Final introduction-to-radiation-hazards-environemnt-by-rm-nehru


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Final introduction-to-radiation-hazards-environemnt-by-rm-nehru

  1. 1. 3/2/2012 Outline Introduction to Radiation Hazards 1. Introduction  and Environment1 2. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board  3. Sources of Radiation Exposure R. M. Nehru M.Sc., Ph.D., 4. Radiation Hazards Information and Technical Services • Internal  Radiation Hazards Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, • External Radiation Hazards Anushaktinagar, Mumbai- 400 094 Email: 5. Radiation Protection & Radiation Risk 6. Radiological  /Nuclear Emergencies,   Environmental Issues,  and Management 7. Summary [1] Invited talk at the International Workshop on “Radiation Technology in Health Care and its Safety” being held between March 5 ‐ 8, 2012 at Bharathiar  University, Coimbatore  1 2 ‘(nuclear) safety  Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) The AERB was constituted on November 15, 1983 by the Safety is the achievement of proper operating President of India by exercising the powers conferred by Section 27 of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 (33 of 1962) to carry conditions, prevention of accidents and mitigation of out certain regulatory and safety functions under the Act. accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue workers The Th regulatory authority of AERB i d i d f l t th it f is derived from th the radiation hazards. rules and notifications promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Environmental Protection Act, 1986. 3 4 Chairman, AERB is the Competent Authority to exercise powers under the following rules. AERB MISSION Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules, 2004 The mission of AERB is to ensure that the use Atomic Energy (Working of Mines, Minerals and Handling of of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy in Prescribed Substances) Rules, 1984 India does not cause unacceptable impact on p p Atomic Energy ( gy (Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes) Rules, p ) , the health of workers and the members of the 1987 public and on the environment. Atomic Energy (Factories) Rules, 1996 Atomic Energy (Control of Irradiation of Food) Rules, 1996 5 6RMN 1
  2. 2. 3/2/2012 Major Committees of AERB Apex Safety Review Committees SARCOP/SARCAR Apex Advisory Committees Project Safety Review (ACPSRs for LWR,PHWRS,FCF,FRFCF) Nuclear Safety (ACNS) Radiation Safety (ACRS) Industrial & Fire Safety (ACIFS) Occupational Health (ACOH) Security (ACS) Advisory Committees for development of documents ACCGASO/ACCGORN/ACCGD/ACCGQA/ACSDFCF/ACRDCSE/AC RDS Unit Level Safety Committees Nuclear Power Projects (PDSCs/SEC/CESC/SG) Nuclear Power Plants (TAPS,NAPS,KAPS, RAPS,MAPS, KGS) Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Other Facilities  (UCIL,NFC,HWP,BSM&NORM,ECIL,VECC,RRCAT) 7 Radiation Facilities (SCMIRA,COSTRAM etc) 8 Major Functions Regulated Installations Safety Review of Nuclear and Radiation Facilities under design, Nuclear  and Fuel Cycle  Radiation Facilities construction, commission and operation. Facilities Medical Applications  Nuclear Power Plants and  Involving Radiation  Issue License/Authorisation during Siting, Construction, Research Reactors Industrial Radiography  Commissioning, Operation and Decommissioning Uranium Mines and Mills Nucleonic Gauges  Beach Sand Minerals Industrial Gamma Irradiators  Ensure compliance with the AERB stipulated requirements by the Fuel Fabrication Plants Accelerators and Cyclotron  nuclear and radiation facilities Reprocessing Plants Facilities  Waste Management  Radioactive Sources in R&D Development of Regulatory D D l t fR l t Documents lik S f t C d S f t t like Safety Code, Safety Facilities Transport of Radioactive  Guide, Safety Manuals etc R&D Facilities of DAE Material  Licensing of Key Operating Personnel 19 operating NPPs units Over 3,000 facilities including more Regulatory Inspections of Nuclear & Radiation Facilities (2 BWRs, 17 PHWRs) than 10,000 sources (~400 category‐1 and ~2,000 category‐2) and about Industrial Safety in Nuclear Facilities 50000 radiation generating equipment. Investigation of Significant Events Review of Emergency Preparedness Plans 9 10 Sources  of Radiation Exposure 1. Natural Sources 2. Man‐made  Sources Ionising radiation Non-ionising radiation X -rays Radio waves Gamma rays Micro waves Alpha particles Light Safety Guide “Intervention Levels and Derived Intervention levels for Off‐Site Radiation Emergency” (AERB/SG/HS‐ Beta particles Heat 1, 1993) Neutrons Safety Guidelines “Preparation of Site Emergency Plans for Nuclear Installation” (AERB/SG/EP‐1, 1999) Safety Guidelines “Preparation of Off‐Site Emergency Plans for Nuclear Installation” (AERB/SG/EP‐2, 1999) 11 12RMN 2
