Book one-beverage-knowledge


Published on

Beverage Manual

Published in: Business
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Book one-beverage-knowledge

  1. 1.   BALI HOSPITALITY PROFESSIONAL SERVICES              BEVERAGES KNOWLEDGE  Do not sell this Book, this Book is complimentary  from Hotel Team Managers  Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM  Chief Executive Officer    April ‐  2009 Book One
  2. 2. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  TYPE OF BEVERAGES: • Beer • Cocktails • Spirits • Wine • Non Alcoholic Beverages A. BEER: I. HYSTORY OF BEER: A Brief History of Beer The origins of beer are older than recorded history, extending into the mythology of ancient civilizations. Beer, the oldest alcohol beverage, was discovered independently by most ancient cultures - the Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Hebrews, Africans, Chinese, Incas, Tautens, Saxons and the various wandering tribes that were found in Eurasia. These ancient peoples have left records to indicate they not only enjoyed their beer, but considered brewing to be a serious and important job. In recorded history, Babylonian clay tablets more than 6,000 years old depict the brewing of beer and give detailed recipes. An extract from an ancient Chinese manuscript states that beer, or kiu as it was called, was known to the Chinese as early as the 23rd century BC. Beer was enjoyed by ancient peoples at all levels of society. Of course, some drank with more style than others. For example, the University of Pennsylvania Museum displays a golden straw used by Queen Shubad of Mesopotamia for sipping beer. With the rise of commerce and the growth of cities during the Middle Ages, brewing became more than a household activity. Municipal brew houses were established, which eventually led to the formation of the brewing guilds. Commercial brewing on a significantly larger scale began around the 12th century in Germany. Although native Americans had developed a form of beer, Europeans brought or   Page 2  
  3. 3. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  own version with them to the New World. Beer enjoys the distinction of having come over on the Mayflower and, in fact, seems to have played a part in the Pilgrims decision to land at Plymouth Rock instead of farther south, as intended. A journal kept by one of the passengers - now in the Library of Congress - states, in an entry from 1620, that the Mayflower landed at Plymouth because We could not now take time for further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, especially our beer... The first commercial brewery in America was founded in New Amsterdam (New York) in 1623. Many patriots owned their own breweries, among them Samuel Adams and William Penn. Thomas Jefferson was also interested in brewing and made beer at Monticello. George Washington even had his own brew house on the grounds of Mount Vernon, and his handwritten recipe for beer dated 1757 and taken from his diary - is still preserved! II. TYPES OF BEER 1. Lager The word lager is derived from the German verb “lagern”, which means: to store. During the late middle ages, before the days of refrigeration, fermentation was a hit-or-miss affair, especially during the hot summer months. To ensure a supply of beer for the summer, brewers in the Bavarian Alps stored kegs of spring brew in icy mountain caves. As the beer slowly aged, the yeast settled, creating a drink that was dark but clear and sparkling with a crisper, more delicate flavour. In 1842, lager acquired its familiar golden colour when a brewery in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia perfected a pale, bottom-fermented version of the beer. Lagers typically take more time to brew and are aged longer than ales. Lagers are best enjoyed at cooler-than-room temperature.  2. Bock Beer  The other bottom-fermented beer is bock, named for the famous medieval German brewing town of Einbeck. Heavier than lager and darkened by high-coloured malts, bock is traditionally brewed in the winter for drinking during the spring.  3. Ale Although the term covers a fascinating variety of styles, all ales share certain characteristics. Top-fermentation and the inclusion of more hops in the wort gives these beers a distinctive fruitiness, acidity and a pleasantly-bitter seasoning. All ales typically take less time to brew and age then lagers and have a more assertive, individual personality, though their alcoholic strength may be the same. Ales are best enjoyed at room temperature or slightly warmer. or   Page 3  
  4. 4. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  4. Porter and Stout  Whether dry or sweet, flavoured with roasted malt barley, oats or certain sugars, stouts and porters are characterized by darkness and depth. Both types of beer are delicious with hearty meat stews and surprisingly good with shellfish. The pairing of oysters and stout has long been acknowledged as one of the worlds great gastronomic marriages.  5. Dry “Dry” refers to the amount of residual sugar left in a beer following fermentation. This type of beer is fermented for longer than normal brews so that practically all of the residual sugar is converted into alcohol. The result is a beer which consumers describe as having a crisp flavour, clean finish and very little aftertaste.    III. BEER GLOSSARY This is a list of terms used when describing beers:Abbey   Kölsch Commercial Belgian beers licensed by abbeys. Top-fermenting golden beer from Cologne. Not to be confused with Trappist ales. Kräusen  Adjuncts   The addition of partially-fermented wort during Materials, like rice, corn and brewing sugar, lagering to encourage a strong secondary used in place of traditional grains for cheapness fermentation. or lightness of flavor. Kriek  Ale   Cherry-flavored lambic beer. The oldest beer style in the world. Produced by warm or top fermentation. Lager  Alt   The cold-conditioning of beer at around 0 degrees Centigrade to encourage the yeast to Dark brown top-fermenting beer from settle out, increase carbonation and produce a Düsseldorf. smooth, clean-tasting beer. From the German meaning "to store".Alpha acid   Lambic   The main component of the bittering agent in the hop flower. Belgian beer made by spontaneous fermentation.Attenuation   Lauter tun   The extent to which brewing sugars turn to alcohol and carbon dioxide. Vessel used to clarify the wort after the mashing or   Page 4  
  5. 5. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE Beer   Malt Generic term for an alcoholic drink made from Barley or other cereals that have been partially grain. Includes both ale and lager. germinated to allow starches to be converted into fermentable sugars.Bitter   Mash   British term for the pale, amber or copper- colored beers that developed from the pale ales First stage of the brewing process, when the in the 19th century. malt is mixed with pure hot water to extract the sugars.Bock or Bok   Märzen   Strong beer style of The Netherlands and Germany. Traditional Bavarian lager brewed in March and stored until autumn for the Munich Oktoberfest.Bottle-conditioned   Mild   Beer that undergoes a secondary fermentation in the bottle. Dark brown (occasionally pale) English and Welsh beer, lightly hopped. The oldest style of beer that once derived it color from malt curedBrew kettle   over wood fires. One of the components of the first porters. See Copper Milk stout  Cask-conditioned   Stout made with the addition of lactose, which Beer that undergoes a secondary fermentation is unfermentable, producing a beer low in in the cask. Known as "real ale", closely alcohol with a creamy, slightly sweet character. identified with British beers. Pilsner or Pilsener or Pils  Copper   International brand name for a light-colored Vessel used to boil the sugary wort with hops. lager.Decoction mashing   Porter   A system mainly used in lager brewing in which Dark - brown or black - beer originating in portions of the wort are removed from the London. vessel, heated to a higher temperature and then returned. Improves ensymic activity and Priming   the conversion of starch to sugar in poorly modified malts. Addition of sugar to encourage a secondary fermentation in or   Page 5  
