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Italian Unification

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  • Austria ruled Italian provinces of Venetia and Lombardy in the north, and several small states.South – Spanish Bourbon family rules Kingdom of Two Sicilies
  • Italianunificationppt

    1. 1. Ch 23-5 Quiz<br />Five “Great” Powers<br />Principles guiding the convention<br />Metternich wants to go<br />Balance of power<br />A new map of Europe<br />Congress System<br />Kings restored to power <br />Accomplishments of the congress (creation of Germanic Confederation, etc.)<br />19th Century Political Spectrum (Conservative or Liberal)<br />How the Congress of Vienna tried to create peace and stability in Europe<br />Stuff to Review: 23-5 TCN, section 23-5 in book, Europe After the Congress of Vienna map and questions, Congress of Vienna visual organizer, and 19th Century Political Spectrum worksheet<br />
    2. 2. 23-4: Nationalism<br />Case Study: Italy<br />
    3. 3. Review?<br />Nationalists: people who believe that people of a single “nationality” should unite under a single government<br />Goal of Nationalists? Create a NATION-STATE<br />Bonds that create a nation-state? Nationality, Language, Culture, Religion, History, and Territory <br />
    4. 4. MAIN IDEA<br />The force of nationalism contributed to the formation of two new nations (Germany and Italy) and a new political order in Europe. <br />
    5. 5. Case Study: ITALY<br />Italian Unification / Risorgimento<br />
    6. 6.
    7. 7. Italy up to 1815<br />Italian Peninsula had not been unified since the fall of the Roman Empire. In 1815:<br />Austria rules Italian provinces of Venetia and Lombardy in North<br />Spain rules Kingdom of Two Sicilies<br />Most spoke the same language, but the peninsula divided into competing states (each with its own government)<br />Napoleon had invaded Italy<br />United many states under one government<br />Unification did not last<br />Congress of Vienna split these states back up<br />
    8. 8. Desire for Unification<br />Groups in several Italian states began to push the idea of a unified Italian state<br />Italian unification seen as being against Austrian Empire <br />Most powerful force against unification<br />Metternich stated that the word Italy was “purely a geographic expression”<br />Pope opposd to Italian unification<br />Differences on what Italy would be: confederation under pope? Republic? Kingdom?<br />
    9. 9. The Movement for Unity Begins<br />
    10. 10. Italian Nationalist Leaders<br />Count Cavour (The “Head”)<br />Giuseppi Garibaldi (The “Sword”)<br />Giuseppi Mazzini (The “Heart”)<br />King Victor Emmanuel II<br />
    11. 11. Giuseppi Mazzini(1805 – 1872)<br />The “Heart”<br />1832: forms Young Italy<br />Nationalist group<br />Fight for unification of Italian states through popular uprising<br />Attracts people to the cause of Italian unification<br />Works for a democratic republic<br />
    12. 12. Giuseppi Garibaldi(1807-1882)<br />The “Sword”<br />Met Mazzini in 1833<br />Joined Young Italy<br />Failed insurrection, flees to Brazil in 1834<br />Participates in Brazilian movement for independence<br />Back to Italy in 1849, flees to US and then UK<br />
    13. 13. Count Camillodi Cavour(1810-1861)<br />The “Mind”<br />Wealthy aristocrat<br />Journalist for Il Risorgimento<br />Favors an expanded Piedmont<br />Became Prime Minister of Piedmont on 4 November 1852<br />
    14. 14. Victor Emmanuel II(1820-1878)<br />Became king of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1849<br />Gave Camillodi Cavour the title of Prime Minister<br />Became symbol of the Italian Risorgimento<br />
    15. 15. Steps to Italian Unification<br />#1: Mazzini develops his Italian unification ideology; failed attempts at revolting (1830s, 1840s)<br />#2: Cavour & Napoleon III Meet at Plombières, 1858<br />#3: Austro-Sardinian War, 1859<br />#4: Austro-Prussian War, 1866<br />#5: Garibaldi & His “Red Shirts” Unite with Cavour<br />#6: French Troops Leave Rome, 1870<br />Italy is unified!<br />
    16. 16. Pact of PlombièresSummer of 1858<br />Cavour and Napoleon III sign secret agreement<br />What is in the agreement?<br />Joint war against Austria<br />Piedmont gain Austrian territories in Italy (Lombardy and Venetia), as well as Duchies of Parma and Modena<br />France gets Savoy and Nice<br />
    17. 17. Austro-Sardinian War of 1859<br />War started by Austrians after Piedmontese begin mobilizing an army<br />Ultimatum to Piedmont: Demobilize army of Austria will fight<br />Piedmont won’t demobilize, Austria declares WAR<br />France intervenes on Piedmont’s side<br />Short war, significant battles<br />Battle of Magenta<br />Battle of Solferino<br />
    18. 18. Results of War of 1859<br />Austrians pushed out of Lombardy; forces march into Venetia<br />Italian patriots in Tuscany, Modena, and Parma overthrew Austrian rulers and asked to be annexed to kingdom of Sardinia  Napoleon III signs armistice with Austria<br />Armistice agreement:<br />Sardinia receives Lombardy<br />Austria keeps Venetia, returns to power in Tuscany, Modena, and Parma<br />Napoleon III gets Nice and Savoy (even though he had only partially delivered on deal)<br />
    19. 19. Plebiscites held in Parma, Modena, and Tuscany vote the Austrian empire to join the Sardinian kingdom<br />
    20. 20. By 1860, four states remain:<br />1) Sardinia-Piedmont, (2) Venetia, (3) Papal States, and (4) Kingdom of the Two Sicilies<br />
    21. 21. Austro-Prussian War, 1866<br />Italy supports Prussia<br />Austria is defeated, Italy gets Venetia<br />
    22. 22. Garibaldi and the “Red Shirts” Unite with Cavour<br />Garibaldi invades Sicily and takes control of island<br />Garibaldi moves to mainland<br />Takes Naples (capital of Two Sicilies)<br />Calls for help from Sardinia-Piedmont<br />Combined army defeats army of Two Sicilies<br />
    23. 23. French Troops Leave Rome, 1870<br />French troops stationed in Rome to support the pope<br />Garibaldi demands that Italian state attack Rome; Italy refuses<br />Garibaldi + 2,000 volunteers move on Rome; stopped by Italian troops<br />Agreement – French troops will leave by 1866…but they return<br />Outbreak of Franco-Prusian War<br />French troops leave<br />Italy takes Rome after French defeat<br />Pope withdraws<br />Rome becomes capital of Italy<br />
    24. 24. A Unified Peninsula!<br />