IP Addressing Basics NAD710 Introduction to Networking Using Linux Portions of this presentation are from the online text ...
Where to start? <ul><li>Before you can connect two machines together you need a network card. </li></ul><ul><li>These marv...
MAC address <ul><li>Ethernet hardware addresses are 48 bits, expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits (0-9, plus A-F, capitalize...
Example Vendor codes <ul><li>00-00-0C Cisco  </li></ul><ul><li>00-00-0E Fujitsu  </li></ul><ul><li>00-00-0F NeXT  </li></u...
The ifconfig command  <ul><li>eth0  Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr  00:04:AC :16:54:4C   </li></ul><ul><li>inet addr:192.168....
Machines communicate via: <ul><li>MAC addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Arp resolves IP addresses to MAC addresses  http://www. ...
IP addresses <ul><li>Are assigned either </li></ul><ul><ul><li>statically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dynamically via bootp...
127.0.0.1 <ul><li>Network 127.0.0.0 is reserved for IP traffic local to your host. Usually, address 127.0.0.1 will be assi...
Private IP Addresses Table 2-1. IP Address Ranges Reserved for Private Use Class Networks A 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.25...
Example Network From Text
Public addresses <ul><li>Each Internet web site, be it a www site, ftp site, or mail server site needs to have a specific ...
Who servers out Public Addresses? <ul><li>The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>The In...
Example of Addressing <ul><li>The following slides help explain how an IP address is formed and the different classes of a...
IPv4 addresses are expressed in dotted decimal notation. For example, a 32-bit address may look like this in binary:
We convert each eight-bit block to decimal and separate the decimal values with periods or “dots”. The converted IPv4 addr...
Class A The largest grouping of addresses is the class A group. Class A network addresses can be identified by a unique bi...
Class B The next grouping of addresses is the class B group. Class B network addresses can be identified by a unique bit p...
Class C The next grouping of addresses is the class C group. Class C network addresses can be identified by a unique bit p...
Each of the three IP address classes has these characteristics
A device connected to a network may have one or many networking interfaces that require an IP address.
Devices with more than one interface are called  multihomed , and the process is called  multihoming
The process of providing more than one IP address on an interface is often called  multinetting  or  secondary addressing ...
Class A Subnet Table
Class B Subnet Table
Class C Subnet Table
Things to Remember <ul><li>RFC950 - old rules, over 5 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Still used in some netware servers, if u...
Review-RFC950 <ul><li>An IP Address is broken up into three parts: the network portion, the subnet portion (optional), and...
Rules - RFC950 <ul><li>All hosts on the same subnet must agree on the subnet mask. Otherwise, packets actually intended fo...
Rules - RFC950 <ul><li>No two different subnets can include the same host address.  </li></ul><ul><li>The top and bottom h...
Valid Subnet <ul><li>Network is unique on either side of the Router. 192.168.1 + 192.168.2 </li></ul>
Invalid Network <ul><li>Same Network resides on both sides of Router. 192.168.1 </li></ul>
Why Subnet? <ul><li>The larger a network grows the greater the traffic on the wire </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually the networ...
An example of Subneting <ul><li>Lets look at a class C network  </li></ul><ul><li>The Network is 192.168.1.0 </li></ul><ul...
192.168.1.0 or  11000000.10101000.00000001.00000000 <ul><li>Lets break this network down into 4 subnets </li></ul><ul><li>...
List of subnetworks for 192.168.1.0 <ul><li>The four networks we will get are </li></ul>
Network Address Calculation <ul><li>Binary and to get the network address 192.168.1.0 </li></ul>
Host Address <ul><li>Invert the subnet and do a binary and again to get the host address 0.0.0.1 </li></ul>
Broadcast address <ul><li>XOR to get the Broadcast address 192.168.1.63 </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>All classes of Networks can be broken down in the same fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Subneting extends our ...
