Attachment Theory and Improving Relationships<br />Danielle Cooper, Nicole Fleming, Kirsten Rowland, and Tracey Wright<br />
overview<br />I. Overview of Attachment Theory (Bowlby, 1973, 1980; Feeney & Noller, 1990; Hazan & Shaver, 1987; Fraley, 2...
Attachment styles<br />Secure<br />Anxious-preoccupied<br />Dismissive-avoidant<br />Fearful-avoidant<br />
Secure	<br />Style  A - “It is easy for me to become emotionally close to others. I am comfortable depending on them and h...
Secure<br />Low avoidance, low anxiety (Fraley, 2004)<br />Children experienced caregivers who were nurturing and caring (...
Assessment dimensions<br />
Anxious-Preoccupied<br />Style C - “I want to be completely emotionally intimate with others, but I often find that others...
Anxious-Preoccupied<br />Low, avoidance, high anxiety (Fraley, 2004)<br />May not feel loved completely; Easily frustrated...
Assessment dimensions<br />
Dismissive-Avoidant<br />Style D - “I am comfortable without close emotional relationships. It is very important to me to ...
Dismissive-Avoidant<br />Low anxiety, high avoidance (Fraley, 2004)<br />Children experienced caregivers as unreliable and...
Assessment dimensions<br />
Fearful-avoidant<br />Style B -“I am uncomfortable getting close to others. I want emotionally close relationships, but I ...
Fearful-Avoidant<br />High anxiety, high avoidance (Fraley, 2004)<br />Children experience caregivers who were distant or ...
Assessment dimensions <br />
Secure & insecure Attachment Video Examples<br />Couple’s Therapy 45 <br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8F-CCC5Y7yI&feat...
Dating studyby witcher & Kanoy<br />Peace College students: N=113<br />Completed surveys on relationship experiences<br />...
Dating Study, continued<br />Data Set – ANOVA<br />Commitment<br />F(3,109) = 15.42, p<.001<br />Violence<br />F(3,109) = ...
Dating study Tablecommitment <br />
Dating Study TableViolence<br />
Dating Study TableDyadic adjustment<br />
ImprovingRelationships:Health<br />Relationships can contribute to things like stress, depression, loss of self-esteem or ...
Improving relationships: Couple’s Therapy<br />Focus one specific aspect leads to greater changes (Doss, Yeow, Sevier, et....
Improving Relationships: Stress<br />Some stress is necessary in life<br />Unmanaged chronic stress can have negative effe...
Improving relationships: emotional stability<br />Simpson, Collins, Tran & Traydon, 2007<br />Secure<br /> Remain confiden...
Improving Relationships<br />Conflict resolution<br />Positive and Negative strategies<br />Accommodate (I Lose, You Win) ...
References<br />Barnes, S. Brown, K. Campbell, W. Krusemark, E. & Rogger R. (2007). The 	Role of Mindfulness in Romantic R...
References Continued<br />Doss, B. D., Thum, Y. M., Sevier, M., Atkins, D. C., Christensen, A. (2005). 	Improving relation...
References continued<br />Overall, N. C., Simpson, J. A., Fletcher G.J., and Sibley, C. G. (2009). Regulating  	partners i...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Attachment Theory And Improving Relationships2.The Offical One

3,953 views
3,635 views

Published on

Final semester group project on Attachment Theory.

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,953
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
34
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
74
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Attachment Theory And Improving Relationships2.The Offical One

