Assignment 3 - New York City


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Assignment 3 - New York City

  1. 1. The emergence of New York City as the dominant urban center of the Atlantic world<br />Tadd Mannino<br />History 141, Spring 2011<br />Palomar College<br />New York CityThe Crossroads of the World<br />
  2. 2. Dewitt Clinton<br />1800s New York City<br />US Capitol moved to Washington D.C.<br />NYC focuses on business/commerce/trade<br />Vanderbilt – works from ferryman to owning Black Line steamship fleet. Most efficient of the day<br />Astor – fur fortune gives way to real estate<br />NYC’s Landscape hinders growth<br />No easy access to trade with interior of growing U.S.<br />Dewitt Clinton<br />1811 – as Mayor, directs grid system for future streets, creates public schools<br />1823 – as Governor, lobbies for and completes Erie Canal<br />
  3. 3. Erie canal<br />Modeled on English canals, but on a grand scale<br />Avg. length 27 miles, most around two miles<br />Erie Canal ran from Upper Hudson River to Lake Erie<br />363 miles, raising/lowering boats 565 ft. through 36 locks<br />Opposed by Jefferson and Pres. Madison<br />Clinton used:<br />mass rallies, 100K signature petition, and public funds to attract private investment, issued bonds<br />Began in 1817, completed 1825 – three yr.s early<br />Pays for itself before completion<br />
  4. 4. Erie canal<br />Largest U.S. public works project, until the Federal Highway Act in 1956 – the Interstate!<br />Clinton travels length of canal and back<br />Pours Lake Erie water in NY Harbor, <br />“NY will become the granary of the world, the emporium of commerce, the seat of mfg., the concentrating point of vast capital.” Dewitt Clinton<br />NYC links US heartland to Atlantic/European trade<br />It still does today<br />“All America is now met in New York.”<br />
  5. 5. Sunshine and Shadow<br />1930s NYC<br />Great Depression, 1/3 out of work, NY economy stalls<br />“Tammany Hall” politicos controlled city through corruption funded with federal dollars since 1829<br />1929 - 1932 – NY Governor FDR fights Tammy Hall<br />
  6. 6. Sunshine and Shadow<br />FDR causes resignation of Mayor Walker<br />Used court system to extort $ from innocent victims<br />Ends Tammany Hall’s 100 year reign<br />1933 – FDR helps LaGuardia win NYC Mayoral post w/platform:<br />Restore NYC financial health<br />Expand federal relief program for unemployed.<br />End corruption in govt., and racketeering in economy<br />Replace patronage with merit-based civil service<br />Build infrastructure – transportation/parks<br />1932 – FDR takes NYC’s New Deal to Washington<br />
  7. 7. Sunshine and Shadow<br />Robert Moses – a man of order, his own<br />Never elected, formed many public “Authorities”<br />Accountable to no one<br />The Master builder of modern NYC<br />Development mentality<br />Connected the five Burroughs<br />Bridges, Tunnels, Roads<br />Changed neighborhoods<br />Lasting infrastructure<br />Favored autos, parks and using federal money, but…<br />Did little for minorities<br />Displaced thousands of citizens for his projects<br />A polarizing urban planner influencing future city planners for better or worse<br />
  8. 8. A Merger That Puts New York on Topby Mike Clough<br />Will NYC lead future global information economy as it has the past industrial economy?<br />AOL/Time Warner headquarters NYC/East Coast<br />Old economy based on location, awareness of world markets<br /> Info-based economy needs no location<br />Its technology based in West – Silicon Valley, LA, San Fran<br />AOL bought Time Warner, not other way around<br />Disney/ABC, Microsoft, Silicon Valley seem unable/unwilling to preempt NYCs world-leading role<br />
  9. 9. The Great Transatlantic Migration<br />1870 – 1914, 23 million immigrants to US<br />1914, One in six US citizens foreign born<br />Three-fifths of 23 million immigrants to US<br />Old European practice of itinerant workers<br />Predominantly male<br />Steam travel increased ease, decreased risk<br />4 – 6 weeks vs. 1 week, 10 – 25% mortality vs. 1%<br />Railroads disseminated new arrivals<br />Most went to urban cities<br />No group dominated, “the melting pot”<br />
  10. 10. The Great Transatlantic Migration<br />US had open land, growing cities, industry<br />Migrants sought opportunity, self-improvement<br />families followed<br />Some sought land, religious freedom<br />Most after 1887 went to cities<br />Repatriation, returning home common<br />Traditional patterns became trans-Atlantic<br />Migrants came from many countries<br />Travelled to where land/labor available<br />Opportunities unobtainable in the South<br />This kept Blacks from migrating north<br />
  11. 11. The Great Transatlantic Migration<br />US backlash against tides of immigrants<br />Along racial/cultural lines<br />Protestant Catholic<br />Educated Illiterates<br />Teutonics Slavs, Semites, Asiatics<br />Manufacturing countries Unskilled labor<br />Immigrants assimilated, but took time<br />Two generations<br />All sought to change their lives<br />They were, “people of scanty fortunes, loving change but hating revolution, trying to keep the little they had, and hoping to magnify it.”<br />Alexis de Tocqueville<br />