  3. 3. 3/2/2012 Types of Radiation Sources  of Radiation Exposure alpha particle He++ 1. Natural Sources 2. Man‐made  Sources beta particle e- gamma ray photon x-ray e- paper plastic lead e- Neutron shielding material depends on the energy of the neutrons 13 http://www.nrc.gov14 Categories of exposures (IAEA SS‐115) 2.5 mSv/y Occupational exposure Natural 87% All exposures of personnel incurred in the course of their work.   Radon & Thoron Public exposures Air 51% Exposure incurred by members of the  public  from radiation  sources,  excluding  any occupational or medical exposure and the normal local  natural background radiation, but, including exposure from authorised  sources and practices and from intervention situations. Medical exposures   Exposure incurred by patients as part of their own medical or dental  diagnosis or treatment; by persons, other than those occupationally  exposed, knowingly while voluntarily helping in the support and  comfort of patients and; by volunteers  in a programme of biomedical  Nuclear 0.1% research involving their exposure. Manmade 13% 15 16 DO YOU KNOW? Radiation exposures from Monitoring instruments Around a nuclear power station (0.02/y) Chest x-ray (0.2) Annual natural background (0.5 - 1.0) High background areas ( ~6/y) Heart catheterisation (200) … depends on... • High or low levels? • Particles or photons? All units in mSv Barium meal x-ray (10 - 200) • Energy of photons? • Required accuracy? Nuclear accidents (upto 250) Part 5. Occupational Protection 17 18RMN 3
  4. 4. 3/2/2012 Application of Radiation The Nine Classes of Dangerous Goods Radiation in Medicine Diagnostic Therapy Class 1 Explosives Class 6 Toxic and infectious Radiography Nuclear Medicine Radiotherapy Nuclear Medicine Class 2 Gases substances Teletherapy Brachytherapy Class 3 Flammable liquids Class 7 R di Cl Radioactive ti Class 4 Flammable solids material Radiation in Research Class 5 Oxidizing Class 8 Corrosives Medical Industry Agriculture University substances and Radiation in Industry organic peroxides Class 9 Miscellaneous dangerous goods Industrial Irradiators Nucleonic Consumer Radiography Gauges Products 19 20 Categorization of Radioactive Sources Radioactive Sources are classified in terms of their potential to cause harm to human health, and for grouping sources and the practices in which they are used into discrete categories. This categorization can assist regulatory bodies in establishing regulatory requirements that ensure an appropriate level of control for each authorized source. 21 22 23 24RMN 4
  5. 5. 3/2/2012 Orphan Source. A radioactive source which is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory control, or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or otherwise transferred without proper authorization. Accident : Any unintended event, including operating errors, equipment failures, or other mishaps, the consequences or potential consequences of which are not negligible from the point of view of protection or safety. Security of Radioactive Sources : Measures to prevent unauthorized  access or damage to, and loss, theft or unauthorized transfer of,  radioactive sources. Sealed Source : Radioactive material that is (a) permanently sealed in a capsule, or (b) closely bonded and in a solid form. 25 26 AERB Directive No. 01/2011 [Under Rule 15 of the Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules 2004] Ref.No. No.CH/AERB/ITSD/125/2011/1507 dated April 27, 2011 Subject: The Dose Limits for Exposures from Ionising Radiations for workers and the members of the public 27 28 Radiation Protection & Radiation Risk Basic principles ICRP IAEA Justification of  • International Atomic Energy Agency  (IAEA) practice • International Commission on  Net benefit positive Radiological Protection (ICRP)  • National Council on Radiation  N ti l C il   R di ti   Optimization of  Protection and Measurements (NCRP)  protection • United Nations Scientific Committee on  the Effects of Atomic Radiation  ALARA (UNSCEAR) • World Health Organization (WHO) Dose limitation Never to exceed Dose  29 Limits 30RMN 5
