2010 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS WORLD HISTORY SECTION IINote: This exam uses the chronological designations B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (commonera). These labels correspond to B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno Domini), which are used in someworld history textbooks. Part A (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-9. (The documents havebeen edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the Section II free-response booklet.This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents.Write an essay that:• Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents.• Uses all of the documents.• Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simply summarize the documents individually.• Takes into account the sources of the documents and analyzes the authors’ points of view.• Identiﬁes and explains the need for at least one additional type of document.You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents. 1. Analyze the factors that led to the success to the Tang Dynasty. Historical Background: The Tang Dynasty was the main dynasty in China from 618 - 907.
Document 1 Source: "Imperial Era: II." University of Maryland: The Imperial Era. netTrekker, Web. 1 Dec. 2010. <http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/imperial2.html>. The Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-907), with its capital at Changan, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization--equal, or even superior, to the Han period. Its territory, acquired through the military exploits of its early rulers, was greater than that of the Han. Stimulated by contact with India and the Middle East, the empire saw a ﬂowering of creativity in many ﬁelds. Buddhism, originating in India around the time of Confucius, ﬂourished during the Tang period, becoming thoroughly sinicized* and a permanent part of Chinese traditional culture. Block printing was invented, making the written word available to vastly greater audiences. The Tang period was the golden age of literature and art. A government system supported by a large class of Confucian literati selected through civil service examinations was perfected under Tang rule. This competitive procedure was designed to draw the best talents into government. But perhaps an even greater consideration for the Tang rulers, aware that imperial dependence on powerful aristocratic families and warlords would have destabilizing consequences, was to create a body of career ofﬁcials having no autonomous territorial or functional power base. As it turned out, these scholar- ofﬁcials acquired status in their local communities, family ties, and shared values that connected them to the imperial court. From Tang times until the closing days of the Qing empire in 1911, scholar-ofﬁcials functioned often as intermediaries between the grass-roots level and the government. *sinicized- has become Chinese in character or has come under Chinese inﬂuence.Source: Barrosse, Emily, Jerry H. Bentley, and Herbert F. Ziegler, eds. Traditions andEncounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. Third Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill,2006. Print.“Apart from the Grand Canal, which served as the principal route for long-distancetransportation within China, Tang rulers maintained an extensive communications networkbased on roads, horses, and sometimes human runners. Along the main routes, Tang ofﬁcialsmaintained inns, postal stations, and stables, which provided rest and refreshment for travelers,couriers, and their mounts...”Document 2
Source: Hardy, Grant. "Tang dynasty." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2010. Web. 8 Dec. 2010. Taizong* was a powerful leader. He destroyed his competitors for the throne, began an alliance with the Korean state of Silla, and forced Turkish nomads out of Northern China. His armies conquered parts of Tibet and Turkestan, opening overland trade routes from China to India and central Asia. The trade routes not only brought great wealth to the empire, but they also promoted religious and cultural exchange. The routes gave Christian and other foreign missionaries an overland entrance into China and allowed Chinese Buddhist pilgrims to visit India. *Tang Taizong - He was the second Tang emperor; he ruled Tang China during it’s high point Document 3Source: SILKMAP3. The Silk Road: Linking Europe and Asia Through Trade. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/13406/images/SILKMAP3.JPG>.
Source: Haw, Stephen G. A Travellers History of China. Third ed. Brooklyn, NY: Interlink Books, Inc.,1999. Print.“All the major inventions of the pre-modern world-paper, printing, gunpowder, and the compass- wereknown and used by the Chinese.... China was undoubtedly the most advanced nation in the world at the time,attaining a level which Europeans would have found hard to believe.” Anonymous China Scholar Document 4 Document 5 Source: Major, John S. "China: History of Dress." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribners Sons, 2005. 260-266. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. “Under the Tang, trade along the Silk Route between China via Central Asia to the Mediterranean world ﬂourished, and inﬂuence from Persian and Turkic culture areas had a strong impact on elite fashions in China. Chinese silk textiles of the Tang period show strong foreign inﬂuence, particularly in the use of roundel patterns. Document 6 Source: Major, John S. "China: History of Dress." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribners Sons, 2005. 260-266. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. “The Tang Dynasty was an aristocratic society in which military prowess and good horsemanship were admired as male accomplishments. Depictions of foot soldiers and cavalrymen in scale armor and heavily padded jackets, and ofﬁcers in elaborate breastplates and surcoats, are common in Tang sculptural and pictorial art.” Document 7
Source: Barrosse, Emily, Jerry H. Bentley, and Herbert F. Ziegler, eds. Traditions and Encounters:A Global Perspective on the Past. Third Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print.“Soon after its foundation the powerful and dynamic Tang state began to ﬂex its military muscles.In the north, Tang forces brought Manchuria under imperial authority and forced the Silla kingdomin Korea to acknowledge the Tang emperor as overlord. To the south, Tang armies conquered thenorthern part of Vietnam. To the west they extended Tang authority as far as the Aral Sea andbrought a portion of the high plateau of Tibet under Tang control. Territorially, the Tang empireranks among the largest in Chinese history.” Source: Tang dynasty: ceramic tomb ﬁgure. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.school.eb.com/eb/art-35459>. Ceramic tomb ﬁgure decorated in characteristic coloured glazes, Tang dynasty (618–907); in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Height 71 cm.
Document 8Buddha Vairocana (Dari) [China] (43.24.3)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York:The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/43.24.3 (September 2010)Buddha Vairocana (Dari), Tang dynasty (618–906), early 8th century China. It was made ofgilt leaded bronze, and lost-wax cast.Document 9Document 10