  1. 1. Attachment Theory and Improving Relationships<br />Danielle Cooper, Nicole Fleming, Kirsten Rowland, and Tracey Wright<br />
  2. 2. overview<br />I. Overview of Attachment Theory (Bowlby, 1973, 1980; Feeney & Noller, 1990; Hazan & Shaver, 1987; Fraley, 2004)<br />II. Attachment Assessment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991)<br />III. The Four Attachment Styles <br />IV. Role-Play Workshop<br />
  3. 3. Attachment styles<br />Secure<br />Anxious-preoccupied<br />Dismissive-avoidant<br />Fearful-avoidant<br />
  4. 4. Secure <br />Style A - “It is easy for me to become emotionally close to others. I am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I don’t worry about being alone or having others not accept me.” (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991)<br />
  5. 5. Secure<br />Low avoidance, low anxiety (Fraley, 2004)<br />Children experienced caregivers who were nurturing and caring (Egeci, 2006) <br />Shows more initiated levels of self-disclosure (Egeci, 2006) <br />Has positive views of themselves and others (Bippus, 2003)<br />
  6. 6. Assessment dimensions<br />
  7. 7. Anxious-Preoccupied<br />Style C - “I want to be completely emotionally intimate with others, but I often find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I am uncomfortable being without close relationships, but I sometimes worry that others don’t value me as much as I value them.” (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991)<br />
  8. 8. Anxious-Preoccupied<br />Low, avoidance, high anxiety (Fraley, 2004)<br />May not feel loved completely; Easily frustrated  or angered when attachment needs unmet (Fraley, 2004). <br />Negative childhood experiences (Simpson, Winterheld, Rholes & Orina,2007) More responsive to emotional care-giving(Simpson, Winterheld, Rholes & Orina,2007) Strongly motivated to experience "felt“ security (Simpson, Collins, Tran, Haydon, 2007)<br />Expressed dependence and desire for commitment in relationships (Feeney & Noller, 1990)<br />
  9. 9. Assessment dimensions<br />
  10. 10. Dismissive-Avoidant<br />Style D - “I am comfortable without close emotional relationships. It is very important to me to feel independent and self-sufficient, and I prefer not to depend on others or have others depend on me.” (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991)<br />
  11. 11. Dismissive-Avoidant<br />Low anxiety, high avoidance (Fraley, 2004)<br />Children experienced caregivers as unreliable and unresponsive (Stackert & Bursik, 2002)<br />Personal insecurities influence how they perceive others (Vicary & Fraley, 2009)<br />
  12. 12. Assessment dimensions<br />
  13. 13. Fearful-avoidant<br />Style B -“I am uncomfortable getting close to others. I want emotionally close relationships, but I find it difficult to trust others completely, or to depend on them. I worry that I will be hurt if I allow myself to become too close to others.” (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991)<br />
  14. 14. Fearful-Avoidant<br />High anxiety, high avoidance (Fraley, 2004)<br />Children experience caregivers who were distant or absent (Mallinckrodt, Coble, & Gantt, 1995)<br />See themselves and others negatively (Woodhouse, Schlosser, Crook, Ligiero, & Gelso, 2003)<br />Tends to minimize closeness in order to avoid rejection (Woodhouse, Schlosser, Crook, Ligiero, & Gelso, 2003)<br />
  15. 15. Assessment dimensions <br />
  16. 16. Secure & insecure Attachment Video Examples<br />Couple’s Therapy 45 <br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8F-CCC5Y7yI&feature=PlayList&p=131E06DC6C82CABF&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=46<br />Therapy Session 34 <br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBM-kDUGs7I&feature=PlayList&p=131E06DC6C82CABF&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=34<br />
  17. 17. Dating studyby witcher & Kanoy<br />Peace College students: N=113<br />Completed surveys on relationship experiences<br />Couples videotaped discussing conflicting situations<br />Three variables showed a significant correlation: commitment, violence, and dyadic adjustment<br />
  18. 18. Dating Study, continued<br />Data Set – ANOVA<br />Commitment<br />F(3,109) = 15.42, p<.001<br />Violence<br />F(3,109) = 5.79, p<.001<br />Dyadic Adjustment<br />F(3, 109) = 3.99, p<.01<br />
  19. 19. Dating study Tablecommitment <br />
  20. 20. Dating Study TableViolence<br />
  21. 21. Dating Study TableDyadic adjustment<br />
  22. 22. ImprovingRelationships:Health<br />Relationships can contribute to things like stress, depression, loss of self-esteem or confidence, and even physical illness (Schoebi, 2008)<br />Partners health can have lasting consequences on their relationship, as well as physical and psychological well-being (Schoebi, 2008)<br />Married and cohabitating partners will resemble each other in health status, either positive or negatively (Monden, 2007)<br />When people are in a strong, committed relationship they stop engaging in risky behavior and take better care of their physical and mental health (Monden, 2007)<br />
  23. 23. Improving relationships: Couple’s Therapy<br />Focus one specific aspect leads to greater changes (Doss, Yeow, Sevier, et. al., 2005).<br />Individual cognitions greatly influence how emotions and behavioral interactions are expressed within relationships (Carrere, Buehlman, Gottman, et. al., 2000).<br />Distressed couples are more likely to remember negative events vs. positive events (Carrere, Buehlman, Gottman, et. al., 2000).<br />Therapists use a unique set of skills to help couples effectively deal with conflict within their relationships (Gottman, 1998, 1999).<br />