  6. 6. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE Dry-hopping   Reinheitsgebot The addition of a small amount of hops to a Bavarian beer law of 1516 (the "Purity Pledge) cask of beer to improve aroma and bitterness. that lays down that only malted grain, hops, yeast and water can be used in brewing. Now covers the whole of Germany. Shilling  Dunkel   Ancient method of invoicing beer in Scotland on A dark lager beer in Germany, a Bavarian strength. Beers are called 60, 70 or 80 shilling. speciality that predates the first pale lagers. Sparging  Entire   From the French esparger, to sprinkle; The earliest form of porter, short for "entire Sprinkling or spraying the spent grains in the butt". mash tun or lauter tun to flush out any remaining malt sugars.Ester   Square   Flavor compounds produced by the action of yeast turning sugars into alcohol and carbon A traditional, open fermenting vessel. dioxide. Esters may be fruity or spicy. Steam beer  Fining   American beer style saved by the Anchor Substance that clarifies beer, usually made from Brewery in San Francisco. the swim bladder of sturgeon fish; also known as isinglass. Stout  Framboise or Frambozen   Once an English generic term for the strongest ("stoutest") beer in a brewery. Now considered Raspberry-flavored lambic beer. a quintessentially Irish style.Grist   Trappist   The coarse powder derived from malt that has Ales brewed by monks of the Trappist order in been milled or "cracked" in the brewery prior to Belgium and The Netherlands. mashing. Union  Gueuze   Method of fermentation developed in Burton-tn- A blend of Belgian lambic beers. Trent using large oak or   Page 6  
  7. 7. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE Helles or Hell   Ur or Urtyp A pale Bavarian lager beer. German for original.Hop (Lat: Humulus Lupulus)   Weizen or Weisse   Herb used when brewing to add aroma and German for wheat or white beer. bitterness. Wort  IBU   Liquid resulting from the mashing process, rich International Bitterness Units. An in malt and sugars. internationally-agreed scale for measuring the bitterness of beer. A "lite" American lager may have around 10 IBUs, an English mild ale around 20 units, an India Pale Ale 40 or higher, an Irish stout 55 to 60 and barley wine 65.Infusion   Method of mashing used mainly in ale-brewing where the grains are left to soak with pure water while starches convert to sugar, usually carried out at a constant temperature. IV. MANUFACTURING OF BEER Brewing is fundamentally a natural process. The art and science of brewing lies in converting natural food materials into a pure, pleasing beverage. Although great strides have been made with the techniques for achieving high-quality production, beer today is still a beverage brewed from natural products in a traditional way. Although the main ingredients of beer have remained constant (water, yeast, malt and hops), it is the precise recipe and timing of the brew that gives one a different taste from another. The production of beer is one of the most closely supervised and controlled manufacturing processes in our society. Apart from brewing company expenditures on research and quality control designed to achieve the highest standards of uniformity and purity in the product, the production of beer is also subject to regular inspection and review by federal and provincial Health Departments. Substances used in the brewing process are approved by Health Canada. On average, a batch of beer will take about 30 days to produce. To be or   Page 7  
  8. 8. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  specific, brewing takes nine and a half hours, while fermentation and aging combined take between 21 and 35 days for ales and lagers respectively. 1. Water Pure water is an essential ingredient in good beer and brewers pay scrupulous attention to the source and purification of their brewing water. The water used in brewing is purified to rigidly-set standards. If it does not have the proper calcium or acidic content for maximum activity of the enzymes in the mash, it must be brought up to that standard. 2. Malt Barley is used to make brewers malt. At the malting companies, barley is soaked, germinated (sprouted), then dried and/or kilned/roasted to arrest further growth. During the period of controlled growth in the malting plant, specific barley enzymes are released to break down the membranes of the starch cells that make up most of the kernel. But these are internal changes only; apart from a slight change in colour, the external characteristics remain essentially unchanged. When the malt leaves a malting plant, it still looks like barley. In the brewery, the malt is screened and crushed rather than ground to flour in order to keep the husks as whole as possible. This process not only prevents the extraction of undesirable materials from the husks but also allows them to act as a filter bed for separation of the liquid extract formed during mashing. 3. Mashing Malt is added to heated, purified water and, through a carefully controlled time and temperature process, the malt enzymes break down the starch to sugar and the complex proteins of the malt to simpler nitrogen compounds. Mashing takes place in a large, round tank called a "mash mixer" or "mash tun" and requires careful temperature control. At this point, depending on the type of beer desired, the malt is supplemented by starch from other cereals such as corn, wheat or rice. 4. Lautering The mash is transferred to a straining (or lautering) vessel which is usually cylindrical with a slotted false bottom two to five centimetres above the true bottom. The liquid extract drains through the false bottom and is run off to the brew kettle. This extract, a sugar solution, is called "wort" but it is not yet beer. Water is "sparged" (or sprayed) though the grains to wash out as much of the extract as possible. The "spent grains" are removed and sold as cattle feed. 5. Boiling and Hopping The brew kettle, a huge cauldron holding from 70 to 1,000 hectolitres and made of shiny copper or stainless steel, is probably the most striking sight in a brewery. It is fitted with coils or a jacketed bottom for steam heating and is designed to or   Page 8  
  9. 9. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  the wort under carefully-controlled conditions. Boiling, which usually lasts about two hours, serves to concentrate the wort to a desired specific gravity, to sterilize it and to obtain the desired extract from the hops. The hop resins contribute flavour, aroma and bitterness to the brew. Once the hops have flavoured the brew, they are removed. When applicable, highly-fermentable syrup may be added to the kettle. Undesirable protein substances that have survived the journey from the mash mixer are coagulated, leaving the wort clear. 6. Hop Separation and Cooling After the beer has taken on the flavour of the hops, the wort then proceeds to the "hot wort tank". It is then cooled, usually in a simple-looking apparatus called a "plate cooler". As the wort and a coolant flow past each other on opposite sides of stainless steel plates, the temperature of the wort drops from boiling to about 10 to 15.5 °C, a drop of more than 65.6 °C, in a few seconds. 7. Fermentation The wort is then moved to the fermenting vessels and yeast, the guarded central mystery of ancient brewers art, is added. It is the yeast, which is a living, single- cell fungi, that breaks down the sugar in the wort to carbon dioxide and alcohol. It also adds many beer-flavouring components. There are many kinds of yeasts, but those used in making beer belong to the genus saccharomyces. The brewer uses two species of this genus. One yeast type, which rises to the top of the liquid at the completion of the fermentation process, is used in brewing ale and stout. The other, which drops to the bottom of the brewing vessel, is used in brewing lager. In all modern breweries, elaborate precautions are taken to ensure that the yeast remains pure and unchanged. Through the use of pure yeast culture plants, a particular beer flavour can be maintained year after year. During fermentation, which lasts about seven to 10 days, the yeast may multiply six-fold and in the open-tank fermenters used for brewing ale, a creamy, frothy head may be seen on top of the brew. When the fermentation is complete, the yeast is removed. Now, for the first time ,the liquid is called beer. 8. Cellars For one to three weeks, the beer is stored cold and then filtered once or twice before it is ready for bottling or "racking" into kegs. 9. Packaging In the bottle shop of a brewery, returned empty bottles go through washers in which they receive a thorough cleaning. After washing, the bottles are inspected electronically and visually and pass on to the rotary filler. Some of these machines can fill up to 1,200 bottles per minute. A "crowning" machine, integrated with the filler, places caps on the bottles. The filled bottles may then pass through a "tunnel pasteurizer" (often 23 metres from end to end and able to hold 15, or   Page 9  