  6. 6. 3/2/2012 ALARA ALARA ‐ As Low As Reasonably Achievable Time Distance (inverse square law) Shielding Contamination Control Radiation 31 32 ICRP, NCRP & UNSCEAR  conclude that, until further studies clarify the risk of  cancer induction at low doses, it is prudent and conservative to use the linear  no‐threshold (LNT) model to estimate cancer risks.  10. Protection of the environment In its 1990 recommendations, ICRP stated ‘the Commission believes that the standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the LNT Model degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk. Occasionally, individual members of non-human species might be harmed, but not to the extent of endangering whole species or creating imbalance between species’. The interest in environmental protection has greatly increased since then and ICRP now sees the need to develop guidance on the matter. In its (2007) new recommendations, ICRP indicates its intentions to develop a clearer framework ‘in order to assess the relationships between exposure and dose, and between dose and effect, and the consequences of such effects, for non-human species, on a common scientific basis’. The framework will be developed through the establishment of relevant data for a small set of reference animals and plants that are typical of ‘the major environments’. At this stage, however, ICRP does not propose to set any form of ‘dose limits’ with respect to environmental protection. Reference: J. Radiol. Prot. 28,161, 2008 ( 33 Reference: 34 D o s e (m S v ) B io lo g ic a l E ffe c ts o f Io n is in g R a d ia tio n Radiation Hazards - Internal 6 0 0 0 W h o le b o d y A c u te e x p o s u r e – Im m e d ia te E ffe c ts A b o v e 6 0 0 0 C e n tra l N e rv o u s s ys te m im p a ir m e n t D e a th is e x p e c te d 5 0 0 0 S e v e re e ffe c ts o n D ig e s tiv e s y s te m TARGET TISSUE H e m o r r h a g e , in f e c t io n , d ia r r h e a , e p i la t io n , t e m p o r a r y s t e r ili t y 4 5 0 0 to 5 0 0 0 is L D 5 0 /3 0 fo r h u m a n b e in g s 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 m S v a s life tim e d o s e 5 0 0 m S v M e d ic a l r e v ie w o f e x p o s u re 3 0 0 0 250 N o id e n tifia b le c lin ic a l s y m p to m s (c h r o n ic o r a c u te e x p o s u r e s ) b e lo w 2 5 0 m S v 200 D ig e s t iv e s y s t e m a ls o g e t e ffe c te d 150 H e m a to lo g ic a l d a m a g e 2 0 0 0 m o re s e v e re p ro b a b le re c o v e ry 100 1 0 0 m S v lim it to p u b lic u n d e r e m e r g e n c y M il d t o s e v e r e n a u s e a , m a l a is e , a n o r e x ia a n d in fe c tio n 7 0 m S v p e r a n n u m m a x im u m n a tu ra l 50 ra d ia tio n in h ig h b a c k g ro u n d a re a s (K e ra la ) 2 0 m S v a n n u a l lim it fo r o c c u p a tio n a l 2 .4 m S v a v e ra g e a n n u a l n a tu ra l 1 0 0 0 B o n e m a rro w d a m a g e 0 1 m S v a n n u a l lim it fo r p u b lic fro m N u c le a r R B C , W B C a n d p la te le ts c o u n ts d e c re a s e C h r o n ic E x p o s u re s L ym p h n o d e d a m a g e L y m p h o c y te c o u n t d e c re a s e N a u s e a , A n o r e x ia 5 0 0 H a e m a to p o ie tic S y s te m e ffe c te d 2 5 0 N o id e n tifia b le 0 35 36RMN 6
  7. 7. 3/2/2012 Radiation Hazards ( Internal /External) Radiation Hazards - Internal Radiation Spill (Minor /Major)  Obtain necessary supplies  for cleanup Paper towels or diapers  RADCON or Scrubbing  Bubbles (DOW) Opaque plastic bags for  waste. Labels Gloves Descriptive forms (RS4 form) 37 38 SUMMARY Stop what you are doing. Presume you are contaminated. Inform others in the immediate area of the spill. Localize the spilled material(s). Label the area as contaminated. 39 40 At  Nuclear Power Plant At  Nuclear Power Plant 41 42RMN 7
  8. 8. 3/2/2012 At  Nuclear Power Plant At  Nuclear Power Plant 43 44 45 46 Radiological  /Nuclear Emergencies Scenarios,   Radiation Hazards Environmental Issues,  and Management Accidents at Facilities using Radioactive Sources  Accidents during Transportation of Radioactive Materials  A id  d i  T i   f R di i  M i l  Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants and other Facilities in  the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  Reference: Ortiz, P., M. Oresegun, and J. Wheatley, 2000, "Lessons from major radiation accidents," on line,  International Radiation Protection Association [ ]. 47 48RMN 8
  9. 9. 3/2/2012 49 50 •Mayapuri Radiological Accident Mayapuri Incident Radiological  /Nuclear Emergencies Scenarios,   •In April 2010, the locality of Mayapuri (a place in west of Delhi, the capital of India)  Environmental Issues,  and Management has been affected by a serious radiological accident.  •A gamma irradiator (Gammacell produced in 1968 by AECL in Canada) no longer in  use since 1985 in a chemistry laboratory at Delhi University was auctioned in a scrap  market of Mayapuri in February 2010.  Accidents at Facilities using Radioactive Sources  y g y •Dismantled by workers not aware of the hazard related to the highly radioactive  content of the machine.  