexible sheet
  7. 7. Polyvinyl Chloride The Basics of Raw Materials • The Remaining 10-20% – – – – – – – Fillers Stabilizers Process Aids Fungicides Flame-Retardants UV Inhibitors Anti-Stat
  8. 8. Polyvinyl Chloride The Basics of Raw Materials • Pricing in the PVC Sheeting Market is Driven by Two Primary Items: – Oil and/or natural gas pricing • As oil prices increase, prices for other polymers based on 90-100% hydrocarbon increase at a higher rate than PVC, which is 43% hydrocarbon-based – Seasonality factors such as the construction industry
  9. 9. Making Polymers Process for Making Most Polymers Additives Hydrocarbons (Oil, Nat Gas) Intermediate Chemicals Polymer Compound Polymer Process for Making PVC Additives Hydrocarbons (Oil, Nat Gas) PVC Compound Intermediate Chemicals Salt Water PVC
  10. 10. Polyvinyl Chloride Global Demand (2010 figures) Vinyl is the second largest polymer manufactured globally. • World Polymer Demand: • • PVC Resin Demand: • • • 75 billion lbs. 18% of total global demand USA & Canada PVC Demand: • • 419 billion lbs. 9.5 billion lbs. China expected to be 44% of global demand by 2020
  11. 11. PVC is Used in a Variety of Plastic Processing Blow Molding Sheet Extrusion Calendering Profile Extrusion Injection Molding
  12. 12. Polyvinyl Chloride Eco-Friendly • Advancements in Eco-Friendly Raw Materials – Bio-based plasticizers • Plant based • Smaller carbon footprint • Renewable resource – Lead additives phasing out in North America and Europe • Less VOCs than PE, PP or ABS • Vinyl chloride and chlorine gases not released if PVC degrades • Can be safely recycled, land-filled and incinerated • Processed at lower temperatures than competing polymers, i.e.; requires less energy
  13. 13. Polyvinyl Chloride Safe, Non-Toxic Polymer PVC Has Been Safely Used for Over 50 Years • • • • • • • Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure well below levels that pose a threat FDA approved for food packaging FDA & USP approved for medical use CPSC allows vinyl use in children’s toys NSF International approved for potable water piping UL, CSA, CFSM and NFPA approved for fire safety PVC has not been legislatively banned by any country or state/province
  14. 14. Phthalates and Children's Toys Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act: Phthalates Provision for Toys CPSIA Restrictions Apply to Specified Phthalates: • Permanent Restrictions (on use in children’s toys & articles with concentrations >0.1%) – DEHP – DBP – BBP • Temporary Restrictions (see Appendix) – DINP – DIDP – DnOP (See Appendix)
  15. 15. Polyvinyl Chloride The Basics of Compounding • Compounding basics – Mix raw materials • Intensive vs. ribbon – Transfer to compounding line • Single screw, twin screw, continuous or kneader – Pelletizer • Air-cut, underwater or strand – Package and ship pellets
  16. 16. Sheet Extrusion Process
  17. 17. Sheet Extrusion Process: Equipment Basics
  18. 18. Sheet Extrusion Made Practical & Simple • Compounded raw materials are moved to the manufacturing area, typically in boxes, gaylords or via silo • Compound is then drawn into a system of hoppers and dryers (image on left) • Compound then proceeds through to a single or twin screw extruder (image on right)
  19. 19. Sheet Extrusion Made Practical & Simple • Material is conveyed through the screw and into a sheet die – Compound is re-melted and mixed by both shear heat and pressure through this process • Typical types of dies: – Coat hanger die (image) – Pipe die – Plate die
  20. 20. Sheet Extrusion Made Practical & Simple • After exiting the die, the PVC is then forced through a series of chrome rolls • The thickness of the material is set at this point in the process • Typical types of rolls: – High polish – Frosted – Embossed
  21. 21. Sheet Extrusion Made Practical & Simple • The formed sheet then goes through a cooling process, that can include: – Water bath (image on top) – Chilled rolls (not pictured) • Light boxes can be installed for visual quality control (image on bottom)
  22. 22. Sheet Extrusion Made Practical & Simple • Knives or slitting equipment such as crush cutters are set to slit wide sheet into specific roll widths (pictured) – 4”, 6”, 8” etc. • Excess PVC is then recycled, reground and put back into the process
  23. 23. Sheet Extrusion Made Practical & Simple • PVC sheet then is pulled into a wind-up where it is wound onto cores • Typical types of wind-ups found in the plastics processing industry: – Surface winders – Turret winders