  10. 10. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  bottles) where the temperature of the beer is raised about 60 °C. for a sufficient length of time to provide biological stability, then cooled to room temperature. Emerging from the pasteurizer, the bottles are inspected, labelled, placed in boxes, stacked on pallets and carried by lift truck to the warehousing areas to await shipment. Also in the bottle shop may be the canning lines, where beer is packaged in cans for shipment. Packaged beer may be heat-pasteurized or micro- filtered, providing a shelf-life of up to six months when properly stored. Draught beer, since it is normally sold and consumed within a few weeks, may not go through this process. The draught beer is placed in sterilized kegs ready for shipment. B. COCKTAILS I. What is a Cocktail? Drinks akin to cocktails first appeared sometime during the 16th century, but cocktails, as we know and use the term, was first introduced by American bartenders in the 1920ies. The reason the cocktail made it big in the happy 20ies, was the prohibition, when producing and imbibing of alcohol was made illegal. As good as all spirits available was of a rather dubious quality and tasted accordingly. Thus, the bartenders, accommodating as always, started to mix the spirits with various fruit juices and other flavorings to make it more palatable. Later, the cocktail lost its popularity most places, the United States being the main exception. The last few years, however, the cocktail has reclaimed lost ground everywhere, especially in southern Europe and other places that are full of tourists. Cocktails usually consist of three different classes of ingredients. • The first, the base, is most often some sort of spirit, like vodka, whiskey, or tequila. Occasionally, such as in many punches, some sort of wine is being used as a base. • The second, the main flavoring, is added to bring out the aroma of the base and to modify its taste. The main flavoring is often such as Vermouth, various fruit juices, wine, or even eggs or cream. • The third, the special flavoring, is added to enhance the taste of the base, and often also adds the color to the cocktail. Common special flavorings include Grenadine, Blue Curacao, and or   Page 10  
  11. 11. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  Most cocktails are also decorated in some way, usually with fruit slices, orange peel, cocktail sticks, mint twigs, etc. (see section below). II. Equipments Many different contraptions are manufactured for the making of cocktails. Some of these are useful, some can be definitely nice to have, and still others are totally and utterly useless. It is up to you to decide exactly what your cocktail equipment should be, but some things are essential. First out of the essentials is the cocktail shaker. There are two basic types of shakers available. A European cocktail shaker is usually made out of metal, or glass with a metal top. It is, basically, a container which holds about half a liter, fitted with a top which closes tightly around the upper edges of the container. This top also has a smaller top, usually fitted with a built-in strainer, through which the shaken cocktail is poured. American shakers, however, consist of two cones about the same size. One is often often made of glass, and the other is metallic. These cones are held together to form a closed container, and the shaken cocktail is poured from either one. Most American shakers do not have built-in strainers, so if you use an American shaker, using a separate strainer is a good idea. Measures, also known as jiggers, are also essential. Jiggers are most often made of metal, but glass jiggers are common, as well. The standard measurements of a jigger can vary widely, depending on where you are. In the recipes in the following articles, I will use a standard jigger of 30ml (appx. 1 fl oz). In addition to the equipment mentioned above, you will find that things like these are nice to have, as well: Ice bucket, jugs, electric blender, bowls, etc. You should also have access to ordinary kitchenware, such as knives, corkscrews, chopping board, etc. You will also need stirrers (also known as swizzle sticks), straws, toothpicks, serviettes and cloths. III. Glasses Cocktail glasses come in four different basic types: • First, there are the glasses known as rocks glasses, also known as tumblers. These glasses are usually short and broad glasses, with straight or or   Page 11  
  12. 12. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  sloping sides. They normally hold about 125ml and are used for spirits with ice, fruit juices and short drinks. • Second, there is the highball glass. These glasses are usually of medium width, and are tall with straight or slightly sloping sides. They normally hold between 200 and 300ml and are used for long drinks with ice. • Third, the champagne glasses are of two different kinds. The most common, the champagne flute, is a tall and narrow glass with a stem. Champagne flutes have thin-glassed sides, and the long, tapering sides can curve both inward and outward. A champagne flute holds approximately 150ml. The second type of champagne glass is the less-known champagne saucer. The champagne saucer is a broad and shallow glass with a stem. The broadness and shallowness of the glass make the champagne loose its fizz quickly, and the glass is therefore less popular than it once was. It is still, however, in use, and such cocktails as the Margarita use exclusively such glasses. • Fourth is the group known as cocktail glasses. These are the classic cocktail glasses; stemmed and with sharply sloping sides, making it Y-shaped when seen from the side. The classic cocktail glass holds about 90ml and is best suited for short, strong drinks. In addition to these glasses, some drinks, such as the Pina Colada, have special glasses. Unless you are really serious about mixing your cocktails, you dont really need to buy such glasses. Use glasses you already have instead. There are also other glasses available that will work just fine with cocktails. Use your imagination, but remember that plastic glasses (or shakers, jugs, mixing glasses, or other such equipment for that matter) should NEVER be used with cocktails, as it will make the cocktail taste of plastic. A cocktail is supposed to have a refreshing taste, not to taste like the inside of a used plastic bag. IV. Mixing a Cocktail Not all cocktails are made in the same manner. Just as the ingredients may vary, there are several ways in which to mix a cocktail. The most frequently used methods are the following: • Shaking: The cocktail is mixed by hand in a cocktail shaker. The shaker is first filled three quarters with ice, preferably cubes, as crushed ice will tend to melt and dilute the cocktail. The ingredients are then poured on top of the ice, in order of alcohol content (highest first). When shaking a cocktail, hold the shaker in both hands, one hand on the top and the other supporting the base of the shaker, and shake vigorously. When water has begun or   Page 12  
