During the 1960s and 1970 many different networks were running their own protocols and implementations.
The need arose for a common protocol to allow these networks to communicate with each other.
DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) began funding the research for a common protocol which became known as ARPANET.
TCP/IP evolved from ARPANET around 1978
ARPANET introduced the concept of layering.
In the early 1980s TCP/IP became the backbone protocol which joined networks such as ARPANET, NFSNET and other regional networks.
It was soon integrated into UNIX at the University of California (Berkeley) and was available to the public for a nominal fee.
TCP/IP is a Suite of Protocols
Rules for sending and receiving data across networks
Management and verification
TCP/IP stands for transmission control protocol/internet protocol.
TCP/IP is actually a collection of protocols, or rules, that govern the way data travels from one machine to another across networks.
The internet is based on TCP/IP.
TCP/IP has two major components: TCP and IP.
envelopes and addresses the data
enables the network to read the envelope and forward the data to its destination
defines how much data can fit in a single "envelope" (a packet)
The relationship between data, IP, and networks is often compared to the relationship between a letter, its addressed envelope, and the postal system.
breaks data up into packets that the network can handle efficiently
verifies that all the packets arrive at their destination
"reassembles" the data
TCP/IP can be compared to moving across country.
You pack your house in boxes and put your new address on them.
The moving company picks them up, makes a list of the boxes, and ships them across country along the most efficient route - this may mean putting your dishes and your bedroom furniture on different trucks.
Your belongings arrive at your new address. You consult your list to make sure that everything you shipped has arrived (in good shape), then you unpack your boxes and "reassemble" your house.
TCP/IP is a suite, or family, of protocols that govern the way data is transmitted across networks.
TCP/IP protocols work together to break the data into small pieces that can be efficiently handled by the network, communicate the destination of the data to the network, verify the receipt of the data on the other end of the transmission, and reconstruct the data in its original form.