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Italian Unification

Italian Unification

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  • Austria ruled Italian provinces of Venetia and Lombardy in the north, and several small states.South – Spanish Bourbon family rules Kingdom of Two Sicilies
  • Transcript

    • 1. Ch 23-5 Quiz
      Five “Great” Powers
      Principles guiding the convention
      Metternich wants to go
      Balance of power
      A new map of Europe
      Congress System
      Kings restored to power
      Accomplishments of the congress (creation of Germanic Confederation, etc.)
      19th Century Political Spectrum (Conservative or Liberal)
      How the Congress of Vienna tried to create peace and stability in Europe
      Stuff to Review: 23-5 TCN, section 23-5 in book, Europe After the Congress of Vienna map and questions, Congress of Vienna visual organizer, and 19th Century Political Spectrum worksheet
    • 2. 23-4: Nationalism
      Case Study: Italy
    • 3. Review?
      Nationalists: people who believe that people of a single “nationality” should unite under a single government
      Goal of Nationalists? Create a NATION-STATE
      Bonds that create a nation-state? Nationality, Language, Culture, Religion, History, and Territory
    • 4. MAIN IDEA
      The force of nationalism contributed to the formation of two new nations (Germany and Italy) and a new political order in Europe.
    • 5. Case Study: ITALY
      Italian Unification / Risorgimento
    • 6.
    • 7. Italy up to 1815
      Italian Peninsula had not been unified since the fall of the Roman Empire. In 1815:
      Austria rules Italian provinces of Venetia and Lombardy in North
      Spain rules Kingdom of Two Sicilies
      Most spoke the same language, but the peninsula divided into competing states (each with its own government)
      Napoleon had invaded Italy
      United many states under one government
      Unification did not last
      Congress of Vienna split these states back up
    • 8. Desire for Unification
      Groups in several Italian states began to push the idea of a unified Italian state
      Italian unification seen as being against Austrian Empire
      Most powerful force against unification
      Metternich stated that the word Italy was “purely a geographic expression”
      Pope opposd to Italian unification
      Differences on what Italy would be: confederation under pope? Republic? Kingdom?
    • 9. The Movement for Unity Begins
    • 10. Italian Nationalist Leaders
      Count Cavour (The “Head”)
      Giuseppi Garibaldi (The “Sword”)
      Giuseppi Mazzini (The “Heart”)
      King Victor Emmanuel II
    • 11. Giuseppi Mazzini(1805 – 1872)
      The “Heart”
      1832: forms Young Italy
      Nationalist group
      Fight for unification of Italian states through popular uprising
      Attracts people to the cause of Italian unification
      Works for a democratic republic
    • 12. Giuseppi Garibaldi(1807-1882)
      The “Sword”
      Met Mazzini in 1833
      Joined Young Italy
      Failed insurrection, flees to Brazil in 1834
      Participates in Brazilian movement for independence
      Back to Italy in 1849, flees to US and then UK
    • 13. Count Camillodi Cavour(1810-1861)
      The “Mind”
      Wealthy aristocrat
      Journalist for Il Risorgimento
      Favors an expanded Piedmont
      Became Prime Minister of Piedmont on 4 November 1852
    • 14. Victor Emmanuel II(1820-1878)
      Became king of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1849
      Gave Camillodi Cavour the title of Prime Minister
      Became symbol of the Italian Risorgimento
    • 15. Steps to Italian Unification
      #1: Mazzini develops his Italian unification ideology; failed attempts at revolting (1830s, 1840s)
      #2: Cavour & Napoleon III Meet at Plombières, 1858
      #3: Austro-Sardinian War, 1859
      #4: Austro-Prussian War, 1866
      #5: Garibaldi & His “Red Shirts” Unite with Cavour
      #6: French Troops Leave Rome, 1870
      Italy is unified!
    • 16. Pact of PlombièresSummer of 1858
      Cavour and Napoleon III sign secret agreement
      What is in the agreement?
      Joint war against Austria
      Piedmont gain Austrian territories in Italy (Lombardy and Venetia), as well as Duchies of Parma and Modena
      France gets Savoy and Nice
    • 17. Austro-Sardinian War of 1859
      War started by Austrians after Piedmontese begin mobilizing an army
      Ultimatum to Piedmont: Demobilize army of Austria will fight
      Piedmont won’t demobilize, Austria declares WAR
      France intervenes on Piedmont’s side
      Short war, significant battles
      Battle of Magenta
      Battle of Solferino
    • 18. Results of War of 1859
      Austrians pushed out of Lombardy; forces march into Venetia
      Italian patriots in Tuscany, Modena, and Parma overthrew Austrian rulers and asked to be annexed to kingdom of Sardinia  Napoleon III signs armistice with Austria
      Armistice agreement:
      Sardinia receives Lombardy
      Austria keeps Venetia, returns to power in Tuscany, Modena, and Parma
      Napoleon III gets Nice and Savoy (even though he had only partially delivered on deal)
    • 19. Plebiscites held in Parma, Modena, and Tuscany vote the Austrian empire to join the Sardinian kingdom
    • 20. By 1860, four states remain:
      1) Sardinia-Piedmont, (2) Venetia, (3) Papal States, and (4) Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
    • 21. Austro-Prussian War, 1866
      Italy supports Prussia
      Austria is defeated, Italy gets Venetia
    • 22. Garibaldi and the “Red Shirts” Unite with Cavour
      Garibaldi invades Sicily and takes control of island
      Garibaldi moves to mainland
      Takes Naples (capital of Two Sicilies)
      Calls for help from Sardinia-Piedmont
      Combined army defeats army of Two Sicilies
    • 23. French Troops Leave Rome, 1870
      French troops stationed in Rome to support the pope
      Garibaldi demands that Italian state attack Rome; Italy refuses
      Garibaldi + 2,000 volunteers move on Rome; stopped by Italian troops
      Agreement – French troops will leave by 1866…but they return
      Outbreak of Franco-Prusian War
      French troops leave
      Italy takes Rome after French defeat
      Pope withdraws
      Rome becomes capital of Italy
    • 24. A Unified Peninsula!