Accidents during Transportation of Radioactive Materials  A id  d i  T i   f R di i  M i l  •The lead shielding protecting the radioactive source was removed and the source  itself damaged.  Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants and other Facilities in  the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  •Consequently, eight persons were directly exposed to the Gamma Rays of the  Cobalt‐60 (a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt) source contained in the  Gammacell. One person died while two others were severely affected.  •AERB +DAE+BARC+NDMA team recovered all of the Cobalt‐60 sources and the  slugs from the source(s) that were opened.  51 52 Typical Break-up of shipments Security and Transportation Type of package Approximate percentage All radiation sources must be kept locked up when not in use. Type B(U)/(M) 2 80,000 packages  Experiments left unattended should be labeled “Experiment in  Progress.” per annum An up‐to‐date use log of all sources must be kept at the storage  Type A 70 location. IP-1/2/3 3 All radiation laboratories will be locked when unattended for extended  periods. Excepted 25 When you are the means for security, you must challenge unknown  persons entering the lab. Mode of Approximate Sources can only be used in a registered radiation  transport percentage laboratory. Call RPP for all transfers of sources to other authorizations. Air 75 Road 20 53 Post 5 54RMN 9
  10. 10. 3/2/2012 Package approval certificate Consignor’s declaration Radionuclide g y Category Max. Radn. Level at the T.I. y Physical / Chemical form ext. surface of package Activity I – WHITE 5 micro Sv/h 0.0 T.I. Category of package II – YELLOW 0.5 mSv/h 1.0 Proper shipping name III – YELLOW 2 mSv/h 10.0 UN number Information to carrier 55 TREMCARD/ Emergency instructions 56 TREMCARD (TRansport EMergency CARD) Cargo : Industrial radiography Source Nature of Hazard : Radioactive . Potential external hazard * If some of regulatory requirements Emergency Action : 1. Rescue the injured, if any not met, special arrangement 2. In case of fire, fight fire from a distance. shipments are permitted. 3. Inspect package visually. If it is intact, continue the shipment. , p * Compensatory measures 4. If damage to package is suspected, cordon to be implemented:- 5 m area around the package. 5. Notify the authorities listed below. + Speed limit First Aid : 1. Obtain medical assistance, if needed. + Escort 2. Obtain names and addresses of persons, + Continuous if any, involved in incident and convey tracking of shipment. particulars to authorities listed below * Multilateral approval required Notification : National Emergency Response Agemcy Consignor for international transport. 57 58 Schematic Layout of Three Major Types of Reactors Radiological  /Nuclear Emergencies Scenarios,   Pressurised Water Reactor System Environmental Issues,  and Management Accidents at Facilities using Radioactive Sources  Accidents during Transportation of Radioactive Materials  A id  d i  T i   f R di i  M i l  Main features:  Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor  Reactor System Vessel Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants and other Facilities in  Moderator the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  Fuel Coolant Heat Transport System Atomic Energy Regulatory Board  59RMN 10
  11. 11. 3/2/2012 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident Second Explosion at Fukushima Nuclear  Power Plant 61 62 63 64 Source: 65 66RMN 11
  12. 12. 3/2/2012 Source: 67 68 Source: 69 70 Zoning Concept Around NPPs TYPES OF EMERGENCIES  Exclusion zone (1.6 kms) Emergency situations are classified based on the extent and severity of an  accident Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) Plant Emergency: Accident situations leading to release of hazardous (Action Plans Drawn  for Public Domain) chemicals/radioactive materials, fire/explosion in the plant but with consequences confined within the plant boundary. Site Emergency: Accident situations in the plant involving release of radioactivity or hazardous chemicals/ explosions/ fire, whose effects are 16 kms confined to the Site (with off‐site consequences expected to be negligible) Off‐Site Emergency: Accident situations with excessive release of radioactivity or hazardous chemicals with consequences likely to extend and NPP transgress into public domain, calling for intervention 5 kms Sterilization Zone (Regulated growth in  public domain) 71 72RMN 12
