28-3 Powerpoint: US Economic Imperialism in Latin America


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Class Notes -- Week 2 Latin America

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28-3 Powerpoint: US Economic Imperialism in Latin America

  1. 1. 28-3: U.S. Economic Imperialism in Latin America<br />
  2. 2. Latin America After Independence<br />
  3. 3. Effects of Independence<br />No unity<br />Feuds among leaders<br />Geographic barriers<br />More poverty <br />Political instability<br />Social hierarchy continues<br />Conservative / Liberal Divide<br />Conservatives favor social order<br />Liberals want land reform<br />Dependence of foreign nations for capital and for economic investments<br />
  4. 4. Latin America can’t unify<br />Disunity <br />Failure of Bolivar’s dream<br />Many newly independent countries struggle with civil wars<br />By 1830s, geographic factors (mountains, the Amazon, etc.) plus cultural differences defeated attempts at unification<br />Gran Colombia<br />United Provinces of Central America<br />
  5. 5. Cycle of Poverty“Rich get richer, poor get poorer”<br />Rich get richer: <br />Landowners bought land seized by new government, got wealthier<br />Unequal distribution of land<br />Peonage: use of laborers bound in servitude because of debt<br />Large landowners paid workers in vouchers (for the landowners store)<br />Prices higher than vouchers<br />Workers go into debt; debt is passed down <br />
  6. 6. Political Instability<br />Caudillos<br />Dictators who were popular generals held power<br />Supported by upper classes<br />Rule by bribery, patronage, and force<br />By 1830, nearly all countries ruled by caudillos<br />Little opposition to caudillos<br />Democracy was not part of colonial heritage<br />
  8. 8. Economic Development<br />Colonies were only allowed to trade with “mother countries” (Mexico trades with Spain, etc.)<br />Great Britain and U.S. become key post-colonial trading partners<br />
  9. 9. Old Products and New Markets<br />Trade continued to be more exports than imports<br />Increase in exports <br />Steamships, railroads, refrigeration, meat, and produce<br />Industry did not develop on big scale<br />
  10. 10. Outside Investment and Interference<br />Investment not made to help people <br />Not building roads, schools, or hospitals<br />Loans were made by wealthy nations<br />High interest rates!<br />Debt<br />Unable to pay loans<br />Drain on Latin American economy<br />Foreigners gained control over much of Latin American economy<br />
  11. 11. United States and Latin America<br />
  12. 12. U.S. Dominate Affairs in Americas<br />1823 Monroe Doctrine<br />US takes Texas and Mexican cession (28.4)<br />U.S. gains independence for Cuba<br />Roosevelt Corollary<br />U.S. sent troops to Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua<br />U.S. built Panama Canal<br />
  13. 13. Monroe Doctrine (1823)<br />Europeans not allowed to colonize in the Americas<br />Great Britain supports this policy<br />European colonization in western hemisphere = attack on U.S.<br />
  14. 14. How does the Monroe Doctrine look in practice?Example: Cuba<br />
  15. 15. Cuba<br />Cuba tried to get independence from Spain  war from 1868-78<br />José Martí<br />Cuban writer who was exiled for calls for independence<br />Died in battle in Cuba 1895<br />
  16. 16. Spanish-American War<br />U.S. intervene (backed by Monroe Doctrine)<br />4 month war<br />U.S. and Cuba vs. Spain<br />U.S. defeated Spain in 1898<br />Cuba became independent…<br />BUT was ruled by a dictator who was installed by U.S.<br />U.S. gains: Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines from Spain<br />
  17. 17. Spanish-American War<br />
  18. 18. A man a plan a canal Panama<br />
  19. 19. Panama Canal<br />Canal would cut the 13,000 mile trip in half<br />Attempted by the French in 1880s, but they fail<br />
  20. 20. Theodore Roosevelt<br />President from 1901-1909<br />Offers Colombia $$ to build canal; Colombia wants more<br />Supports Panama’s revolution for independence from Colombia (won in 1903)<br />In exchange for support, Panama gives U.S. strip of land to build canal<br />
  21. 21. U.S. Motives for Building Canal?<br />MONEY (economic interest)<br />POWER (strategic interest)<br />
  22. 22. Building the Canal<br />Built by U.S. over 10 years<br />Cost $380 million<br />Opened in 1914<br />Labor force averaged 40,000 men<br />Massive machines<br />Workers dug up more than 200 million cub yards of earth<br />
  23. 23. Problems in Building the Canal<br />Mosquitoes – yellow fever, malaria<br />Combated with nets and spraying<br />Rats – bubonic plague<br />Heat<br />Flooding<br />Many deaths<br />Frequent landslides<br />Culebra Cut<br />Worst accident of project<br />23 die – dynamite explodes too early<br />
  24. 24. Canal Facts<br />51-mile trip through canal takes 8-10 hours <br />Canal handles over 13,000 ships a year from 70 nations carrying 192 million short tons of cargo<br />Panama took control of canal on 12/31/99<br />
  25. 25. Roosevelt Corollary<br />U.S. needs to protect economic interest in Latin America<br />Roosevelt declares that U.S. would be international police power in western hemisphere<br />“Walk softly and carry a big stick”<br />
  26. 26. How does the Roosevelt Corollary differ from the Monroe Doctrine?<br />Monroe Doctrine – meant to discourage European intervention in Latin America<br />Roosevelt Corollary – authorizes U.S. intervention without any European involvement<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Increasing U.S. PowerThe “Colossus of the North”<br />United States sent troops to several nations in the early 1900s<br />U.S. forces entered Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Cuba to restore civil order<br />U.S. took control of finances in those countries – need to prevent financial chaos<br />Use Roosevelt Corollary to become more involved in Latin American affairs<br />