- Describe how volcanoes form
- Explain what causes an eruption
- Name the different types of volcanoes and their main characteristics
- Know where most volcanoes are located
What is a Volcano?
- An opening in the earth's crust through which molten lava, ash, and gases are ejected.
- A vent connects magma from within the Earth’s crust to the Earth's surface.
- It includes the surrounding cone of erupted material.
- Magma reaching the surface is called lava.
- Magma rises to the Earth’s surface and bursts out.
- Most form along plate boundaries or under the sea at:
- Spreading ridges where plates pull apart.
- Subduction zones where one plate is forced under another.
Spreading Ridge Hot Spot
- Hot spots in the middle of plates when especially hot currents of magma shoot up, burning through the crust.
- Magma, less dense than the solid rock around it, rises and collects in chambers.
- Pressure decreases, trapped gasses expand, and propel magma, causing an eruption.
- Explosive if magma viscous; gasses can not escape; pressure builds; explodes.
- Effusive if magma is fluid; gasses can escape easily; lava flows.
- Build a volcano and watch it erupt .
Different Types of Volcanoes: Composite
- Explosive eruptions and lava flow.
- Built from pyroclastic material and lava.
Different Types of Volcanoes: Shield
- Built from layers of lava
- Not very steep, but can be big
Different Types of Volcanoes: Cinder Cone
- Built from pyroclastic material
- Moderately explosive, short eruptions
- Small in size, steep slopes
Where Are They?
- Volcanoes are located on much of the planet, but there is a high concentration surrounding the Pacific Ocean.
- This area is known as The Ring of Fire.
- Research and report on a specific volcano
- (ex: Mauna Loa in Hawaii)
- Type of volcano and main characteristics
- Last eruption date and status (active, extinct, dormant)
- Poster, PowerPoint, Video, Essay
- If you have a different idea, ask teacher for approval
Additional Learning Resources
- Discovery Kids – Build a virtual volcano and watch it erupt, plus more
- http:// kids.discovery.com /games/build-play/volcano-explorer
- National Geographic – Volcano video clips http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/environment/environment-natural-disasters/volcanoes/volcanoes-101.html
- National Geographic Kids - animated movie
- BBC Newsround – video clips and information
- Lessons, activities, videos
- Science Content Standards – CAPA Level V
- SEACO Special Education Guide
- Standard 9/12.3e - Students know there are two kinds of volcanoes: one kind with violent eruptions producing
- steep slopes and the other kind with voluminous lava flows producing gentle slopes
- Alternate Achievement Standard 9/12.3e.A - Know the general characteristics of a volcano.
- FPI S5E9/12.3e.A1 - Will know two types of volcanoes (violent eruptions or voluminous lava flow)