Austria ruled Italian provinces of Venetia and Lombardy in the north, and several small states.South – Spanish Bourbon family rules Kingdom of Two Sicilies
Ch 23-5 Quiz Five “Great” Powers Principles guiding the convention Metternich wants to go Balance of power A new map of Europe Congress System Kings restored to power Accomplishments of the congress (creation of Germanic Confederation, etc.) 19th Century Political Spectrum (Conservative or Liberal) How the Congress of Vienna tried to create peace and stability in Europe Stuff to Review: 23-5 TCN, section 23-5 in book, Europe After the Congress of Vienna map and questions, Congress of Vienna visual organizer, and 19th Century Political Spectrum worksheet
Review? Nationalists: people who believe that people of a single “nationality” should unite under a single government Goal of Nationalists? Create a NATION-STATE Bonds that create a nation-state? Nationality, Language, Culture, Religion, History, and Territory
MAIN IDEA The force of nationalism contributed to the formation of two new nations (Germany and Italy) and a new political order in Europe.
Case Study: ITALY Italian Unification / Risorgimento
Italy up to 1815 Italian Peninsula had not been unified since the fall of the Roman Empire. In 1815: Austria rules Italian provinces of Venetia and Lombardy in North Spain rules Kingdom of Two Sicilies Most spoke the same language, but the peninsula divided into competing states (each with its own government) Napoleon had invaded Italy United many states under one government Unification did not last Congress of Vienna split these states back up
Desire for Unification Groups in several Italian states began to push the idea of a unified Italian state Italian unification seen as being against Austrian Empire Most powerful force against unification Metternich stated that the word Italy was “purely a geographic expression” Pope opposd to Italian unification Differences on what Italy would be: confederation under pope? Republic? Kingdom?
Italian Nationalist Leaders Count Cavour (The “Head”) Giuseppi Garibaldi (The “Sword”) Giuseppi Mazzini (The “Heart”) King Victor Emmanuel II
Giuseppi Mazzini(1805 – 1872) The “Heart” 1832: forms Young Italy Nationalist group Fight for unification of Italian states through popular uprising Attracts people to the cause of Italian unification Works for a democratic republic
Giuseppi Garibaldi(1807-1882) The “Sword” Met Mazzini in 1833 Joined Young Italy Failed insurrection, flees to Brazil in 1834 Participates in Brazilian movement for independence Back to Italy in 1849, flees to US and then UK
Count Camillodi Cavour(1810-1861) The “Mind” Wealthy aristocrat Journalist for Il Risorgimento Favors an expanded Piedmont Became Prime Minister of Piedmont on 4 November 1852
Victor Emmanuel II(1820-1878) Became king of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1849 Gave Camillodi Cavour the title of Prime Minister Became symbol of the Italian Risorgimento
Steps to Italian Unification #1: Mazzini develops his Italian unification ideology; failed attempts at revolting (1830s, 1840s) #2: Cavour & Napoleon III Meet at Plombières, 1858 #3: Austro-Sardinian War, 1859 #4: Austro-Prussian War, 1866 #5: Garibaldi & His “Red Shirts” Unite with Cavour #6: French Troops Leave Rome, 1870 Italy is unified!
Pact of PlombièresSummer of 1858 Cavour and Napoleon III sign secret agreement What is in the agreement? Joint war against Austria Piedmont gain Austrian territories in Italy (Lombardy and Venetia), as well as Duchies of Parma and Modena France gets Savoy and Nice
Austro-Sardinian War of 1859 War started by Austrians after Piedmontese begin mobilizing an army Ultimatum to Piedmont: Demobilize army of Austria will fight Piedmont won’t demobilize, Austria declares WAR France intervenes on Piedmont’s side Short war, significant battles Battle of Magenta Battle of Solferino
Results of War of 1859 Austrians pushed out of Lombardy; forces march into Venetia Italian patriots in Tuscany, Modena, and Parma overthrew Austrian rulers and asked to be annexed to kingdom of Sardinia Napoleon III signs armistice with Austria Armistice agreement: Sardinia receives Lombardy Austria keeps Venetia, returns to power in Tuscany, Modena, and Parma Napoleon III gets Nice and Savoy (even though he had only partially delivered on deal)
Plebiscites held in Parma, Modena, and Tuscany vote the Austrian empire to join the Sardinian kingdom
By 1860, four states remain: 1) Sardinia-Piedmont, (2) Venetia, (3) Papal States, and (4) Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Austro-Prussian War, 1866 Italy supports Prussia Austria is defeated, Italy gets Venetia
Garibaldi and the “Red Shirts” Unite with Cavour Garibaldi invades Sicily and takes control of island Garibaldi moves to mainland Takes Naples (capital of Two Sicilies) Calls for help from Sardinia-Piedmont Combined army defeats army of Two Sicilies
French Troops Leave Rome, 1870 French troops stationed in Rome to support the pope Garibaldi demands that Italian state attack Rome; Italy refuses Garibaldi + 2,000 volunteers move on Rome; stopped by Italian troops Agreement – French troops will leave by 1866…but they return Outbreak of Franco-Prusian War French troops leave Italy takes Rome after French defeat Pope withdraws Rome becomes capital of Italy