Assignment 5 - Nation Report Peru

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Assignment 5 - Nation Report Peru

  1. 1. The Republic of Peru<br />Tadd Mannino<br />History 141, Spring 2011<br />Palomar College<br />
  2. 2. Geography<br />496,225 sq. miles<br />Borders Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile and Pacific<br />Andes Mountains<br />Parallel to coast<br />Divide Peru into:<br />Costa, a thin coastal strip<br />Sierra, the Andes Highlands<br />Selva, the Amazon jungle<br />60% of the country<br />Most rivers drain<br /> into Amazon<br />
  3. 3. Geography<br />Is not entirely tropical<br />Andes, Humboldt Current affect weather<br />Costa – moderate temps, low rain, deserts<br />Sierra – frequent rain in summer, temp/humidity drops at altitude<br />Selva – heavy rain, high temps<br />High biodiversity due to varying climates<br />Over 21,000 species<br />Lake Titicaca – highest navigable<br /> lake in world<br />
  4. 4. People<br />Population –29,248,943<br />3rd largest in S. America<br />Life expectancy – 72 yr.s<br />Literacy – 92%<br />Isolated by Andes, Amazon<br />Distinct, diverse population<br />½ costal, ½ in highlands<br />
  5. 5. People<br />Ethnic groups<br />Amerindian 45%, Mestizo 37%, white 15%, other 3%<br />Languages<br />Spanish 84%, Quecha 13% (both official)<br />Large number of Amazonian languages<br />Religions<br />Catholic 81%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3%<br />
  6. 6. Culture<br />Architecture – Three styles<br />Pre-Hispanic, Spanish Colonial, Modern Urban<br />Pueblos Jovenos – squatter towns on urban edges<br />Music –10,000 year tradition<br />Huaynomixes ancient rural w/modern urban<br />Marinera, upbeat dance music<br />Guitar & horns<br />
  7. 7. Culture<br />Foods – Two styles<br />Coastal: Soups, rice, seafood, plantains<br />Highlands: meat, corn potatoes<br />Art – Naifstyle blends Spanish & ancient<br />Literature alive after 20 yr. guerrilla war/repressive govt.s<br />Alonso Cueto, “The Blue Hour” <br />Santiago Roncagliolo, “Red April”<br />Mario Vargas Llosa, 2010 Nobel Prize for Literature<br />"for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat".<br />
  8. 8. History<br />Many pre-Columbian cultures<br />Dating back to 9000 BCE<br />Oldest culture Norte Chico<br />3000 BCE<br />Incas – Largest pre-Columbian culture<br />15th century, built monumental buildings,<br /> 6000 miles of roads<br />Conquered by Pizarro, de Soto in 1532<br />Peru provides silver bullion to Spanish Crown<br />Amerindian slave labor main workforce<br />
  9. 9. History<br />1824, Jose de San Martin liberates Peru from Spain<br />1879 – Chile defeats Peru, Bolivia in War of Pacific<br />Fought over mineral rights, territory<br />1924 – Nationalist APRA party founded<br />1948 – 1980 – Military govts. Often in power<br />1980 – Maoist Shining Path guerrillas fight govt.<br />Terror attacks, death squad reprisals, 70,000 dead<br />1990 – Alberto Fujimori elected President<br />400% inflation, 3000 political murders<br />1992 – Fujimori shuts down Congress, suspends Constitution<br />Rights trampled, corruption rife<br />2000 – Fujimori forced to resign<br />2002 Truth Commission into govt. atrocities<br />2009 – Fujimori 25 yr. prison sentence<br />For role in govt. death squads, kidnappings<br />Jose de San Martine<br />Alberto Fujimori<br />
  10. 10. Source Slide<br />Brittanica.com<br />Perufacts.com<br />Wikipedia.com<br />Everycultures.com<br />CIA.gov/theworldfactbook<br />Peruvianembassy.us<br />

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