China Powerpoint: 28-1

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China Powerpoint: 28-1

  1. 1. China Responds to Pressure from the West<br />Ch. 28, Section 1<br />
  2. 2. Overview 28-1<br />China’s resistance to foreigners in 1800s<br />Peasant Rebellions<br />Effects of China’s struggle with reform<br />Growth of nationalism in China<br />
  3. 3. Setting the Stage<br />Qing Dynasty: 1644 – 1912<br />Structure?<br />22 provinces<br />“Dowager” Empress Cixi<br />Late 18th century:<br />Stable<br />Secure<br />
  4. 4. China Resists Foreign Influence<br />*<br />
  5. 5. China Remains Self-Sufficient<br />Chinese looked down on foreigners<br />Qing China Economy<br />Agricultural economy <br />11th century – acquired a strain of quick-growing rice<br />Maize, sweet potatoes, and peanuts from Americas<br />Mining: salt, tin, silver, and iron<br />Manufacturing: silk, high-quality cotton, fine porcelain<br />Self-sufficient and decidedly isolated<br />
  6. 6. Tea-Opium Connection<br />Guangzhou (gwang.joh): only Southern port available for trade<br />Balance of trade<br />In China’s favor<br />British import tea; China receives mainly silver…<br />Silver supply drains<br />British merchants smuggle opium into China<br />
  7. 7. Tea-Opium Connection<br />
  8. 8. Opium<br />Habit-forming narcotic<br />Made from poppy plant<br />Used to relieve pain, medical-use<br />18th century – nonmedical use<br />12 million Chinese addicted to drug – social, moral, and economic problems<br />
  9. 9. “By what right do they [British merchants]…use the poisonous drug [opium] to injure the Chinese people?...I have heard that the smoking of opium is very strictly forbidden by your country; that is because the harm caused by opium is clearly understood. Since it is not permitted to do harm to your country, then even less should you let it be passed on to the harm of other countries”<br />Lin Zexu writes to Queen Victor<br />What does he want from Britain?<br />What evidence is he using in this plea?<br />
  10. 10. Opium War1839<br />Chinese try to end opium trade<br />Addicts rounded up and forcibly treated<br />Domestic drug dealers punished<br />Confiscates foreign stores and forces foreign merchants to sign pledges of good conduct<br />British want to increase England’s China trade, refuse to end trade<br />
  11. 11. What conflicting British and Chinese positions led to the Opium War?<br />British desire to trade with China and shift balance of trade in its own favor<br />Chinese resented harm of opium on citizens<br />
  12. 12. Opium War<br />China – outdated ships<br />Britain – gunboats, cannons, heavy artillery<br />Disaster for Chinese <br />
  13. 13. Results of Opium War<br />Britain gains Hong Kong<br />Extraterritorial rights: U.S. and other foreign citizens exempt from Chinese law at four Chinese ports besides Guangzhou<br />Opium trade continued<br />
  14. 14. Recap4/11<br />Early 1800s, China has little interest in trading with Western nations<br />British import large amounts of tea from China and smuggle opium into the country<br />War breaks out when British refuse to stop trading opium<br />
  15. 15. 5 Minute QuizYou may use your notes<br />Name the last dynasty of China.<br />Explain how the balance of trade shifted from favoring China to favoring Great Britain in the early 1800s.<br />Name the two rebellions.<br />
  16. 16. 7 Minute QuizYou may use your notes<br />Qing Dynasty<br />Great Britain began smuggling in opium.<br />Boxer Rebellion & Taiping Rebellion<br />
  17. 17. Recap4/11<br />Early 1800s, China has little interest in trading with Western nations<br />British import large amounts of tea from China and smuggle opium into the country<br />War breaks out when British refuse to stop trading opium<br />
  18. 18. Internal Problems Increase<br />Population boom, but food production doesn’t increase<br />Widespread hunger<br />Bad years of Yellow River flooding<br />Government corruption<br />Opium addiction steadily increased<br />
  19. 19. Internal Problems  People Rebel Against Government!<br />
  20. 20. Hong Xiuquan(1814-1864)<br />Wants to “destroy evil”; evil = Qing dynasty<br />Personal vision of Christianity <br />Influenced by Christian missionaries<br />No opium, tobacco, alcohol, or gambling<br />Men equal to women…but divided<br />Mystical visions, save the world<br />“Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace”, no poverty!<br />Leader of Taiping Rebellion<br />
  21. 21. Taiping Rebellion<br />Taiping = “great peace”<br />1840s – began organizing a peasant army (men and women) from southern China <br />By 1853 – 1 million soldiers<br />Captured Nanjing and declared capital, controlled large areas of southern China<br />
  22. 22. Taiping Rebellion<br />1864: Qing regained control of China<br />But huge amounts of farmland destroyed<br />At least 20 million died<br /><ul><li>Summary?</li></ul> 14-year peasant revolt against Qing dynasty to fix internal problems that fails.<br /><ul><li>Why is the Taiping Rebellion important?</li></ul>example of discontent with government in Qing China<br />Government greatly weakened by rebellion!<br />
  23. 23. Recap<br />Internal problems: poverty, corruption, famine<br />Internal problems  Rebellions<br />Taiping Rebellion<br />