  13. 13. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  on the outside of the shaker, the cocktail is sufficiently chilled, and the cocktail should immediately be strained into the glass. In general, shaking creates a colder cocktail than stirring does, but also a cloudier one. • Stirring: The cocktail is stirred with a glass or metal rod in a mixing glass, before the cocktail is strained into a glass. As with shaking, crushed ice should not be used, and water condensing on the outside shows that the cocktail is finished. • Blending: An electric blender is used to mix fruit juices, alcohol, fruit, etc. Blending is an excellent way of mixing ingredients which do not blend easily in any other way. Blend the cocktail till it has reached a smooth consistency. If the recipe requires ice, add crushed ice last, but be careful not to add too much, as the cocktail may be watered down. Blending is a much disputed method of mixing a cocktail, and in general, blending should be avoided unless the recipe demands it. • Building: When building a cocktail, the ingredients are poured into the glass in which the cocktail will be served. Usually, the ingredients are floated on top of each other, but occasionally, a swizzle stick is put in the glass, allowing the ingredients to be mix V. Decorating Cocktails Almost all cocktails are decorated in one way or another, most often with some kind of fruit, but no matter the exact decoration, cocktail sticks are almost always invaluable. Cocktail sticks come in two types; Wooden and plastic. Wooden sticks are most often used, and are suited for just about any kind of cocktail, but they cannot be reused. Plastic sticks, however, should be carefully used, as they tend to give the cocktail a slightly artificial appearance. Unlike wooden sticks, plastic ones can be reused, but should be carefully washed and boiled first. Cocktail sticks are, whatever the type, used for spearing slices of fruit, cherries, and just about anything else you care to decorate your cocktails with. Straws are also essential and go well with highballs. Straws should not be reused. The traditional cocktail garnish is, however, the red Maraschino cherries. These are used in just about any kind of cocktail, and are now also available in green, yellow and blue. In addition to this, slices of fruit, strips of orange or lemon peel, mint twigs, etc. can also be used. One often used method of decorating cocktails is that which is called frosting. Frosting leaves an edge of sugar, salt, cocoa, or any other fine powder, on the rim of the glass. There are several ways to frost glasses, and one of the most frequently used of them is this: Rub the rim of the glass with a slice of orange or lemon, then submerge the rim or   Page 13  
  14. 14. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  sugar or salt (or any other powder), just so that it lines the top of the rim. Other methods use egg white or other substances for gluing the powder to the glass. For a more colorful frosting, use small drops of food coloring in the powder. With some cocktails, such as the Margarita, frosting is a standard decoration. VI. Tips and Tricks 1/2 oz. of liquor is equal to 1 count, assuming you are using a pourer on your bottles. To measure 1 1/2 oz. of liquor, count "1001...1002...1003" as you are pouring. After a while, you should be able to do it by eye. • To make highballs, fill glass two-thirds full of ice before adding liquor. Always pour liquor in before the mixer. Do not stir drinks containing carbonated mixers. • To make cocktails, low balls, and other shaken or stirred drinks, fill shaker half- full of ice. For low balls, fill the glass about half-full of ice before pouring drink. • Most shaken drinks which contain light cream can also be made as blended drinks, substituting vanilla ice cream for the light cream. • To make blended drinks, first fill blender half-full of ice. If necessary, add more ice as you are blending. • Always keep fruit juices and other mixers refrigerated. • In fruit drinks, e.g. strawberry margaritas always use fresh fruit, not frozen Bar terms. V. BAR TERMS   Mixing When using a cocktail shaker there is one golden rule to remember. Always put the ice in the shaker first, and the liquor last. This is to ensure that all ingredients are properly chilled by the ice when they are poured over the ice, and by adding the liquor last you reduce the chance of dilution. Stirring A drink that is stirred instead of shaken will retain its clarity and be free of ice chips. Drinks based on clear liquors, like a Martini, should always be stirred and not shaken (dont listen to James Bond when he order his Martini "shaken, not stirred"). When stirring a cocktail you should stir it enough to mix the ingredients, but not stir or   Page 14  
  15. 15. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  too much. If you stir too much the ice will begin to dilute the liquor. A general rule is that 10-15 stirs will be sufficient for proper mixing. A drink containing carbonated beverage(s) should be stirred gently and briefly to retain the sparkle. Shaking Instead of stirring, you can shake the drink. This will mix the ingredients more than stirring, but will also result in a less clear drink. Drinks that contain ingredients that are hard to mix, such as cream, fruit juices and eggs, should be shaken vigorously to ensure that the ingredients has been well mixed. Blending Use an electric blender to mix fresh fruit, liquor, juices and ice instead of using a shaker. Not too popular everywhere, but perfect for making frozen cocktails or to blend ingredients that are otherwise impossible to mix. Floating The purpose of floating is to keep each ingredient in the drink in separate layers that do not mix with the others. This will create a drink with separate layers, and this is why floating often is referred to as layering. The easiest way to float one liquor on top of another is to use a demitasse spoon, holding it over or in the glass and slowly trickle the ingredient over the back of the spoon. Muddling Muddling is a simple mashing technique for grinding herbs, such as mint, smooth in the bottom of a glass. You can use a wooden muddler that you buy in a bar supply store or buy a bar spoon with a muddler on the end. It crushes the herbs, much as the back of a soup spoon might, without scaring the glass. Frosting To frost a glass, first dip it in water and then put it in the freezer for half an hour or so. Also note that metal and silver mugs and cups will frost better than or   Page 15  
  16. 16. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE Standard Bar Measurements (US)  Metric Conversions  1 part   = any equal part  1 fluid ounce (oz) = 29.573 milliliters 1 dash/splash   = 1/32 ounce   1 quart (qt) = 9.4635 deciliters 1 teaspoon (tsp)  = 1/8 ounce   1 gallon (gal) = 3.7854 liters  1 tablespoon (tblsp)  = 3/8 ounce   1 pony   = 1 ounce   1 milliliter (ml) = 1/30 ounce   1 jigger/bar glass   = 1 ½ ounces   1 centiliter (cl) = 1/3 ounce   (*) 1 shot   = 1 ½ ounces   1 deciliter (dl) = 3 1/2 ounces   1 snit   = 3 ounces   1 liter (l) = 34 ounces  1 wineglass   = 4 ounces   1 split   = 6 ounces      1 cup   = 8 ounces   1 pint (pt)   = 16 ounces   1 quart (qt)  = 32 ounces   1 fifth   = 25.6 ounces (1/5 gallon) 1 gallon (gal)  = 128 ounces     Other Measurements English  Metric           Fifth   = 4/5 Quart = 1/5 Gal. = 25.6 oz => 750 ml = 25.5 ozPint (pt)  = 1/2 Quart   = 16.0 oz => 500 ml = 17.0 ozHalf-Pint    = 8.0 oz => 200 ml = 6.8 ozHalf-Gallon =   64.0 oz => 1750 ml = 59.7 ozQuart   =  32.0 oz => 1000 ml = 34.1 oz (*) A "shotglass" is usually 1.5 ounces, but sometimes 2 ounces with a measuring line at 1.5 ounces. You can also buy (in US) "short shot" glasses or "pony shots" which are 1 ounce. Pony shots are usually used with martinis, manhattans, and rob or   Page 16  
