Chapter 4


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Chapter 4

  1. 1. Chapter 4<br />Learning Disabilities<br />
  2. 2. Learning Disabilities<br />A disability in which the individual possess average intelligence but is substantially delayed in academic achievement. (Smith 125)<br />Largest Special education category, with over 50 percent of all students with disabilities identified as having it as their primary handicapping condition. (Smith, 123)<br />
  3. 3. Key Features of Definitions of Learning Disabilities<br /><ul><li>Table 4.1
  4. 4. Intelligence scores within the normal range
  5. 5. A significant discrepancy between academic achievement and expected potential
  6. 6. Not caused by other factors, such as cultural differences, educational opportunities, poverty, or other disabilities: the exclusion clause
  7. 7. Often manifested in language-related areas, such as communication, written language, or reading
  8. 8. Problems intrinsic to individual involving that person’s central nervous system, specific deficits in information processing, or the ability to learn
  9. 9. Learning problems specific and confined to one or two cognitive areas</li></li></ul><li>Learning Disabilities defined by IDEA<br />&quot;. . . a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.&quot;<br /> However, learning disabilities do not include, &quot;…learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.&quot;<br />
  10. 10. How are students identified with a learning disability?<br /><ul><li>Discrepancy formulas
  11. 11. The scores used in some states to determine eligibility for services designed for students with learning disabilities
  12. 12. Formulas measure the difference between a child’s potential, as measured by a standardized intelligence test, and the child’s actual academic achievement, determined by a standardized test
  13. 13. Standard scores represent a measure common to all tests so that the results can be compared
  14. 14. If students have a difference of 23 or more points between the scores they received on an intelligence test and on a n achievement test, they qualify for special education</li></li></ul><li>Example<br /><ul><li>Suzi is 10 years old and in fourth grade
  15. 15. She is reading at the first grade level
  16. 16. Able to solve third grade arithmetic problems
  17. 17. Has difficulty writing an organized coherent paragraph
  18. 18. Her standard score on an intelligence test is 100
  19. 19. Her standard achievement test is 72
  20. 20. She has been classified with a learning disability because the difference is greater than 23, and she qualifies for special education</li></li></ul><li>Problem?<br />Students can be identified in one school district with a learning disability but not in another school district<br />States differ from state to state on there eligibility of LD’s<br />Do not factor in cognitive or social abilities<br />
  21. 21. History of the Field<br /><ul><li>Learning disabilities was named on April 6, 1963 by Professor Sam Kirk
  22. 22. Kurt Goldstein began work with young men with brain injuries after WWI
  23. 23. Distractible, confused, hyperactive
  24. 24. Alfred Strauss and Heinz Werner continued Goldstein’s work
  25. 25. IDEA passed in 1975, and initiated in 1977
  26. 26. Number of students with learning disabilities have increased dramatically (chart 4.1)</li></li></ul><li>Learning Characteristics<br /><ul><li>Many researchers feel that the following learning characteristics impede students abilities to learn efficiently
  27. 27. Lack of motivation
  28. 28. Inattention
  29. 29. Inability to generalize
  30. 30. Insufficient problem-solving
  31. 31. Information-processing
  32. 32. Thinking skills</li></li></ul><li>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)<br /><ul><li>Students who display hyperactive behaviors, have difficulty attending to the task at hand , and tend to be impulsive
  33. 33. Affects 10 to 20 percent of the school age population
  34. 34. Not all students diagnosed qualify for special education services
  35. 35. Those who do have a co-existing condition of learning disabilities
  36. 36. Controversy is ADHD an LD?</li></li></ul><li>What do we do?<br />Follow IEP’s for students with LD’s<br />Create learning strategies<br />Maintaining an organized structured classroom<br />Introducing the lesson and its importance<br />Inclusion<br />
  37. 37. Through Adulthood<br />Follow up studies<br />How adults fare in society, and give us insight in the nature of this disability, and support they need.<br />Majority of students with LD’s drop out of school<br />Unemployed<br />Dependent upon their families<br />