1. Based on cost of previous wind farms developed.2. Jobs from Renewable Energy and Efficiency. (see bibliography)
Wind by Tom and Morgan
Wind! Tom Melburn Morgan Van Ness
Wind Energy Basics• Sun heats land/atmosphere. Hotter air rises and cooler air flows quickly to fill the gaps left from the hot air. That air rushing in is wind. <1.Kinetic energy (wind) <<5.Mechanical Energy (turbine) <<<10.Electrical Energy (Electricity)
History• 5000 B.C.: boats traveled by wind• 200 B.C.: windmills used to pump water and grind grains• 11th century: Windmills used extensively in Middle East for food production, influenced Europeans• 1887: first electricity generating windmill built in Scotland by Prof James Blyth• 1890: Larger wind turbines appeared in Denmark
In 25 years, wind turbines have increased in height and diameter by 100m (>300ft)!!The wind turbines have increased in potential energy generation by 9,900%!!! (50kW->5MW)
Wind Resources in the USBased on the resource map of average winds incertain locations, wind turbines only in the Dakota’sand Texas could produce enough energy to power theUnited States. (currently wind provides 2.3%) According to the National Renewable Energy Lab, the US has the potential to install over 10,000 GW of onshore wind power at a 30% Capacity Factor. That is 9 times more than current US electricity consumption.
Capacity Factor of Wind Farms• Capacity Factor is the ratio of actual energy produced to the hypothetical maximum at full power. So, a capacity factor of 50% means that a power plant would operate at 100% power 50% of the time. These vary considerably between energy sources (Below). Nuclear- 90% Natural Gas- 85% CF should not be confused with efficiency, which attempts to understand the Coal- 80% mechanical conversion efficiency. Rather Biomass- 80% CF represents the the base-load potential Hyrdoelectric- 45% that resource can utilize. (Wind does have one of the higher efficiencies Wind- 33% though~90%) Solar- 20%
Distribution and Capacity• Offshore winds faster and stronger, produce more energy• Over 600 MW of offshore wind energy installed worldwide• US has 47 GW installed onshore as of December 2011• EU has 93 GW total installed
Utah Utah has over 327 Megawatts of developed wind (Of which, goes to CA.) 400 to 600 MW are planned to be developed by 2013Spanish Fork Milford
The Chokecherry and Sierra Madre Wind farm- Wyoming USA • 1,000 wind turbines • Approximately 2,500 megawatts • Best winds in the country – Class 6-7 • $4B-$6B estimated cost • 2013 construction start725-mile transmission line will have to bebuilt from Wyoming to California.• 3,000 MW capacity• 600 kV HVDC• 725-mile proposed route• 3-year construction creating 1,000+ jobs each year• $3B estimated cost
Economical Considerations of Wind• Wind resource development requires large amounts of upfront costs. For example, a 500MW wind farm costs between $600 million and $1.5 billion.1 (Depending on grid connection costs)• Generally, purchase power agreements are made that ensure stable, low cost energy over a period of time ranging from 20- 25 years.• Based on a research study, 2.6 jobs are created for each 1 Megawatt of energy built.2• Transmission lines must be incorporated into the costs for transportation of wind energy. Transmission lines are eligible for federal subsidizations because these improve grid efficiency.• Rural development of wind energy can allow for communities to invest in their power source.
Concerns with Wind • Impact on wildlife and natural environment • Aesthetic and aural issues w/local residents • $$$http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=8OZgoERceSU
Final thoughts on Wind Energy• Wind energy is intermittent. When the wind does not blow, wind turbines provide 0 energy.• Energy storage is the only solution to the intermittency problem. Depending on new technological breakthroughs, energy storage could change the way we produce and consume energy.• Depending on the regulatory atmosphere and whether or not pollution laws are implemented, the cost margin between wind and other conventional resources could be greatly reduced.• Economically and Technologically, wind would be able to provide 100% of energy in the entire world.• The main barriers to large scale development of wind are social and political factors.
William Kamkwambahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jnD3 4IsuduA
BibliograpghyEnergy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/aeo/index.html."GWEC Global Wind Statistics 2011" (pdf). Global Wind Energy Commission. Retrieved 15 March 2012.http://offshorewindfarms.org/http://www.windustry.org/wind-basics/learn-about-wind-energy/wind-basics-wind-energy-today-and-tomorrow/wind-energy-today-andhttp://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/wind_installed_capacity.asphttp://www.ewea.org/index.php?id=180http://utahcleanenergy.org/our_work/utah_wind_power_campaign/utah_wind_projects_developmentWerner, Carol. “Jobs From Renewable Energy and Efficiency. Environmental and Energy Study Institute.”8 Nov. 2007. www.eesi.org/files/EEREJobsFactSheet_11-8-07_0.pdf