Childrens Literature History Outline

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Childrens Literature History Outline

  1. 1. The History of Childrenʼs Literature I. A WORLDWIDE TRADITION OF STORY II. EARLY BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN CHILDREN'S LITERATURE A. The Oral Tradition ! ! 1. Beowulf ! ! 2. King Arthur ! ! 3. Fair Isabella ! ! 4. Poor peasant stories B. The Earliest Manuscripts ! ! 1. Picture Bibles ! ! 2. Lesson books ! ! 3. Available to the rich or teachers in monasteries ! ! 4. Format: Dialogue between the pupil and teacher; Q & A format; ! ! ! rhymed couplets, for easy memorization ! ! 5. Chaucer's Canterbury Tales - 1387 C. The Printed Book ! ! 1. Originated in China - A.D. 175 ! ! 2. Printing began in Holland - 1380 - 1420 D. Hornbooks, ABCs, and Primers ! ! 1. Hornbook - small wooden paddle with a pasted sheet of parchment ! ! ! ! printed with the alphabet, the vowels , and the Lord's Prayer. ! ! 2. ABC Books - 1514 ! ! 3. Primers - King Henry's Primer - 1548 E. Lasting Contributions of the Period ! ! 1. Very few books were available ! ! 2. The few books which existed were around for over 200 years III. CHILDREN'S BOOKS: THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES ! A. The "Goodly Godly" Books of the Puritans ! ! 1. Books influenced by religious beliefs ! ! 2. Concern for the salvation of children's souls ! ! 3. Spiritual Milk for Boston Babes in Either England, Drawn from the Breasts ! ! of Both Testaments for Their Souls' Nourishment - First book written and ! ! printed for children in the American colonies ! ! 4. Orbis Pictus, Johann Amos Comenius - 1659 - First picture book for ! ! children B. Lighter Fare ! ! 1. Chapbooks - late 1500's ! ! 2. First printed Fairy Tales - Stories or Tales of Time Past, wtih Morals - Tales ! ! of Mother Goose - Charles Perault - 1697 ! ! ! a. Included stories: The Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, Red Riding ! ! ! Hood, Puss-in-Boots, Blue Beard. ! ! 3. Beauty and the Beast - Mme. d' Aulnoy ! ! 4. Arabian Nights - Collection of old tales from India, Persia, and North Africa
  2. 2. ! ! 5. Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book - Mary Cooper - 1744 - Oldest ! ! surviving nursery rhyme book ! ! 6. Robinson Crusoe - Daniel Defoe ! C. Newbery Publishes for Children ! ! 1. A Little Pretty Pocket-Book - John Newbury - 1744 - Amusement for ! ! children appears for the first time. ! ! IV. CHILDREN'S LITERATURE: THE NINETEENTH CENTURY A. Books of Instruction and Information B. Family Stories ! ! 1. The rise of women writers ! ! 2. Little Women, Luisa May Alcott - 1868 ! ! 3. Katy Series, Susan Coolidge ! C. Tales of Adventure ! ! 1. Treasure Island - Robert Louis Stevenson - 1883 ! ! 2. The Adventures of Tom Sayer - Mark Twain - 1876 ! ! 3. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn - Mark Twain - 1884 D. Animal Stories ! ! 1. Black Beauty - Anna Sewell - 1877 ! ! 2. The Jungle Books - Rudyard Kipling - 1894-1895 E. The Rise of Folktale Collections and Fantasy ! ! 1. Household stories - Brothers Grimm ! ! 2. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland - Lewis Carroll - 1865 ! ! 3. Journey to the Center of the Earth - Jules Verne - 1865 ! ! 4. Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea - Jules Verne - 1869 ! ! 5. Around the World in Eight Days - Jules Verne - 1872 ! ! 6. Harlequinades, or turn-ups - 1766 F. Poetry ! ! 1. The Night Before Christmas - Sarah Josepha Hale - 1830 G. Magazines ! ! 1. Charm - 1853 - First true children's magazine for English children ! H. Illustrators of the Nineteenth Century ! ! 1. George Cruikshank - illustrated Grimm's Fairy Tales ! ! 2. Throughout the centuries as printing techniques developed, more and ! ! more illustrators were inspired to contribute to children's books. ! ! 3. Randolph Caldecott emerged setting new standards. V. CHILDREN'S LITERATURE: THE TWENTIETH CENTURY A. Recognition of Children's Literature ! ! 1. Children's Book Week - Promoted by Frederick Melcher - 1919 ! ! 2. Children's Book Concil - Established in 1945 ! ! 3. Newbury Medal - 1922