  17. 17. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  VI. Setting up a bar Basic set of tools When setting up a bar, you will need quite a lot of equipment. The following is a list of basic bar equipment you should have in your bar to allow you to make most drinks. You may also want to take a look at the list of additional equipment that will make life behind the bar a bit easier too. • Bottle opener • Corkscrew • Can opener • Measuring cups and spoon set • Bar spoon with long handle and muddler on the end • Juice squeezer • Electric blender • Cutting board and a sharp knife • Ice bucket with an ice tong • Mixing glass • Shaker and strainer • Bottle sealers • Towels • Boxes/jars to store garnishes in • Glassware You will have to buy new supplies of the following equipment regularly. • Cocktail napkins and coasters • Swizzle sticks • Straws, both long and short ones • Cocktail picks • Sugar and salt (for coating rim of glasses) Additional equipment In addition you may wish to buy some other equipment to make things a bit easier and to be able to make additional drinks. • Ice crusher, preferably electric You can crush ice manually, but with an electric crusher, it will be a whole lot easier than using a or   Page 17  
  18. 18. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  • Wooden muddler • Ice pick or chipper • Vegetable peeler or a twist cutter for fruit peels • Ice scoop • Funnel • Nutmeg grater • Glassware When operating a bar, whether it be in-house or a business, you need to have certain types of glasses. The right glass can enhance the drink you are serving, making you look even better. You really do not want to serve wine in a coffee cup, a cocktail in a beer mug, and you definitely dont want to serve an Alabama Slammer in a sherry glass. Get the point? Different glasses • Beer mug • Beer pilsner • Brandy snifter • Champagne flute • Cocktail glass • Coffee mug • Collins glass • Cordial glass • Highball glass • Hurricane glass • Irish coffee cup • Margarita/Coupette glass • Mason jar • Old-fashioned glass • Parfait glass • Pitcher • Pousse cafe glass • Punch bowl • Red wine or   Page 18  
  19. 19. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  • White wine glass • Sherry glass • Shot glass • Whiskey sour glass Glass accidents When you are around any bar, home or business, you need to be concerned for yourself and your guests. Here are a few tips about accidents and what to do: • Always use an ice scoop and not the glass itself. Tiny slivers of glass always chip off when dipped into an ice well and your glasses become unclear after a while • If you accidentally break a glass near ice, always throw away all the ice. When glass shatters, pieces go everywhere. You really dont want pieces of glass in your drink. • Never take a hot glass and add ice into it. This can cause the glass to shatter due to thermal shock. Be careful about this. • Mechanical shock occurs when you clank two glass together. One of the glasses will almost always break. If you carry the glasses by the stem or the base you avoid fingerprints where people drink from, and you will have more support carrying the glass. VII. The History of the Cocktail Shaker Antecedents of the cocktail shaker can be traced to 7000 BC in South America where the jar gourd was valued for its use as a closed container. Ancient Egyptians in 3500 BC knew that adding spices to their grain fermentations before serving made them more palatable. A forerunner of the cocktail? Well, archaeologists have yet to find a hieroglyphic list of cocktail recipes inside the Great Pyramid of Cheops. But we do know in 1520 Cortez wrote to King Charles V of Spain from the New World of a certain drink made from cacao, served to Montezuma with much reverence, frothy and foaming from a golden cylinder. By the late 1800s, the bartenders shaker as we know it today had become a standard tool of the trade, invented by an innkeeper when pouring a drink back and forth to mix. Finding that the smaller mouth of one container fit into another, he held the two together and shook "for a bit of a show." or   Page 19  
  20. 20. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  At the turn of the century, New York City hotels were serving the English custom of 5 oclock tea and it was a short leap to the 5 oclock cocktail hour with shakers manufactured for home use looking very much like teapots. In the 1920s martinis were served from sterling silver shakers by high society while the less affluent made do with glass or nickel-plated devices. The Great War was over and sacrifice was replaced by a euphoria marked by party-going and a frenzied quest for pleasure. The mixed drink and cocktail shaker was powered by Prohibition. People who had never tasted a cocktail before were knocking on speakeasy doors. The outlaw culture had a powerful pull. Flappers with one foot on the brass rail ordered their choice of drinks with names like Between the Sheets, Fox Trot, and Zanzibar, liberated more by this act and smoking in public than by their new voting rights. The International Silver Company produced shakers in the form of the Boston Lighthouse and golf bags, as well as, traditional shapes. There were rooster- and penguin-shaped shakers, and from Germany zeppelin and aeroplane shakers. Many of these shapes were not entirely capricious. The rooster, or "cock of the walk," for example, had long served as a symbol for tavern signs. The penguin with its natural "tuxedo" symbolized the good life. The Graf Zeppelin had become the first commercial aircraft to cross the Atlantic - an 111-hour non-stop flight that captured the attention of the world. Such ingenious designs were all the rage, cocktail shaker skills and drink rituals were as important in the Jazz Age lifestyle as the latest dance steps. Colorful cocktails with sweet mixes stretched out the supply of illicit alcohol and helped disguise the taste of homemade hooch. While gin, easier to duplicate than rye or scotch, became the drink of choice and the martini societys favorite. But the real popularity explosion of cocktail shakers occurred after the repeal of Prohibition in 1933. Now they were featured frequently on the silver screen, shakers and accoutrements part of every movie set. Stars were constantly sipping cocktails when they werent lighting each others cigarettes, both de rigueur symbols of sophistication. Nick and Nora Charles, the delightfully sodden couple that poured their way through endless martinis in The Thin Man series, knew how to shake a drink with style, as did the tens of thousands of Americans who shook, swirled, and swilled cocktails by the shaker-full in the years following the repeal of Prohibition. Movie fans watched Fred and Ginger dance across the screen, cocktail glass in hand, and wanted their own symbol of the good life to shake themselves out of the Depression that gripped the country. The Art Deco movie set aesthetic was perfect for the Depression-driven cocktail shaker. To meet popular demand, machine age factories, geared for mass production, or   Page 20  