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Ip Addressing Basics

  1. 1. IP Addressing Basics NAD710 Introduction to Networking Using Linux Portions of this presentation are from the online text Linux Network Administrators Guide January 20,2002 Professor Tom Mavroidis      
  2. 2. Where to start? <ul><li>Before you can connect two machines together you need a network card. </li></ul><ul><li>These marvelous devices give us a connection so that we can connect a cable from one machine to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Each card has a burnt in address </li></ul><ul><li>The mac address </li></ul>
  3. 3. MAC address <ul><li>Ethernet hardware addresses are 48 bits, expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits (0-9, plus A-F, capitalized). These 12 hex digits consist of the first/left 6 digits (which should match the vendor of the Ethernet interface within the station) and the last/right 6 digits which specify the interface serial number for that interface vendor. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Example Vendor codes <ul><li>00-00-0C Cisco </li></ul><ul><li>00-00-0E Fujitsu </li></ul><ul><li>00-00-0F NeXT </li></ul><ul><li>00-00-10 Hughes LAN Systems </li></ul><ul><li>00-00-11 Tektronix </li></ul><ul><li>00-00-15 Datapoint Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>00-00-18 Webster Computer Corporation </li></ul>
  5. 5. The ifconfig command <ul><li>eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:04:AC :16:54:4C </li></ul><ul><li>inet addr:192.168.2.1 Bcast:192.168.2.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 </li></ul><ul><li>inet6 addr: fe80::204:acff:fe16:544c/10 Scope:Link </li></ul><ul><li>UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 </li></ul><ul><li>RX packets:21510 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 </li></ul><ul><li>TX packets:19739 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 </li></ul><ul><li>collisions:20 </li></ul><ul><li>RX bytes:7902018 (7.5 Mb) TX bytes:17333042 (16.5 Mb) </li></ul><ul><li>00-04-AC IBM PCMCIA Ethernet adapter. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Machines communicate via: <ul><li>MAC addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Arp resolves IP addresses to MAC addresses http://www. tldp .org/LDP/nag2/x-087-2-issues. arp .html </li></ul><ul><li>MAC addresses are burnt in at the factory </li></ul><ul><li>IP addresses are assigned logically </li></ul><ul><li>MAC addresses never change on a network card </li></ul>
  7. 7. IP addresses <ul><li>Are assigned either </li></ul><ul><ul><li>statically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dynamically via bootp or DHCP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be private or public </li></ul><ul><li>Servers require statically assigned addresses since their address should never </li></ul>
  8. 8. 127.0.0.1 <ul><li>Network 127.0.0.0 is reserved for IP traffic local to your host. Usually, address 127.0.0.1 will be assigned to a special interface on your host, the loopback interface, which acts like a closed circuit. Any IP packet handed to this interface from TCP or UDP will be returned to them as if it had just arrived from some network. This allows you to develop and test networking software without ever using a “real” network. The loopback network also allows you to use networking software on a standalone host. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Private IP Addresses Table 2-1. IP Address Ranges Reserved for Private Use Class Networks A 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255 B 172.16.0.0 through 172.31.0.0 C 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.0 RFC 1918
  10. 10. Example Network From Text
  11. 11. Public addresses <ul><li>Each Internet web site, be it a www site, ftp site, or mail server site needs to have a specific IP address where it can be reached. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of it as a mailing address </li></ul><ul><li>The IP address is similar to your name in an address directory </li></ul><ul><li>DNS is the directory (EXPAND) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Who servers out Public Addresses? <ul><li>The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the non-profit corporation that was formed to assume responsibility for the IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management functions previously performed under U.S. Government contract by IANA and other entities. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Example of Addressing <ul><li>The following slides help explain how an IP address is formed and the different classes of addresses </li></ul>
  14. 14. IPv4 addresses are expressed in dotted decimal notation. For example, a 32-bit address may look like this in binary:
  15. 15. We convert each eight-bit block to decimal and separate the decimal values with periods or “dots”. The converted IPv4 address, expressed as a dotted decimal address, is:
  16. 16. Class A The largest grouping of addresses is the class A group. Class A network addresses can be identified by a unique bit pattern in the 32bit address.
