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Italian Unification

Italian Unification

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  • Austria ruled Italian provinces of Venetia and Lombardy in the north, and several small states.South – Spanish Bourbon family rules Kingdom of Two Sicilies

Italianunificationppt Italianunificationppt Presentation Transcript

  • Ch 23-5 Quiz
    Five “Great” Powers
    Principles guiding the convention
    Metternich wants to go
    Balance of power
    A new map of Europe
    Congress System
    Kings restored to power
    Accomplishments of the congress (creation of Germanic Confederation, etc.)
    19th Century Political Spectrum (Conservative or Liberal)
    How the Congress of Vienna tried to create peace and stability in Europe
    Stuff to Review: 23-5 TCN, section 23-5 in book, Europe After the Congress of Vienna map and questions, Congress of Vienna visual organizer, and 19th Century Political Spectrum worksheet
  • 23-4: Nationalism
    Case Study: Italy
  • Review?
    Nationalists: people who believe that people of a single “nationality” should unite under a single government
    Goal of Nationalists? Create a NATION-STATE
    Bonds that create a nation-state? Nationality, Language, Culture, Religion, History, and Territory
    View slide
  • MAIN IDEA
    The force of nationalism contributed to the formation of two new nations (Germany and Italy) and a new political order in Europe.
    View slide
  • Case Study: ITALY
    Italian Unification / Risorgimento
  • Italy up to 1815
    Italian Peninsula had not been unified since the fall of the Roman Empire. In 1815:
    Austria rules Italian provinces of Venetia and Lombardy in North
    Spain rules Kingdom of Two Sicilies
    Most spoke the same language, but the peninsula divided into competing states (each with its own government)
    Napoleon had invaded Italy
    United many states under one government
    Unification did not last
    Congress of Vienna split these states back up
  • Desire for Unification
    Groups in several Italian states began to push the idea of a unified Italian state
    Italian unification seen as being against Austrian Empire
    Most powerful force against unification
    Metternich stated that the word Italy was “purely a geographic expression”
    Pope opposd to Italian unification
    Differences on what Italy would be: confederation under pope? Republic? Kingdom?
  • The Movement for Unity Begins
  • Italian Nationalist Leaders
    Count Cavour (The “Head”)
    Giuseppi Garibaldi (The “Sword”)
    Giuseppi Mazzini (The “Heart”)
    King Victor Emmanuel II
  • Giuseppi Mazzini(1805 – 1872)
    The “Heart”
    1832: forms Young Italy
    Nationalist group
    Fight for unification of Italian states through popular uprising
    Attracts people to the cause of Italian unification
    Works for a democratic republic
  • Giuseppi Garibaldi(1807-1882)
    The “Sword”
    Met Mazzini in 1833
    Joined Young Italy
    Failed insurrection, flees to Brazil in 1834
    Participates in Brazilian movement for independence
    Back to Italy in 1849, flees to US and then UK
  • Count Camillodi Cavour(1810-1861)
    The “Mind”
    Wealthy aristocrat
    Journalist for Il Risorgimento
    Favors an expanded Piedmont
    Became Prime Minister of Piedmont on 4 November 1852
  • Victor Emmanuel II(1820-1878)
    Became king of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1849
    Gave Camillodi Cavour the title of Prime Minister
    Became symbol of the Italian Risorgimento
  • Steps to Italian Unification
    #1: Mazzini develops his Italian unification ideology; failed attempts at revolting (1830s, 1840s)
    #2: Cavour & Napoleon III Meet at Plombières, 1858
    #3: Austro-Sardinian War, 1859
    #4: Austro-Prussian War, 1866
    #5: Garibaldi & His “Red Shirts” Unite with Cavour
    #6: French Troops Leave Rome, 1870
    Italy is unified!
  • Pact of PlombièresSummer of 1858
    Cavour and Napoleon III sign secret agreement
    What is in the agreement?
    Joint war against Austria
    Piedmont gain Austrian territories in Italy (Lombardy and Venetia), as well as Duchies of Parma and Modena
    France gets Savoy and Nice
  • Austro-Sardinian War of 1859
    War started by Austrians after Piedmontese begin mobilizing an army
    Ultimatum to Piedmont: Demobilize army of Austria will fight
    Piedmont won’t demobilize, Austria declares WAR
    France intervenes on Piedmont’s side
    Short war, significant battles
    Battle of Magenta
    Battle of Solferino
  • Results of War of 1859
    Austrians pushed out of Lombardy; forces march into Venetia
    Italian patriots in Tuscany, Modena, and Parma overthrew Austrian rulers and asked to be annexed to kingdom of Sardinia  Napoleon III signs armistice with Austria
    Armistice agreement:
    Sardinia receives Lombardy
    Austria keeps Venetia, returns to power in Tuscany, Modena, and Parma
    Napoleon III gets Nice and Savoy (even though he had only partially delivered on deal)
  • Plebiscites held in Parma, Modena, and Tuscany vote the Austrian empire to join the Sardinian kingdom
  • By 1860, four states remain:
    1) Sardinia-Piedmont, (2) Venetia, (3) Papal States, and (4) Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
  • Austro-Prussian War, 1866
    Italy supports Prussia
    Austria is defeated, Italy gets Venetia
  • Garibaldi and the “Red Shirts” Unite with Cavour
    Garibaldi invades Sicily and takes control of island
    Garibaldi moves to mainland
    Takes Naples (capital of Two Sicilies)
    Calls for help from Sardinia-Piedmont
    Combined army defeats army of Two Sicilies
  • French Troops Leave Rome, 1870
    French troops stationed in Rome to support the pope
    Garibaldi demands that Italian state attack Rome; Italy refuses
    Garibaldi + 2,000 volunteers move on Rome; stopped by Italian troops
    Agreement – French troops will leave by 1866…but they return
    Outbreak of Franco-Prusian War
    French troops leave
    Italy takes Rome after French defeat
    Pope withdraws
    Rome becomes capital of Italy
  • A Unified Peninsula!