  21. 21. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  began turning them out in droves. Fashioned from the high-tech materials of the day, chrome-plated stainless steel shakers with Bakelite trim replaced those of sterling silver and were advertised as "non-tarnishing, no polishing needed." The great glass companies, such as Cambridge, Heisey, and Imperial, leaped into action. Stunning etched and silk-screened designs were created, often in brilliant hues of ruby or cobalt. Industrial design was at the height of popularity and superstar designers such as Russel Wright, Kem Weber, and Lurelle Guild created streamlined modern masterpieces, many in the shape of the new deity of architecture, the skyscraper. If there is a definitive classic it would have to be the sleek 1936 chrome-plated "Manhattan Skyscraper serving set" by master industrial designer Norman Bel Geddes, sought by collectors of today as the perfect mix of form and function. By the end of the decade, shakers had become standard household objects, affordable to all. Every family had at least one shaker on the shelf. There were now cocktail shakers in the shape of bowling pins, dumbbells, town criers bells, and even in the shape of a ladys leg. The cocktail party had influenced fashion, furniture, and interior design. Coffee tables were now cocktail tables, and the little black dress, designed by Coco Chanel, went from fad to fashion, and is now an institution. At the beginning of the 1940s, the Depression ended, but not in the way most had hoped. It ended on December 7, 1941. The golden era of the cocktail shaker was over, and Americas involvement in World War II began. All metal went to the war effort. Companies that once made cocktail shakers, now made artillery shells. After the war, few thought of the shakers. We were in the atomic age, thinking of jet- propelled airplanes, a thing called television, and new cars with lots of chrome. In the early 1950s, a brief renewal of interest in cocktail shakers occurred when new homes featuring finished basements, called "roc rooms," were equipped with bars. But the push-button age had taken the fun out of mixing drinks. Shakers came with battery-powered stirring devices. Worse yet, electric blenders became popular; drop in some ice, add the alcohol of your choice, a package of "redi-mix," flick a switch and.... Gone were the rites and rituals, the showmanship, the reward for effort. Small wonder, then, that these elegant stars of the 1930s were forced into retirement. And there they sat - in attics and closets nationwide - waiting to be recalled to life. Over 50 years have passed now, and one can faintly hear the clink of ice cubes as shakers are, once again, a symbol of or   Page 21  
  22. 22. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  C. SPIRIT & LIQUOR I. Stocking your bar You cannot make drinks out of the equipment, so youll probably want to buy a selection of liquors and mixers too. It is impossible to make a list that "fits all" without including every possible liquor in the World, but here are a few guidelines on what to buy. You should always choose your bar stock to suit your guests. Young people often prefer the more exotic drinks, so you will need various fruit juices and flavored liqueurs instead of the darker liquors (like whiskey) older people often prefer. It is likely you will experience requests for drinks you cannot make, but that happen to almost every bar now and then. You can add new liquors to your bar stock later, and should learn how to mix what you have in the meantime. A well stocked bar should have the following, but you should consider the number and type of guests you expect before buying. • Gin (dry) • Vodka • Rye (or Canadian whiskey) • Bourbon • Scotch whiskey • Rum (light) • Vermouth (dry and sweet) • Tequila • White and red wine (dry) • Beer (lager) • Cognac (or other brandy) • Different liqueurs: o Advocaat (somewhat like brandy eggnog) o Amaretto (almond) o Anisette (anise) o Benedictine (herbs) o Chambord (black-raspberry) or   Page 22  
  23. 23. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  o Chartreuse (herbs) o Contreau (oranges, like curaçao) o Crème de Cacao (cacao) o Crème de Cassis (blackcurrant) o Crème de Menthe (mint) o Crème de Violette (lavender) o Crème Yvette (violets) o Curaçao (oranges) o Galliano (herbs and spices) o Godiva (chocolate) o Goldwasser (herbs and spices, flecked with gold leaf bits) o Grand Marnier (champagne and curaçao) o Irish Mint (whiskey and cream) o Kahlúa (coffee) o Kümmel (caraway) o Mandarine Napoléon (tangerine) o Midori (melon) o Ouzo (anise) o Peter Heering (cherry) o Prunelle (plum) o Sabra (orange and chocolate) o Sambuca (wild elderberries) o Southern Comfort (peach) o Strega (orange and spices) o Tia Maria (coffee) o Triple Sec (oranges, like curaçao) In addition to the liquors, you will need different mixers, flavorings and garnishes. • Club soda • Tonic water • Ginger ale • 7-Up or Sprite • or   Page 23  
  24. 24. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  • Juices: o Tomato juice o Orange juice o Pineapple juice o Cranberry juice o Grapefruit juice • Bitters • Grenadine • Maraschino liqueur • Worcestershire sauce • Tabasco sauce • Milk • Coffee • Heavy cream • Cherries (maraschino) • Green olives (small) • Cocktail onions • Lemons, limes and oranges • Sugar, salt and pepper. Fruited Ice Cubes Suggested Fruits Beverage ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Lemon slices Iced tea Strawberries, raspberries, Lemonade lemon or lime slices Pineapple chunks; grapes; Punch strawberries; raspberries; maraschino cherries; mandarin oranges; orange, lemon or lime slices Lime slices, strawberries, Ginger or   Page 24  
  25. 25. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  raspberries To make fruited ice cubes, fill an ice-cube tray halfway with water; freeze until firm, about 1 1/2 hours. Place one or two pieces of desired fruit in each section of the tray. Fill with water; freeze until firm, about 1 1/2 hours. If desired, substitute lemonade or a light-colored juice for the water. II. Gravity Chart When making layered drinks, also known as a Pousse Cafe, youll need to know which ingredients are heavier than the others. The technique is simple; the heaviest liquor is poured into the glass first, and the lighter ones are layered carefully on top with the lightest one on top. This table lists some common liquors, along with their Specific Gravity that is the weight of the liquor relative to water. Higher values indicate heavier liquor. Name  Gravity Color Southern Comfort  0.97 Tuaca  0.98 Amber Water  1.00 White Green Chartreuse  1.01 Green Cointreau  1.04 White Peach liqueur  1.04 Dark amber Sloe gin  1.04 Deep red Kummel  1.04 White Peppermint schnapps  1.04 White Benedictine  1.04 Brandy  1.04 Amber Midori melon liqueur  1.05 Green Rock and Rye  1.05 Amber Apricot brandy  1.06 Amber Blackberry brandy  1.06 Dark red Cherry brandy  1.06 Dark red Peach brandy  1.06 Dark amber Campari  1.06 Red Yellow Chartreuse  1.06 Yellow Drambuie  1.08 Frangelico or   Page 25  
  26. 26. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  Orange Curacao  1.08 Orange Triple sec  1.09 White Tia maria  1.09 Brown Apricot liqueur  1.09 Amber Blackberry liqueur  1.10 Dark red Amaretto  1.10 Light brown Blue Curacao  1.11 Blue Cherry liqueur  1.12 Dark red Galliano  1.11 Golden yellow Green Crème de Menthe  1.12 Green White Crème de Menthe  1.12 White Strawberry liqueur 1.12 Red Parfrait dAmour  1.13 Violet Coffee liqueur  1.14 Dark brown Crème de Banane  1.14 Yellow Dark Crème de Cacao  1.14 Brown White Crème de Cacao  1.14 White Kahlua  1.15 Dark brown Crème de Almond  1.16 Crème de Noyaux  1.17 Bright red Anisette  1.17 White Crème de Cassis or   Page 26  
  27. 27. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  III. WHISKY Single Malt For a whisky to be called a single malt, it must have been made using malted barley (see Making Whisky) and come from one distillery, although single malts will most likely have come from more than one cask within the distillery. These whiskies are the most prized by whisky drinkers and Royal Mile Whiskies specialize in single malts. Single Cask Malt Due to the individual nature of each cask, a whisky from one cask can differ quite dramatically from the next. In typical single malt, what you are drinking is from a group of casks that have been combined to provide the flavours that best match the character of the malt named on the label. Achieving a consistency over the years is one of the great skills of the master distiller – the customer needs to know that when she enjoyed 10 year old Talisker, if she buys a bottle again, it’s going to taste as expected. The other side of the coin is the individuality of single casks. Some selected casks will have unique characteristics that make them ideal candidates for single cask bottlings. As a result, you will often see limited edition bottlings with the bottle number and cask number on the bottle, offering something a little more unique than standard bottlings. Vatted/Blended Malt Simply a combination of single malts from different distilleries in a single bottling. Following controversy in late 2004, the Scotch Whisky Association changed the category of Vatted or Pure Malt to Blended Malt, supposedly to avoid future confusion. Not everyone was happy about it, but hopefully the name Blended Malt will stick! The key point to remember is that a Blended Malt contains no grain whisky, whereas a traditional blend contains a combination of malt and grain whisky (see below). Johnnie Walker Green Label and Compass Box’s Eleuthera are both excellent examples of vatted/blended or   Page 27  
