Tokugawa Shogunate 1603-1868 Characterized by isolation Japan closed off to all trade (except Dutch and Chinese) Centralized feudalism: strong central government
Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service.Japan: Shogun Land - Shoen Loyalty Daimyo Daimyo Land - Shoen Loyalty Samurai Samurai Samurai Food Protection Peasant Peasant Peasant Peasant
The emperor reigned, but did not always rule! Feudal Society
Social Structure Shogun: chief general who ran country Damiyo: great landowners Samurai: warrior knights
Japan ends its isolation
Facing the Demand for Foreign Trade Europeans and U.S. start to demand that Japan open up to foreign trade. Japan initially refuses
Commodore Matthew Perry 1853: Perry sails 4 steamships to harbor at Edo (Tokyo) with letter from President Millard Fillmore Letter – asks Japan to allow U.S. ships to refuel
Treaty of Kanagawa 1854: Japan opens up 2 ports to U.S. ships Why does Japan sign the Treaty of Kanagawa? Significance? Opens up door for other Western powers
Japan learns a lesson from the Chinese The Chinesehave become servants to the foreigners. Sovereignty may belong to China but in fact it's no more than a colony of Great Britain and France. Japanese diary entry, 1862
Remember China, the Opium Wars, etc??? Opium Wars – extraterritorial rights, etc. Open Door Policy Spheres of influence Japan is convinced that it has to open up to the west
The Shogunate is Overthrown! Japanese angry at shogun for agreeing to Kanagawa…losing control of country??
Emperor Mutsuhito Restored to Power
Meiji Restoration Meiji = Enlightened Look to west and adopt their ways
Start by leaving Japan & studying in various Western capitals.
End by returning to Japan and becoming a prominent government official.
Europe began to “loom large” in the thinking of many Japanese.
New slogan:Japanese Spirit; Western Technology!
The Japanese Became Obsessedwith Western Styles Civilization and Enlightenment!
LandRedistribution Public Education (U.S.) Abolitionof the feudal system ModernBankingSystem Modernize the Army(Prussian) MeijiReforms WrittenConstitution(Germans) Build aModern Navy(British) Human Rights & ReligiousFreedom EmperorWorshipIntensified
What’s the big idea???? Japan modernizes!!! Accepts western ideals…including IMPERIALISM
Japanese imperialism grows
Japanese Imperialism Military power by 1890. strongest military in Asia Eliminates extraterritorial rights of foreigners…promises fair treatment Empire-building to met security and economic needs
Japan Attacks ChinaSino-Japanese War 1894-1895 Fight over Korea China is expected to win… Japan wins. Signal of Japanese success Get Taiwan and Pescadore Islands
Russo-Japanese War1904-1905 War over Manchuria Japan wants Russia to stay out of Korea… 1904: surprise attack on Russia Japan wins… shocking to the entire world!
President Teddy Roosevelt Mediates the Peace The Treaty of Portsmouth, NH ended the Russo-Japanese War.
Treaty of Portsmouth Japan gets captured territories Russia stays out of Manchuria and Korea
Japan Annexes Korea
Korea under Japanese occupation Annexation: Adding a region to the territory of an already existing political unit. Japan annexes Korea in 1910 Rule? Harsh Control education, newspaper, prohibit public protest Land taken from farmers and given to settlers Modernize Korea
Next Steps… Modernization / Imperialism steps – could Japan have become an imperialized power if it had not modernized? Why or why not? Why does Japan become aggressive imperialist power? Compare / contrast Chinese and Japanese imperialism – responses, outcomes, etc.