  3. 3. ! ! 4. Caldecott Medal - 1938 ! ! 5. Addition of Children's Departments in publishing firms. B. The Rise of the Picture Storybook ! ! 1. Tale of Peter Rabbit - Beatrix Potter ! ! 2. Clever Bill - William Nicholson - 1927, the first true picture storybook ! ! 3. Millions of Cats - Wanda Gag - 1928, first American picture storybook ! ! 4. The Little House - Virginia Lee Burton - 1942 - first sociology book for kids ! ! 5. And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street - 1937 - Dr. Seuss ! ! 6. Illustrations were usually stereotyped, but throughout the years that ! ! gradually changed C. The Growth of Nonfiction Books ! ! 1. Increased understanding of human development. ! ! 2. Children seen as naturally curious and active information seekers. ! ! 3. Biographies appear - first genre to represent people of color to children ! ! D. Folktales of the World ! ! 1. Pura Belpré - first Puerto Rican librarian in the New York Public Library ! ! system. Published Perez and Martina in 1932. ! ! 2. Various collections with folklore of the world are presented to children. E. Fantasy ! ! 1. Fantasy stories started out as simple stories such as animals that talked ! ! or a stories of different worlds. ! ! 2. Throughout the years, fantasy stories for children have become more ! ! complex and enriched with various characters, fantastical worlds. ! ! 3. Wizard of Oz ! ! 4. Dr. Doolittle ! ! 6. J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter Series F. Poetry ! ! 1. Children's poet - Walter de la Mare - published the first children's poetry ! ! book - Songs of Childhood (1902) ! ! G. Historical Fiction ! ! 1. The first Newbury Medal Winner - The Story of Mankind - (1921) Hendrik ! ! Van Loon H. Contemporary Realistic Fiction ! ! 1. At the beginning of the twentieth century, this time of writing was provided ! ! and well accepted by children. ! ! 2. Little Woman ! ! 3. These books also reflected the changes in society and history. ! ! 4.. Social issues were addressed such as war, drugs, divorce, abortion, sex ! ! and homosexuality. VI. THE MULTICULTURAL LITERATURE OF CHILDREN'S BOOKS A. The Rise of Multicultural Literature
  4. 4. ! ! 1. La Edad de Oro - (1889) - Cuban writer José Martí published a journal ! which lasted four issues. This journal contained various essays, stories, poems ! and biographies with the intent of addressing social issues. ! ! 2. This journal established a landmark in multicultural literature. B. Defining Multicultural Literature ! ! 1. A term used to refer to at least three kinds of literature: world literature ! (literature from non-Western countries), cross-cultural literature (literature about ! relations between cultural groups or by authors writing about a cultural group other ! than their own), minority literature or literature from parallel cultures (literature ! written by members of a parallel culture that represents their unique experiences as ! members of that culture) (Cai and Bishop, 1994). ! ! C. An International Literature for Children ! ! 1. Providing access of these various books to our children is imperative for ! ! them to appreciate the various cultures and societies. ! ! VII. RECENT TRENDS IN CHILDREN'S BOOKS A. Children's Books: Big Business ! ! 1. Enormous growth in children's book publishing occurred in the late 1980s. ! ! 2. Number of juvenile hardcover books published skyrocketed to 13,522. B. Shifts in Publishing Emphases ! ! 1. Picture storybooks are still available but have decreased in quantity. ! ! 2. Publishers now push for series books such as the Harry Potter series. ! ! C. Changes in Writing and Illustration ! ! 1. Children's books are no longer necessarily written in the third person and ! ! the the past tense. ! ! 2. Stories can be told from different points of view. ! ! 3. Technology has also helped in lifting restrictions from the type of ! ! illustrations accepted for books. D. Children's Literature in the School and Community ! ! 1. With the change in government policies, the use of real book reading has ! ! diminished in schools. ! ! 2. Budget cuts have caused for fewer purchase of real literature and ! ! textbooks have become the norm. ! ! E. The Development of a Multiliterate Society ! ! 1. Our society has been called a postliterate society. ! ! 2. Due to the advances in technology, the reading population has !! ! ! diminished. ! ! 3. More publishers are putting books on discs or making them available for ! ! downloading onto personal digital players such as the iPod. ! ! 4. Chatrooms are now available for sharing read books with other readers. ! ! 5. These new trends create a muliliterate society. ! !

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