  28. 28. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  Grain Whisky While malt whisky is made using purely malted barley, grain whisky uses only a small proportion of barley, together with other cereals such as wheat or maize. This has the first effect on the whisky produced. The second difference is the way it is then made. Malt whisky is made using the pot-still for distilling whisky (see Making Whisky for a description and a picture of pot-stills), which, while it produces great whisky, is quite inefficient. Grain whiskies, on the other hand are made using the more modern, efficient system of the Coffey, or Patent still, which works continuously rather than in batches. It is therefore cheaper and quicker to produce grain whisky than it is to produce malt whisky. Blended Whisky Most whisky drunk across the world is blended whisky. Famous Grouse, Bells, Teachers, Whyte and Mackay and Johnnie Walker are a few of the most famous names. The whisky blender will use a base of perhaps 50%-60% grain whisky then add a combination of malt whiskies from several malt whisky distilleries. It allows the blender to combine different elements of various whiskies together to create a flavour he is looking for. While blends tend to be viewed as being inferior in quality to single malts, there are some excellent blended whiskies available that should not be ignored. Age An often recognised mark of a whisky is its age. Marketing men use the age of an older whisky as a badge that somehow indicates its quality. What it is more likely to indicate is the effort spent in making it (time) and the rarity value that it holds however. 12 year olds will sometimes be chosen over an 18 year old, while in other cases, a 25 year old might have flavours and qualities that its younger counterparts cannot get close to. Whether the older the whisky is automatically better varies from one whisky to the next, depending on the individual qualities of each whisky and the way that they were made, before being bottled. On the whole, its best not to make the mistake of assuming that older whiskies are always or   Page 28  
  29. 29. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  Vintage The year that the cask has been filled is increasingly being seen on packaging, so that you know what you year the whisky in the bottled was produced. Macallan Gran Reserva, the Classic Malts Distillers Edition bottlings and all single cask bottlings and many others display the vintage. Cask Strength/Regular ABV Before most whiskies are bottled, water is added to bring the alcohol content down to a level where it can be drunk without inflicting pain on yourself. Just try drinking a cask strength malt at around 60% ABV (alcohol by volume) and see for yourself! As a result, most whiskies are bottled at around 40% or 43% ABV. Some whiskies are bottled at cask strength, however. If you do buy a cask strength whisky, it will tend to be more expensive, to reflect the increased volume of whisky there will be once it is watered down. Chill-filtration Before being bottled, most whisky is chill-filtered. This process involves (as the name suggests) cooling the whisky and straining out trace elements. The result is that no sediment or particles can then find their way into the bottle. Also, whisky will naturally go cloudy when water is added (particularly as the alcohol volume drops below 46% ABV). Chill-filtration prevents this clouding. By removing these trace elements, you may end up with a whisky that is easier on the eye, but you also lose some of the flavours of the whisky. As a result, many single cask bottlings available are non chill- filtered and some distilleries have moved over to using no chill-filtration at all, such as Ardbeg. Volume The standard size of whisky bottling is 0.7 of a litre, or 70cl in the UK. Half sizes at 35cl are also produced as are 5cl miniatures by most distilleries. More unusual sizes you will find are 20cl, 50cl, 75cl 1 litre and 2 litres amongst or   Page 29  
  30. 30. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  Single/Double Matured All Scotch must be matured in oak casks for a minimum of three years. Using casks made from newly cut oak is not an option however. New casks give off strong woody flavours that can ruin the flavour of whisky. Therefore the casks used are second hand, most having been used to store either sherry or bourbon first for a good period of time. In some cases, the distillery will buy the wood that is used to make the casks, then ‘rent’ the casks to bourbon or sherry producers before taking them back, the casks having spent the first stage of their lives with bourbon or sherry maturing within them. Glenmorangie are one of the companies who do just this in order to ensure that they achieve the level of quality they are looking for in their casks. A whisky may sit in the cask it was initially poured into for its lifetime before being bottled. The life of a whisky may not end once it leaves its first cask mind you. More and more distilleries are now experimenting with casks that have been used to hold other spirits as a second stage of the maturation process. Casks that have once held chardonnay, port and madeira are just a few of the options that distilleries have tried successfully. Distillery Bottled/Independent bottled Most bottles of malt that you find are bottled by the distillery that created the whisky. There are also numerous independent bottlers, including Royal Mile Whiskies, that will buy casks of whisky from a distillery in order to bottle it themselves. The result is that as each cask varies slightly, each individual bottling is slightly different from the next, each having their own character. Other major independents who we buy whisky from include Gordon & MacPhail, Signatory, Compass Box, Murray McDavid, and Hart Brothers. We feature whiskies from all of these independents on the site, especially our own! What is a single whisky? A single whisky is the product of one particular or   Page 30  
  31. 31. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  What is meant by saccharify? To saccharify means to convert to sugar. In whisky distilling it refers to the process which takes place during the malting and mash-tun stages by which enzymes in the malt, referred to as diastase, turn the starch in the cereals into sugar ready for the fermenting action of the yeast. What is diastase? When conditions of temperature and moisture favour germination, the embryo and associated parts of the barley grain secrete a mixture of enzymes commonly known as diastase. These act to modify and make soluble the starch in the barley, thus preparing it for conversion at a later stage to maltose. What is wort? Wort is the liquid drawn off the mash-tun in which the malted and unmalted cereals have been mashed with warm water. Wort contains all the sugars of the malt and certain secondary constituents. After cooling, it is passed to the fermenting vats. In Malt distilleries the cereals are all malted; in Grain distilleries a proportion only is malted, the remainder being unmalted. In some cases, Grain distilleries do not separate off wort, passing the complete mash to the fermentation vessels. What is wash? The wort or mash technically becomes wash as soon as yeast is added to start fermentation. However, the term is usually used to refer to the liquid at the end of the fermentation. It is the wash which forms the raw material of the first distillation in the Pot Still process and of the only distillation in the Patent Still or   Page 31  
