33-2 Powerpoint


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33-2 Powerpoint

  1. 1. Chinese Civil War & Triumph of Communism<br />Material taken from 30-3 and 33-2<br />
  2. 2. Sun Yixian<br />Who is Sun Yixian?<br />Why is he significant?<br />
  3. 3. Chinese Warlords, 1920s<br />Yuan Shikai<br />Warlords in power in many districts<br />Kuomintang has control of southern China<br />Yuan Shikai<br />
  4. 4. The Communist Party in China<br />
  5. 5. Lenin Befriends China<br />W. Democracies don’t support Sun Yixian’s request for aid… turn to USSR<br />Kuomintang (in south) allies with Chinese Communist Party (CCP)<br />Lenin sends help to China<br />What forms of help does Lenin send?<br />Military advisers, equipment, Chinese soldiers go to Moscow for training<br />
  6. 6. Nationalists and Communists Clash<br />Nationalists and Communists fight against warlords together<br />Soon Jiang turns against Communists<br />
  7. 7. Jiang Jieshi Becomes President of Nationalist China, 1928<br />
  8. 8. Jiang Jieshi<br />AKA Chiang Kai-Shek<br />Political and military leader of China<br />Nationalist Party<br />Ruled as a dictator<br />Fears Communists goal of Socialist economy<br />1927 Communist Purges<br />
  9. 9. Peasants Align Themselves with Communists<br />Jiang’s government: promises democracy…but very corrupt<br />Does not improve life of peasants<br />Peasants turn to Communist Party<br />
  10. 10. Mao’s Version of Communism?<br />Lenin – got support from the workers in the cities<br />Mao – support of the rural peasants in China<br />
  11. 11. Civil War in China<br />
  12. 12. Guerilla Tactics?<br />Retreat when enemy advances<br />Harass when enemy encamps<br />Attack when enemy hesitates<br />Pursue when enemy retreats<br />
  13. 13. What were the results of the Long March?<br />2/3 did not complete journey<br />Turning point of Chinese Civil War: More Chinese people joined the Communists<br />
  14. 14. The Long March<br />1933: Nationalists surrounded Communists; outnumber 6:1<br />1934: Communists fled<br />6,000 mile-long journey<br />Lasts more than a year<br />Starts out with 100,000; 10-30,000 reach NW China safely<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Japan’s Invasion Suspends the Civil War<br />1931: invade Manchuria<br />1937: all-out invasion of China<br />What is the effect of Japan’s invasion on the Civil War?<br />Civil War stops when Nationalists and Communists join forces against Japan<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Civil War in China<br />U.S. supports Nationalists -- $2 billion in aid; army outnumbers Communists 3:1<br />Communists, however – public support & guerilla tactics<br />
  19. 19. Reasons for the Communists’ Success<br />Mao won support of peasants<br />Mao won support of women<br />Mao’s army used guerilla war tactics<br />Many saw Nationalist government as corrupt<br />Many felt that the Nationalists allowed foreigners to dominate China<br />
  20. 20. People’s Republic of China<br />October 1949: Nationalists flee<br />3. What aspect of the Communist approach do you think was most responsible for Mao’s victory?<br />
  21. 21. Barebones Civil War<br />
  22. 22. Mao Zedong<br />1893-1976<br />Revolutionary, leader of Long March<br />Leader of China 1943-1976<br />
  23. 23. Mao’s Reforms<br />
  24. 24. “Great Leap Forward”<br />1958<br />Ambitious program to expand success of 1st Five Year Plan<br />Larger collective farms (communes)<br />Strict control of communes – huge communities<br />
  25. 25. “Great Leap Forward”… or “Great Leap Backward?”<br />Poor planning<br />Inefficient industries<br />Crop failures<br />Discontinued in 1961<br />NOTE: YOUR PAPER SAYS 1861…fix it<br />
  26. 26. What circumstances prevented Mao’s Great Leap Froward from bringing economic prosperity to China?<br />Mao’s strict socialism<br />Life in a commune<br />Environmental problems<br />
  27. 27. New Policies and Mao’s Response<br />Territorial disputes; Soviet aid to China stops<br />Mao reduces role of government<br />Relaxes strict socialism until 1966<br />
  28. 28. Cultural Revolution<br />Red Guards: student-formed militia units<br />Goal – establish society of peasants and workers in which all were equal<br />Shut down colleges and schools<br />Target anyone with privileges or resisted regime<br />Thousands executed or died in jail<br />
  29. 29. Cultural Revolution1966-1976<br />Chaos; factories and farm production threatened<br />Red Guards dissolved<br />Radical movement led to calls for modernization in China and a more moderate approach<br />
  30. 30. How did this radical China become an ally of the United States?<br />China began opening up door again in the 1970s<br />Modernizing China – agriculture, industry, defense, and science / technology<br />Eliminate many of Mao’s reforms (communes, etc.)<br />China is still Communist<br />
  31. 31. U.S. doesn’t approve of Communist regime in China…but open to them economically<br />2000: U.S. voted to normalize trade with China…best way to prompt change is through greater engagement<br />Today…Google issues in China<br />How did this radical China become an ally of the United States?<br />
  32. 32. China Today<br />Economy forecasted to be bigger than U.S. economy by 2016<br />China still has planned economy…but keeps opening up to further western influence<br />Human rights discussion in China <br />
  33. 33. One-Child Policy <br />Introduced in 1978, implemented 1979<br />Family permitted to have one child<br />Policy has developed – <br />Fines for extra children, plus have to pay for education and health care<br />Multiple births ARE allowed<br />Implications:<br />Male: Female = 117:100 (vs. average of 103:100)<br />Infanticide, forced abortions, abandoning children<br />Not implemented the same throughout China – some districts = more strict than others<br />March 2011 – reconsidered, discuss possibility of 2 child policy?<br />
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