  13. 13. 3/2/2012 Action Flow Diagram for Site / Off‐site Emergencies Emergency  Exercises Shift Charge Engineer  Abnormal  Plant  Alerts Site Emergency  Conditions Director SED Reviews Radiation  Levels at the Site Type of Emergency  Management Exercise frequency SED Activates  exercise Agency Emergency Control  Increase in  Radiation  Centre Levels Within  Plant Operating  Once in Quarter  Survey of Off‐site  the Site Radiation Levels Site Emergency Committee members  Organization Informed of  Plant / Radiation Status  & SEC Convened by SED  & SEC C d b  SED  Site Operating  Once in a year Site Emergency  Increase in  Site Emergency  Organization Off –Site  Declaration by SED Actions Continued  Radiation  Off‐Site Public Authorities Once in 2 years Levels Fall in Off‐ Recovery of  Off‐site Emergency  site  Normal plant  SED Informs Off‐ Declaration by  Radiation  Status &  site Authorities  Level Below   (OED) OED Normal  ERL  Radiation  Off‐site  Emergencies  Termination of Off‐site  Termination of Site  Actions Continued Emergency by OED Emergency by SED Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India 73 74 Communication during Off Site Emergency Emergency Response Action Plan Incident site Incident site/ERCC • Warning & Advise Declaration of Emergency Emergency Response • Traffic Control by SED / OED of site Co-ordination Committee • Sheltering • Prophylactics Distribution • Evacuation • Radiological Survey DAE Level State Level • Patrolling DAE-Emergency DAE Emergency control Room/Crisis State Emergency Management Group remains Response Committee • Decontamination Activated till emergency is terminated. • Control on consumption of contaminated food • Medical Management of affected individuals National Level National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) / NCMC Control room at Delhi is activated and convened 75 76 Response  to Radiological Emergency  NDMA CMG (DAE) AERB MHA/NEC Radiological Incident : Information From  Public / Media / Police/ Hospitals etc. • Inform NCMC Provide  Activate  ERC/  • Monitoring •Activate state Technical  Installation  Govt. • Coordinate at • Supervision Support  from  and NDRF Bn  ‐Police Support national Level in BARC/NPCIL/ for   • Advice ‐ Transport Facility Consultation with DC /DM AERB CMG NDMA BRIT Monitoring  • Arrange for AERB, DAE & MHA Medical Support, • Move NDRF Air Lifting (if After Information   required) DC/DM to take Full Charge of the situation Technica AFFECTED SITE • I f Inform NCMC Initiate actions  l  Monitor the Area & cordoning‐ Support off  Police, SDRF,  NDRF  Start Rescue and Relief  Transport etc Mobilize Resources : Coordinate Actions  Operation  • NDMA Through : Arrival of DC/DM(IC) • CMG • District authorities • AERB • NDRF DC/DM to Co‐ordinate (under  • DAE ERCs (28) • SDRF / DDRF guidance) • SDMA / DDMA • Other Resources • Recovery & Disposal of Source • MHA/NEC • Rescue & Relief • Large Scale DC and Rehabilitation 77 78RMN 13
  14. 14. 3/2/2012 Role of the Regulatory Body on  Role of the Regulatory Body on  Emergency Planning & Preparedness Emergency Planning & Preparedness Development of codes & guides for Emergency planning & preparedness Review & approval of Emergency plans prepared by facilities AERB Safety Guidelines NO. AERB/SG/EP‐1, EP‐2, EP‐3, EP‐4 Gives requirements for the preparation of Plant, Site / off‐site emergency preparedness plans for nuclear Review of Emergency preparedness of the facilities during regulatory inspections and radiation installations. Observation & review of Emergency planning, preparedness & response during exercises Off‐Site Emergency Exercise prior to first reactor criticality Detailed evaluation of the Emergency planning, preparedness & response AERB observers ‐ Off‐site emergency exercises capability of the NPP during “Periodic Safety Review Periodic Review” Provide advice, supervision and monitor the emergency response actions Provide information to the public. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India 79 80 NDMA : Management of Emergency NDMA : Management of Emergency NDMA  : Created by  Disaster Management Act, 2005 NDMA responsibility : Act provides effective management of all types of disasters  Laying down the policies on Disaster Management including Nuclear and Radiological Approve the National Plan NDMA consist of Chairperson (PM), Vice‐chairperson and eight  other members Approve plans prepared by the Ministries or Departments NDMA constitutes Advisory Committee consisting of experts  Lay down guidelines for State Authorities in drawing up  the State Plan National Executive Committee to assist the National Authority :  Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the  Composition ‐ Secretaries to the Government of India in the  policy & plan for disaster management Ministries or Departments‐assist in implementation of guidelines &  plans Take measures for the prevention of disaster, mitigation,  