  24. 24. Improving Relationships: Stress<br />Some stress is necessary in life<br />Unmanaged chronic stress can have negative effects on physical and psychological health of an individual (Cohen, Gunthert, Farrehi, & Tolpin, 2006).<br />Ways to Cope with Stress (Christopher, Christopher, & Shure, 2008)<br />Exercise<br />Yoga<br />Meditation<br />Qigong<br />Mindfulness<br />
  25. 25. Improving relationships: emotional stability<br />Simpson, Collins, Tran & Traydon, 2007<br />Secure<br /> Remain confident, responsive, and available<br />Build greater intimacy<br />Insecure<br />Look for self-affirming strategies<br />Suppress urges to self-regulate or internalize problems<br />Avoidant<br />Stress-relieving techniques<br />Obtain and maintain interpersonal autonomy and control<br />Anxious<br />Avoid emotion-focused coping strategies<br />Achieve greater “felt” security <br />
  26. 26. Improving Relationships<br />Conflict resolution<br />Positive and Negative strategies<br />Accommodate (I Lose, You Win) <br />Avoid (I Lose, You Lose) <br />Compromise (We Both Lose, We Both Win) <br />Compete (I Win, You Lose) <br />Collaborate (I Win, You Win) <br />Use of “I” statements<br />Communication <br />
  27. 27. References<br />Barnes, S. Brown, K. Campbell, W. Krusemark, E. & Rogger R. (2007). The Role of Mindfulness in Romantic Relationship Satisfaction and Response to relationship stress. Journal of Marriage and Family Therapy. 4(33). 482-500<br />Berger, Kathleen S. (2007). The Developing Person Through the Lifespan. New York, NY, US: Worth Publishers,192-197.<br />Bippus, A., Rollin, E. (2003). Attachment Style Differences in Relational Maintenance and Conflict Behaviors: Friends' Perceptions. Communication Reports, 16(2)<br />Calhoun, L., Cann, A., Norman, A., Welbourne, J. (2008). Attachment Styles, Conflict Styles and Humor Styles: Interrelationships and Associations with Relationship. European Journal of Personality, 22(2), pp. 131-146<br />Carrere, S., Buehlman, K., Gottman, J., Ruckstuhl, L., & Coan, J. (2000). Predicting Marital Stability and divorce in newlywed couples. Journal of Family Psychology, 14 (1), 42-58.<br />Christopher, J. Christopher, S. & Shure, M. (2008). Mind-Body Medicine and the Art of Self-Care: Teaching Mindfulness to Counseling Students through Yoga, Meditation, and Qigong. Journal of Counseling & Development. 3(86)<br />Cohen, L. Gunthert, K. Farrehi, A. & Tolpin, L. (2006). Unique Effects of Depressive Symptoms and Relationship Satisfaction on Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Romantic Relationship Stress. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 5(25). 565-583  <br />
  28. 28. References Continued<br />Doss, B. D., Thum, Y. M., Sevier, M., Atkins, D. C., Christensen, A. (2005). Improving relationships: Mechanisms of change in couple therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73 (4), 624-633.<br />Egeci, S., Gençöz, T.(2006). Factors Associated with Relationship Satisfaction. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 28(3), 383-391<br />Feeney, J. L. & Noller, P. (1990). Attachment style as a predictor of adult relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58 (2), 281- 291.<br />Fraley, Chris R. (2004). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved from: http://www.psych.uiuc.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm<br />Liem, J. H., & Pressler, E. J., (2005). Addressing relationship concerns in individual psychotherapy. (italicized) Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 15(2), 186-212.<br />Mallinikrodt, B., Gantt, D., & Coble H. (1995). Attachment patterns in psychotherapy relationship: Development of the client attachment to therapist scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42 (3), 307-317.<br />Monden, C. (2007). Partners in health? Exploring resemblance in health between partners in married and cohabiting couples. Sociology oh Health & Illness, 29 (3), 391-411.<br />
  29. 29. References continued<br />Overall, N. C., Simpson, J. A., Fletcher G.J., and Sibley, C. G. (2009). Regulating partners in intimate relationships: The costs and benefits of different communication strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96 (3), 620-639.<br />Schoebi, D. (2008). The coregulation of daily affect in marital relationships. Journal of Family Psychology, 22 (3), 595-604.<br />Simpson, J.A., Collins, W.A., Tran, S. & Haydon, K.C. (2007). Attachment and the experience and expression of emotions in romantic relationships: A developmental perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(2), 355-367.<br />Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., & Phillips, D. (1996). Conflict in close relationships: An attachment perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71 (5), 899-914. <br />Simpson, J.A., Winterheld, H.A., Rholes, W.S. & Orina, M.M. (2007). Working models of attachment and reactions to different forms of caregiving from. romantic partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(3),466- 477<br />Stackert, Richelle A., Bursik, Krisanne. (2003). Why am I unsatisfied? Adult attachment style, gendered irrational relationship beliefs, and young adult romantic relationship satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 1419-1429.<br />Vicary, Amanda M., Fraley, Chris R. (2009). Choose your own adventure: Attachment dynamics in a simulated relationship. Personality Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(9), 1279-1291.<br />Woodhouse, S., Schlosser, L., Crook, R., Ligiero, D., & Gelso, C. (2003). Client attachment to therapist: Relations to transference and client recollections of parental caregiving. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50 (4), 395-408.<br />

×