  32. 32. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  What is the pot still distillation? Malt Whisky is distilled twice - although a few distilleries may undertake a third distillation - in Pot Stills which resemble huge copper kettles. The spirit is driven off from the fermented liquid as a vapour and then condensed back to a liquid. In the first distillation the fermented liquid, or wash, is put into the Wash Still, which is heated either directly by fire or by steam-heated coils. At this stage the wash contains yeast, crude alcohol, some unfermentable matter and the by-products of fermentation. During the process of boiling the wash, changes take place in its constituents which are vital to the flavour and character of the whisky. As the wash boils, vapours pass up the neck of the still and then pass through a water- cooled condenser or a worm, a coiled copper pipe of decreasing diameter enclosed in a water jacket through which cold water circulates. This condenses the vapours and the resulting distillate, known as low wines, is collected for re-distilling. The liquor remaining in the Wash Still is known as pot ale or burnt ale and is usually treated and converted into distillers’ solubles for animal feed. The low wines are distilled again in the Spirit Still, similar in appearance and construction to the Wash Still but smaller because the bulk of liquid to be dealt with is less. Three fractions are obtained from the distillation in the Spirit Still. The first is termed foreshots, the second constitutes the potable spirit, and the third is called feints. The foreshots and feints are returned to the process and redistilled in the Spirit Still with the succeeding charge of low wines. The residue in the still, called spent lees, is run to or   Page 32  
  33. 33. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  In the case of the Spirit Still, the design of the still, the height of the head (or top) of the still and the angle of the wide-diameter pipe or lyne arm, connecting the head to the condensing unit, are all very important and have an effect on the distillate. The Pot Still has changed little in general design over the centuries. What is patent still distillation? Unlike Malt Whisky, Grain Whisky is distilled in a continuous operation in a Patent Still. This is sometimes known as the Coffey Still, after Aeneas Coffey, who developed it in 1831. Steam is fed into the base of the analyser and hot wash into the top. As the two meet on the surface of the perforated plates, the wash boils and a mixture of alcohol vapours and uncondensed steam rises to the top of the column. The spent wash runs down and is led off from the base. The hot vapours enter the rectifier at the base and as they rise through the chambers they partially condense on the sections of a long coil through which wash is flowing. The spirit vapour condenses at the top of the rectifier and is run off through a water- cooled condenser to the spirit safe and on to the spirit receiver. Once the spirit begins to be collected it runs continuously until the end of distillation. Because of the rectifying element present in this process the distillate is generally lighter in aroma than most Malt Whiskies. It consequently has a milder character and requires less time to mature. What is the worm? The worm and its surrounding bath of cold running water, or worm-tub, form together the condenser unit of the Pot Still process of manufacture. The worm itself is a coiled copper tube of decreasing diameter attached by the lyne arm to the head of the Pot Still and kept continuously cold by running water. In it the vapours from the still or   Page 33  
  34. 34. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  Fed by the still, it in turn feeds the receiving vessel with the condensed distillate. The worm is being replaced gradually by the more modern tubular condenser. What are low wines? This is the name given to the product of the first distillation in the Pot Still process of manufacture. It is the distillate derived from the wash and contains all the alcohol and secondary constituents and some water. It forms the raw material of the second distillation, which is carried out in the Spirit Still. The feints and foreshots are added to the low wines when the Spirit Still is charged. What is pot ale? Pot ale, alternatively burnt ale, is the liquor left in the Wash Still after the first distillation in the Pot Still process. It is the residue of the wash after the extraction by distillation of the low wines. IV. BRANDY A. ARMANAC HISTORY OF BRANDY The origins of brandy are unclear, and tied to the development of distillation. Concentrated alcoholic beverages were known in ancient Greece and Rome and may have a history going back to ancient Babylon. Brandy as it is known today, first began to appear in the 12th century and became generally popular in the 14th century. Initially wine was distilled as a preservation method and as a way to make the wine easier for merchants to transport. The intent was to add the water removed by distillation back to the brandy shortly before consumption. It was discovered that after having been stored in wooden casks, the resulting product had improved over the original or   Page 34  
  35. 35. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  ARMAGNAC Armagnac, the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but without double distillation. Armagnac production is overseen by a Bureau National Interprofessionel de lArmagnac (BNIA). Armagnac is the only true rival to Cognac for recognition as the finest producer of brandy in the world. Along with Cognac and Jerez in Spain, it is one of only three officially demarcated brandy regions in Europe. Its quantity of production is significantly lower than that of the Cognac region; for every six bottles of Armagnac sold around the world there are one hundred bottles of cognac sold. Armagnac has been making brandy for around 200 years longer than Cognac. Geography The Armagnac region lies between the Adour and Garonne rivers in the foothills of the Pyrenees. A part of this historical region is permitted to grow the grapes that are used in the manufacture of brandy that may be labelled with the Armagnac name. This area was officially demarcated when Armagnac was granted AOC status in 1936. The official production area is divided into three districts which lie in the departements of Gers, Landes and Lot-et-Garonne. These are: • Bas Armagnac - the largest area of production • Tenarèze • Haut Armagnac Each of these areas is controlled by separate appellation regulations. Although the term bas means "lower" in French, the best armagnacs are principally produced in Bas Armagnac. Production The region contains 40,000 acres of grape-producing vines. The production of Armagnac differs in several ways from that of Cognac. Armagnac is only distilled once and at a lower temperature to Cognac, meaning that the former retains more of the fruit character, whereas Cognacs second distillation results in greater balance. Armagnacs are aged for longer periods than Cognac, though this has or   Page 35  
  36. 36. Bali Hospitality Professional Services   April      2009  BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE  impact on the grape once it has been distilled. Armagnac is aged in black oak giving them darker characteristics than Cognac. Aging Requirements for Armagnac are • Three star — 2 years • VS — 3 years • VO, VSOP or Reserve ADC — 5 years • Extra, XO, Napoleon or Vieille Reserve — 6 years • Hors d’Age — 10 years Grapes Ten different varieties of grape are authorised for use in the production of Armagnac. Of these, four form the principal part: • Ugni Blanc • Folle Blanche • Baco 22A • Colombard The remaining varieties include Jurançon and Picquepoul. Producers The main producers of Armagnac are: • Sempe • Larressingle • De Montal • Cerbios • B. Gelas • Samalens • Darroze • Laberdolive • Marquis de Caussade or   Page 36