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Timothy Melton Tang Dynasty Research Paper Citations Source: "Imperial Era: II." University of Maryland: The Imperial Era. netTrekker, Web. 1 Dec. 2010. <http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/imperial2.html>. The Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-907), with its capital at Changan, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization--equal, or even superior, to the Han period. Its territory, acquired through the military exploits of its early rulers, was greater than that of the Han. Stimulated by contact with India and the Middle East, the empire saw a ﬂowering of creativity in many ﬁelds. Buddhism, originating in India around the time of Confucius, ﬂourished during the Tang period, becoming thoroughly sinicized* and a permanent part of Chinese traditional culture. Block printing was invented, making the written word available to vastly greater audiences. The Tang period was the golden age of literature and art. A government system supported by a large class of Confucian literati selected through civil service examinations was perfected under Tang rule. This competitive procedure was designed to draw the best talents into government. But perhaps an even greater consideration for the Tang rulers, aware that imperial dependence on powerful aristocratic families and warlords would have destabilizing consequences, was to create a body of career ofﬁcials having no autonomous territorial or functional power base. As it turned out, these scholar-ofﬁcials acquired status in their local communities, family ties, and shared values that connected them to the imperial court. From Tang times until the closing days of the Qing empire in 1911, scholar-ofﬁcials functioned often as intermediaries between the grass- roots level and the government. *sinicized- has become Chinese in character or has come under Chinese inﬂuence.Document 1Source: Barrosse, Emily, Jerry H. Bentley, and Herbert F. Ziegler, eds. Traditions and Encounters: AGlobal Perspective on the Past. Third Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print.“Apart from the Grand Canal, which served as the principal route for long-distance transportationwithin China, Tang rulers maintained an extensive communications network based on roads, horses, andsometimes human runners. Along the main routes, Tang ofﬁcials maintained inns, postal stations, andstables, which provided rest and refreshment for travelers, couriers, and their mounts...”Document 2
Timothy Melton Source: Hardy, Grant. "Tang dynasty." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2010. Web. 8 Dec. 2010. Taizong* was a powerful leader. He destroyed his competitors for the throne, began an alliance with the Korean state of Silla, and forced Turkish nomads out of Northern China. His armies conquered parts of Tibet and Turkestan, opening overland trade routes from China to India and central Asia. The trade routes not only brought great wealth to the empire, but they also promoted religious and cultural exchange. The routes gave Christian and other foreign missionaries an overland entrance into China and allowed Chinese Buddhist pilgrims to visit India. *Tang Taizong - He was the second Tang emperor; he ruled Tang China during it’s high point Document 3Source: SILKMAP3. The Silk Road: Linking Europe and Asia Through Trade. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/13406/images/SILKMAP3.JPG>. Document 4
Timothy MeltonSource: Haw, Stephen G. A Travellers History of China. Third ed. Brooklyn, NY: Interlink Books,Inc., 1999. Print.“All the major inventions of the pre-modern world-paper, printing, gunpowder, and the compass-were known and used by the Chinese.... China was undoubtedly the most advanced nation in theworld at the time, attaining a level which Europeans would have found hard to believe.” Anonymous China Scholar Document 5Source: Major, John S. "China: History of Dress." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed.Valerie Steele. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribners Sons, 2005. 260-266. Gale Virtual ReferenceLibrary. Web. 1 Dec. 2010.“Under the Tang, trade along the Silk Route between China via Central Asia to the Mediterraneanworld ﬂourished, and inﬂuence from Persian and Turkic culture areas had a strong impact on elitefashions in China. Chinese silk textiles of the Tang period show strong foreign inﬂuence,particularly in the use of roundel patterns. Document 6 Source: Major, John S. "China: History of Dress." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribners Sons, 2005. 260-266. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. “The Tang Dynasty was an aristocratic society in which military prowess and good horsemanship were admired as male accomplishments. Depictions of foot soldiers and cavalrymen in scale armor and heavily padded jackets, and ofﬁcers in elaborate breastplates and surcoats, are common in Tang sculptural and pictorial art.” Document 7
Timothy MeltonSource: Barrosse, Emily, Jerry H. Bentley, and Herbert F. Ziegler, eds. Traditions and Encounters:A Global Perspective on the Past. Third Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print.“Soon after its foundation the powerful and dynamic Tang state began to ﬂex its military muscles. Inthe north, Tang forces brought Manchuria under imperial authority and forced the Silla kingdom inKorea to acknowledge the Tang emperor as overlord. To the south, Tang armies conquered thenorthern part of Vietnam. To the west they extended Tang authority as far as the Aral Sea andbrought a portion of the high plateau of Tibet under Tang control. Territorially, the Tang empireranks among the largest in Chinese history.”Source: Tang dynasty: ceramic tomb ﬁgure. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Online SchoolEdition. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.school.eb.com/eb/art-35459>.Ceramic tomb ﬁgure decorated in characteristic coloured glazes, Tang dynasty (618–907); in theVictoria and Albert Museum, London. Height 71 cm.Document 8
Timothy Melton Document 9Buddha Vairocana (Dari) [China] (43.24.3)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: TheMetropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/43.24.3(September 2010)Buddha Vairocana (Dari), Tang dynasty (618–906), early 8th century China. It was made of giltleaded bronze, and lost-wax cast. Document 10