  24. 24. China Wrestles with Reform<br />Resists modernization<br />Self-strengthening movement<br />Spheres of Influence<br />Open Door Policy<br />
  25. 25. Pressure Increases on China<br />Internal Pressures: Taiping rebellion and other small uprisings<br />External Pressures: Foreign powers, Treaty of Nanjing<br />Ideas on how to deal with pressures?<br />Reforms patterned on Western ways?<br />Continue to honor Chinese traditions & resist reform<br />
  26. 26. Dowager Empress Cixir. 1861-1908<br />Dowager = endowed; widower who holds a title or property from her deceased husband<br />De facto ruler, makes the decisions<br />Conservative force<br />
  27. 27. Cixi Resists Change<br />Committed to traditional values, overall<br />Self-Strengthening Movement<br />Update China’s educational system, diplomatic service, and military<br />Mixed results<br />Military production good for morale<br />BUT, foreign workers run arsenals…and materials imported (imbalance in trade)<br />
  28. 28. Brain Warm-Up<br />During the 19th century, Europeans were able to divide China into spheres of influence mainly because the<br />Chinese were eager to adopt western culture<br />Europeans had technologically superior military forces<br />Europeans were willing to adopt Chinese customs<br />Chinese lacked raw materials and resources<br />
  29. 29. Brain Warm-Up<br />During the 19th century, Europeans were able to divide China into spheres of influence mainly because the<br />Chinese were eager to adopt western culture<br />Europeans had technologically superior military forces<br />Europeans were willing to adopt Chinese customs<br />Chinese lacked raw materials and resources<br />
  30. 30. Other Nations Step In<br />Other nations saw weak military technology, economic and political problems<br />Take advantage and attack China  West gets increasing control over China’s economy<br />Sphere of influence: region in which foreign nation controlled trade and investment<br />
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Spheres of Influence<br />What importance did spheres of influence have for China and for the nations involved?<br />Weakened China’s control over its economy and gave foreign nations ability to exploit Chinese resources. <br />
  33. 33. Open-Door Policy<br />Open-Door Policy: China’s “doors” open to merchants of all nations. Protects trading rights of foreign powers and China is free from colonization!<br />Who passes this?<br />Why?<br />How does China benefit? <br />United States<br />Worried other nations would begin dividing China into colonies and that the United States would be left out.<br />No colonization…still at mercy of foreign powers<br />
  34. 34. Recap<br />Internal problems create need for reform. <br />Chinese resist modernization, but Self-Strengthening Movement<br />Western nations and Japan gain spheres of influence in China<br />U.S. promotes Open Door Policy to assure trading rights for all nations and to protect China from colonization<br />
  35. 35. Chinese Nationalism Grows<br />Reform efforts & reaction<br />Boxer Rebellion<br />Reform Begins<br />
  36. 36. Hundred Days of Reform<br />Guangxu: China’s young emperor (Cixi is still really in charge)<br />Introduces measures to modernize China<br />Education<br />Strengthen economy<br />Modernize military<br />Streamline government<br />Measured as threat to Qing officials power…Guangxu arrested<br />No long-term change<br />Importance? Increases people’s frustration with government<br />
  37. 37. Why did Emperor Guangxu’s efforts at reform and modernization fail?<br />
  38. 38. Boxer Rebellion<br />Why? Campaign against Empress’ rule and foreigner privilege<br />Secret Society of Harmonious Fists / AKA Boxers<br />
  39. 39. Boxer Rebellion<br />Spring 1900<br />“Death to the Foreign Devils”<br />Siege of Beijing<br />Cixi verbally supports, but no military help<br />August, 1900: multinational force of 20,000 troops quickly defeat Boxers<br />
  40. 40. Boxer Rebellion<br />Summary?<br />Importance? <br />Peasant and worker rebellion against foreigners and empress rule, crushed by external powers<br />Strong sense of nationalism emerges – Chinese people must resist more foreign intervention<br />Desire for government to be more responsive (beginnings of reform)<br />
  41. 41. Beginnings of Reform<br />1905 – Empress sent Chinese officials to study foreign governments<br />1906 – officials recommend restructure government based on constitutional monarchy of Japan; to be enacted fully by 1917<br />
  42. 42. Recap of Themes<br />Imperialism / Foreign Intervention<br />China = self-sufficient…until OPIUM WAR<br />Sphere of influence<br />Open-Door Policy<br />Internal Problems<br />Opium<br />Population<br />Government problems<br />Taiping Rebellion<br />Growth of Nationalism <br />Boxer Rebellion<br />Reform<br />Self-Strengthening Movement<br />Hundred Days of Reform<br />Beginnings of Reform, 1905<br />
  43. 43. In-Class Writing<br />Do you think the opium trade was finally more harmful or beneficial to China? Explain.<br />The effects of the Opium War<br />Other Chinese responses to foreign influence<br />The aftermath of the Boxer Rebellion<br />

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