Capacity Building by NDMA : NDRF (8 bat.), SDRF, DDRF &  preparedness and capacity building – ERCs Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the functioning  each bat. : 18 teams, each team 45 members. of the National Institute of Disaster Management 81 82 Crises Management Group   On‐Line Decision Support System CMG (DAE) is nodal Agency : Provides technical inputs   For monitoring the releases from containment an instrument system ‘Indian Real time Online Decision Support System’ “IRODOS” has been developed CMG functioning is from 1987 for the benefit of decision makers. Chaired by Add. Secretary, DAE  and Members from AERB, NPCIL,  The system acquires: BARC, HWB, DP&S and DAE Secretariat. • NPP status (accident details) • Dose rate data from monitors installed around NPP (in  two concentric  CMG activates Resource Groups and Emergency Response Centers  rings) and  • Weather / met data from a national centre located in NOIDA. Statutory requirements, executive decisions & international  obligations. With these inputs it gives a 72 h h h hours radiological f d l l forecast with h l h hourly resolution and update every 24 hours. The results are available for 75 km CMG  Co‐ordinates between local authority & National Crises  radius around NPP with a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km. Management Committee (NCMC) In addition there are 37 stations of IERMON (Indian Environmental NCMC is chaired by Cabinet Secretary and Secretary, DAE as one of  Radiation Monitoring Network) stations across major cities in the country‐ the member. for continuous monitoring. It has 24 x 7 manned Emergency Communication Room (ECR) at  DAE and alternate Communication room at NPCIL 83 84RMN 14
  15. 15. 3/2/2012 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY…… RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY…… Radioactive Waste Material, whatever be its physical form, remaining from practices  Institutional Control or interventions and for which no further use is foreseen. It can be  (a) that contains or is contaminated with radioactive substances  300 years for the repository based on the 30 year half-life of Cs-137 and has an activity or activity concentration higher than the level  Active control period - 100 years. for clearance from regulatory requirements, and  Passive control period - 200 years (b) exposure to which is not excluded from regulatory control. General Considerations : 1. Segregation 2. Treatment and Conditioning 3. Waste Storage and Disposal • Waste Categorisation • Classification (Solid /Liquid/Gaseous) 85 86 Reference: AERB Annual Report 2010/2011 87 88 Reference: AERB Annual Report 2010/2011 89 Reference: AERB Annual Report 2010/2011 90RMN 15
  16. 16. 3/2/2012 Reference: AERB Annual Report 2010/2011 91 Reference: AERB Annual Report 2010/2011 92 Reference: AERB Annual Report 2010/2011 93 Reference: AERB Annual Report 2010/2011 94 95 96RMN 16
  17. 17. 3/2/2012 97 98 Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON) 1. BARC has established a countrywide environmental radiation monitoring network called Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON) with 37 monitoring stations across the country with central station located at the Environmental Assessment Division of BARC. 2. These stations get hourly data from all stations; the same is assimilated and sent to the Emergency Control Room of the DAE. The central station is also linked to the Emergency Response Centre at Modular Laboratories, BARC. 3. The IERMON network provides on‐line information about radiation levels at various stations which facilitates environmental impact assessment of nuclear emergencies. 4. It also helps provide knowledge‐based environmental awareness to public through participation of Universities and other educational institutions. Mobile radiological survey laboratory is also developed and deployed on need based basis at various locations. Source: From  the  presentation of Dr. S. K. Jain, CMD, NPCIL 100 SUMMARY 1. AERB is a ISO‐9001: 2008 certified Organization. Continual quality improvement in the area of safety research, safety review and authorization/licensing process, safety audit, regulatory inspection and information to the public are always there. 2. Safety systems in Nuclear Power Plants in India are f l l d well‐regulated and maintained. 3. Adequate mechanisms and technical resources are available to tackle the nuclear /radiological emergencies. 4. Radiation hazards to environment is negligible when compared to other sources. Important Note: The same trend is continuing till date. 101 102RMN 17
  18. 18. 3/2/2012 THANKING…….. Friends & colleagues of AERB /BARC/NPCIL  & DAE & YOU !! 103RMN 18