  24. 24. Market Applications Strip Doors Data Centers
  25. 25. Market Applications Tank Lining Enclosures
  26. 26. Summary PVC 101: I. Compounding A. II. Raw materials are mixed and extruded as pellets Extruding A. Pellets go through a series of hoppers and dryers Pellets go through a single or twin screw extruder Hot material winds through a three roll calender stack. Embossed at this point Sheet is cooled and wound onto cores B. C. D. III. PVC Markets A. Commercial Markets I. B. Strip Doors, Clean Rooms, Computer & Electrical Enclosures, Automotive, Geomembranes, etc. Many Other Markets
  27. 27. Questions? • Resources, Additional Questions & Information – TMI, LLC • www.tmi-pvc.com | 1.800.888.9750 – American Chemistry Council • www.americanchemistry.com – The Vinyl Institute • www.vinylinfo.org – Vinyl Council of Canada • www.plastics.ca – European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers • www.pvc.org
  28. 28. Appendix Phthalates and Children's Toys Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act: Phthalates Provision for Toys In August 2008, President Bush signed into law the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA), (H.R. 4040). The CPSIA overhauled the Consumer Product Safety Act, and responded, in part, to public concerns about imported toys containing lead. Among the CPSIA’s provisions are restrictions on six phthalates in toys and children’s products. These restrictions became effective February 10, 2009. The phthalates restrictions of the CPSIA apply to specified phthalates in particular products: • • DEHP, DBP and BBP: There were permanent restrictions, effective February 10, 2009, on the sale of children’s toys and child care articles with concentrations of more than 0.1 percent of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) or benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP). DINP, DIDP and DnOP: CPSIA placed temporary (interim) restrictions, effective February 10, 2009, on the sale of children’s toys that can be placed in a child’s mouth, and on child care articles that contain more than 0.1 percent of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) or di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Toys that can be put in the mouth are defined to include toys or parts smaller than five centimeters in one dimension. Toys that cannot be put in the mouth, but can be licked, are not included. For the three interim-restriction phthalates (and for other phthalates and plasticizers), the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) must convene a scientific study conducted by a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP). After the CHAP is completed, CPSC must decide whether to lift the interim restriction or make it permanent.
  29. 29. Appendix Phthalates and Children's Toys, What You Need to Know The CPSIA sets specific standards on the presence of certain phthalates in toys and child care articles. However, unlike lead, where prior to the passage of CPSIA there had been numerous, highly publicized recalls of children’s products by CPSC, there had been no equivalent activity by the CPSC with regard to phthalates. It is also important to note that: • • • • • Of the six phthalates restricted by the CPSIA, DINP had been typically used in toys in recent years; this phthalate has not been permanently restricted by CPSIA. Instead, it has been referred for further study. DINP was found safe in a previous review by CPSC. A CHAP convened in 2001 to review the safety of DINP concluded that, “For the majority of children, the exposure to DINP from DINP-containing toys would be expected to pose a minimal to nonexistent risk of injury.” The CHAP also added there might be a risk to children who mouth DINP-plasticized toys for 75 minutes a day or more, day after day for an extended period of time; however, mouthing experiments showed that children kept toys in their mouths for less than two minutes a day. CPSC has never expressed immediate concerns about phthalates used in toys and child care articles, therefore, consumers should not be alarmed or concerned that some children’s products may still contain phthalates. The industry voluntarily removed DEHP and DINP from teethers, rattles and pacifiers and, as a result, these products are made from plastics that are not expected to contain phthalates. The CPSIA simply put this voluntary agreement into law.

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