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History Of Childrens Literature
 

History Of Childrens Literature

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    History Of Childrens Literature History Of Childrens Literature Presentation Transcript

    • History of Children’s Literature Presented by Prof. T. Méndez ENGL 3440 Children’s Literature in English
    • Early Works  Before the eighteenth century there were no separate categories of books for children.  Early books for children were strongly influenced by the conservative English beliefs of the seventeenth century.
    • Early Works  Childrenwere seen as amoral savages needing to be taught right from wrong.  Deathand damnation  Humor and imagination banned
    • Early Works  Johann Amos Comenius, 1592-1670  Joh. Amos Comenii Orbis Sensualium Pictus. London: Printed for S. Leacroft, 1777.  Translated as “The Visible World” or “The World Around Us in Pictures, was the first European schoolbook based on the idea of visual education.  This book is generally considered to be the first picture book specifically for children.
    • Early Works  John Bunyan, 1628-1688  The Pilgrim’s Progress: From this World to that which is to Come  This powerful religious allegory of man’s quest for salvation is one of the most influential books in English literature.
    • Early Works  John Foxe, 1516-1587  Actsand Monuments of Matters Most Special and Memorable, Happening in the Church  Oneof the most widely-read books in England
    • Early Works  Daniel Defoe, 1661-1731  TheLife and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe  Considered one of the first English Novels
    • Early Works A Little Pretty Pocket-book: Intended for the Instruction and Amusement of Little Mater Tommy, and Pretty Miss Polly  Firstpublished in English in 1744 by John Newbury  Considered the first children’s book
    • Early Works  Historyof Goody Two Shoes. Baltimore: Bayly and Burns, 1837  Thought to be the first piece of original English fiction written to amuse children.  Originally published by John Newbury in 1765.  Authorship is attributed to the English poet Oliver Goldsmith.
    • Early Works  Maria Edgeworth, 1767-1849  Frank and the Farmer. Troy, N.Y.: Merriam & Moore, circa 1850.  TheIrish author Maria Edgeworth was one of the earliest and most important woman writers for children.
    • Early Works  Isaac Watts, 1674-1748  Divine Songs Attempted in Easy Language for the Use of children, first published in 1715 was one of the first books expressly written for children.
    • Early Works - Chapbooks  Chapbooks were small inexpensive stitched tracts sold by itinerant merchants or chapmen, in western Europe and North America from the seventeenth to the early nineteenth century.
    • Chapbooks  The Pleasant and Delightful History of Jack and the Giants. Nottingham: Printed for the Running Stationers, 1790.  Famous Exploits of Robin Hood: Including an Account of his Birth, Education, and Death. Penrith [England]: Joseph Allison, circa 1800.
    • Chapbooks  The Renowned History of Richard Whittington and his Cat. New-Haven: Sidney's Press, 1826.  History of the Sleeping Beauty in the Wood. Glasgow: Printed for the booksellers, 1852  The Polish General, and Faithful Servant: to which is added The Wonderful Deliverance of a Soldier. Norwich: Printed by J. Payne, circa 1800.
    • Fables  Aesop’s Fables  Earliest written stories known to children  Sir Roger L’Estrange, 1616-1704  Fables of Aesop: and other eminent mythologists: with morals and reflexions  L’Estrange added “reflections” which further discussed the moral issues involved in the stories.
    • Fables  The Childs Illuminated Fable-book - William Smith, 1847  The use of chromolithography and the pseudo-mediaeval design reflects the craze of the middle of the nineteenth century for ornate gift books. Improvements in color printing technology made it possible to produce multicolored plates inexpensively.
    • Fairy Tales  Fairytales, which were passed down from generation to generation through oral tradition, were first collected and published in France in the seventeenth century.
    • Fairy Tales  Cinderella  Sleeping Beauty  Red Riding Hood  Puss in Boots  All derived from the “Tales of Long Ago” collected by Charles Perault in 1697.  Later on other versions of these stories were presented in different forms.
    • Fairy Tales  Jacob Grimm, 1785 - 1863  The Brothers Grimm collected and published German Popular Stories between 1812 and 1822  They collected over 200 stories from friends, storytellers and old books  Stories generally ended happily but filled with violence and trickery.
    • Books of Instruction  In eighteenth century books for children, the main concern was imparting religious and moral instruction and a code of social behavior.  By the beginning of the nineteenth century, there was a movement to extend the child’s education.
    • Books of Instruction  Books began to appear in the homes of the growing middle class.  The books often used a conversational approach of question and answer.  Used as a monologue on the part of the adult.
    • Primers  Originally the name of a prayer book  Simple books for teaching children letters, prayers and simple subjects.
    • Primers  Reproduction of a Horn Book. Boston: Printed by Otto H. Miller. Miller for the Horn Book, 1939.  The hornbook was the earliest form of children’s primer in England and America from the late 16th to the late 18th century.
    • Primers A sheet containing the letters of the alphabet, simple words, and a Bible verse was mounted on a wooden frame and protected with thin, transparent plates of horn.
    • Primers  My Little Primer. Worcester: S.A. Howland, 1800.  The verses in this small book include “Mary Had a Little Lamb” and “The Lord’s Prayer”.
    • Primers  The New Fun with Dick and Jane. Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Co., 1956.  From the 1930s to the 1960s, Dick and Jane books were synonymous with learning to read.
    • Pop-up and Movable Books  The books were called “harlequinades” due to the appearance of the Harlequin character in early versions first appearing during the seventeenth century.
    • Stories: Before 1850  Religious books  Requiring a stated moral perspective  Fairy tales and folk tales considered a threat to moral order  Literature developed to ensure children’s reading would reflect the conservative Protestantism of the time.
    • Stories: After 1850  Golden age of Children’s Literature in England and the United States.  Great writers teamed with great illustrators  Industrial revolution led to advances in printing.  Growing middle class increase interest in education, expanded audience for children’s books.
    • Stories: After 1850  Alice in Wonderland - Lewis Caroll  Little Women - Louisa May Alcott  The Adventures of Tom Sawyer - Mark Twain  The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn - Mark Twain  The Jungle Book - Rudyard Kipling
    • Stories: After 1850  The Wonderful Wizard of Oz - L. Frank Baum  Robin Hood and the Men of the Green Wood - Henry Gilbert  Treasure Island - Robert Louis Stevenson  Jumanji - Chris Van Allsburg
    • The Book Awards  The Newbery Medal  Winners chosen every year by the Association for Library Service to Children  Established in 1922  The Oldest award for children’s books.  Awarded to the author of the most distinguished contribution to American literture
    • The Book Awards  The Randolph J. Caldecott Medal  Established in 1938  Awarded to the most distinguished American picture book for children