  17. 17. Class B The next grouping of addresses is the class B group. Class B network addresses can be identified by a unique bit pattern in the 32-bit address.
  18. 18. Class C The next grouping of addresses is the class C group. Class C network addresses can be identified by a unique bit pattern in the 32bit address.
  19. 19. Each of the three IP address classes has these characteristics
  20. 20. A device connected to a network may have one or many networking interfaces that require an IP address.
  21. 21. Devices with more than one interface are called multihomed , and the process is called multihoming
  22. 22. The process of providing more than one IP address on an interface is often called multinetting or secondary addressing . interface ethernet 0 ip address 183.55.2.77 255.255.255.0 ip address 204.238.7.22 255.255.255.0 secondary ip address 88.127.6.209 255.255.255.0 secondary
  23. 23. Class A Subnet Table
  24. 24. Class B Subnet Table
  25. 25. Class C Subnet Table
  26. 26. Things to Remember <ul><li>RFC950 - old rules, over 5 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Still used in some netware servers, if unsure about environment adhere to RFC950. </li></ul><ul><li>RFC1812 - new rules, simplifies networking, introduces CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain routing). </li></ul><ul><li>Suse 6.4 supports IPv4. </li></ul><ul><li>Suse 8.0 supports IPv6 tunneling </li></ul>
  27. 27. Review-RFC950 <ul><li>An IP Address is broken up into three parts: the network portion, the subnet portion (optional), and the host portion. The size of the network portion is determined by the first byte of the address: </li></ul>
  28. 28. Rules - RFC950 <ul><li>All hosts on the same subnet must agree on the subnet mask. Otherwise, packets actually intended for another subnet may never leave the existing subnet: a host won't give to the router a packet it thinks is destined for the local segment. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Rules - RFC950 <ul><li>No two different subnets can include the same host address. </li></ul><ul><li>The top and bottom host numbers are reserved; the bottom one is shorthand for the whole subnet, and the top one is the broadcast address. </li></ul><ul><li>The bits in the subnet portion cannot be all ones </li></ul>
  30. 30. Valid Subnet <ul><li>Network is unique on either side of the Router. 192.168.1 + 192.168.2 </li></ul>
  31. 31. Invalid Network <ul><li>Same Network resides on both sides of Router. 192.168.1 </li></ul>
  32. 32. Why Subnet? <ul><li>The larger a network grows the greater the traffic on the wire </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually the network becomes saturated and slows down to a grind while station continue re-sending collided packets </li></ul><ul><li>Subneting reduces the amount of traffic within a segment </li></ul>
  33. 33. An example of Subneting <ul><li>Lets look at a class C network </li></ul><ul><li>The Network is 192.168.1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>It’s default subnet mask is 255.255.255.0 </li></ul><ul><li>The broadcast address for the entire network is 192.168.1.255 </li></ul><ul><li>The useable addresses are 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254 </li></ul>
  34. 34. 192.168.1.0 or 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000000 <ul><li>Lets break this network down into 4 subnets </li></ul><ul><li>That means we need to borrow 2 bits from the host octet (byte). </li></ul><ul><li>Our default subnet mask is 255.255.255.0 or 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 </li></ul><ul><li>Borrowing 2 bytes gives us 128 + 64 = 192 or 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 or referred to as /26 or in dotted decimal notation </li></ul>
  35. 35. List of subnetworks for 192.168.1.0 <ul><li>The four networks we will get are </li></ul>
  36. 36. Network Address Calculation <ul><li>Binary and to get the network address 192.168.1.0 </li></ul>
  37. 37. Host Address <ul><li>Invert the subnet and do a binary and again to get the host address 0.0.0.1 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Broadcast address <ul><li>XOR to get the Broadcast address 192.168.1.63 </li></ul>
  39. 39. Conclusion <ul><li>All classes of Networks can be broken down in the same fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Subneting extends our ability to add nodes to a busy network or to separate a large network into smaller groups </li></ul>

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