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PowerPoint Presentation Development
 

PowerPoint Presentation Development

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This is a core consulting skills training document on PowerPoint presentation development.

This is a core consulting skills training document on PowerPoint presentation development.

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PowerPoint Presentation Development PowerPoint Presentation Development Presentation Transcript

  • Presentation Development Basics Core Consulting Skills Training Document October, 2007
  • This is what you need to takeaway from today’s discussion:
    • Logic is not enough
    • Tell a story
    • Less is more
    • Be consistent
    • Make your point
    “ Cheat Sheet”
  • We will address the following questions in today’s discussion:
    • What is today’s objective?
    • Why is this training important?
    • What is the purpose of your presentation?
    • How do you get your message across?
    • How do you tell your story?
    • How do you format your presentation?
    • What charts and graphics should you consider?
    • What PowerPoint “rules of thumb” should you consider?
    Today’s Agenda
  • The objective our discussion today is to improve your PowerPoint Presentation Development skills. Today’s Objective
  • A PowerPoint presentation can be an effective communication tool you can leverage for benefit… Why Is This Training Important? … But, in the wrong hands, it can lead to undesired results.
  • Our time spent problem solving is largely wasted if we do not spend an equal or more amount of our time communicating effectively… Distribution of Our Time Communication 100% 0 Start Final Presentation Why Is PowerPoint Important? Duration Problem Solving … and a PowerPoint presentation is a valuable tool to aid us in our communication. Allocation of Our Time
  • All too often, we fail to spend sufficient forethought preparing our presentations.
    • Results
    • Late nights & stress
    • Errors & omissions
    • Weak messages
    • Ineffective communication
    What Results When We Fail to Prepare…? The “Night Before” Syndrome
  • Inevitably, poor preparation leads to a fumbled opportunity. What Results When We Fail to Prepare…?
  • Project Midpoint The Analysis is Going Well! One Week Before the Final Still Focused on Analysis The Night Before the Final Trying to Write Presentation Your Final Presentation Your Client’s View of You! Censored!
  • Why Are Your Presenting?
  • Most often, our goal when presenting is to both inform and persuade our audience. Why Are Your Presenting?
    • Introduce
    • Explain
    • Teach
    • Describe
    • Define
    • List
    • Identify
    Inform
    • Establish
    • Promote
    • Inspire
    • Encourage
    • Influence
    • Convince
    • Ensure
    Persuade
    • Introduce capabilities & establish credibility
    • Explain new idea & promote it’s use
    • Teach topic & inspire audience
    • Describe issue & encourage corrective action
    • Define options & influence decision
    • List recommendations & convince client to implement them
    • Identify risks and ensure their alleviation
    Inform & Persuade
  • The means of persuasion defined by the Greek philosopher Aristotle still apply today.
    • Ethos (Credibility)
      • Persuasion on the basis of knowledge, experience, respect, and authority
    • Logos (Logical)
      • Persuasion through logical reasoning
    • Pathos (Emotional)
      • Persuasion through the appeal of self identity, self interests, and emotional attachment
    • Demonstrate your knowledge of a topic
    • Articulate how your past experiences apply
    • Speak confidently of references
    • Voice your commitment
    • Use bottom-up inductive reasoning to build up an argument
    • Apply top-down deductive reasoning to support a hypothesis
    • Maintain a structured hierarchy (the pyramid principle )
    • Find common ground with your audience
    • Understand their motivations
    • Tell a story with your presentation
    • Demonstrate empathy, optimism, & passion
    How Can You Persuade Your Audience? Means Methods
  • Your desired message will ultimately collapse if you lack any leg of the stool. How Can You Persuade Your Audience? Credibility Logic Emotion Persuasive Message
  • How Do You Get Your Message Across?
  • Learning and communication theory tells us the following things:
    • Tailor your message to the audience at hand
    • Provide a meaningful transfer of ideas and knowledge
    • Appeal to both sides of the brain
    • Minimize the “noise” in your message
    • Limit Cognitive Overload…in other words, “less is more”
    • Reinforce your message
    • Use visual cues
    • Tell them a story
    How Do You Get Your Message Across?
  • Tailor your approach to the audience at hand. How Do You Get Your Message Across? Reference: Gorin Communications
    • Provide detail
    • Be accurate
    • Present logically
    • Do not surprise
    • Thorough
    • Methodical
    • Cautious
    • Critical
    Conscientious (Engineer)
    • Show interest/empathy
    • Be honest
    • Build trust
    • Do not threaten
    • Sincere
    • Deliberate
    • Risk Averse
    • Unassertive
    Steady (Middle Manager)
    • Be sociable
    • Be interesting
    • Minimize the detail
    • Present with passion
    • Social
    • Persuasive
    • Impulsive
    • Miss Details
    Influencer (Sales)
    • Respect their time
    • Be organized and clear
    • Present facts concisely
    • Provide choices
    • Confident
    • Decisive
    • Blunt
    • Impatient
    Dominator (CEO) Recommended Approach Audience Attributes Audience Stereotype
  • Provide a meaningful learning experience for your audience. How Do You Get Your Message Across? 100% 0 Retention Potential Learning Outcomes Transfer (ability to use information) 100% Meaningful Learning No Learning Fragmented Learning Source: Multimedia Learning by Richard E. Meyer, Cambridge University Press, 2001
  • Appeal to both sides of the brain to get a positive emotional “hook.” How Do You Get Your Message Across? Left Brain Right Brain Emotional Hook Hooked
    • Surprise
    • Curiosity
    • Joy
    • Acceptance
    • Anticipation
    Emotion Intuition Creativity Holistic Thought Logic Facts Figures Sequence Learning Opportunity Wasted Opportunity Disconnected
  • Minimize the noise in your message.
    • Examples of Communication “Noise”
    • Physical – background sound, poor lighting, excess text or graphics
    • Semantic – poor wording, grammar, terminology
    • Physiological – nervousness, illness
    • Psychological - preconceived notions, biases, assumptions
    Message Sent Signal Received Message Received Source Encoder Decoder Receiver Signal Sent Noise Feedback Feedback How Do You Get Your Message Across? Communication Cycle
  • Limit your information to 3 or 4 “chunks” at a time, then reinforce your message. Encoding Sensory Memory (unlimited) Working Memory (limited*) Long Term Memory (unlimited) Selective Attention Retrieval Information Lost Memory Lost within 1 to 2 seconds Lost within 15 to 30 seconds if unrehearsed Lost with passage of time Rehearsal How Do You Get Your Message Across? The Memory Process *Short term working memory is generally limited to 7 +/- 2 pieces or 3 to 4 chunks of information
  • A relatively recent study indicated your audience will retain more information and use it more effectively if you reduce extraneous text and information. Is Less More? % Increase in Retention Source: Multimedia Learning by Richard E. Meyer, Cambridge University Press, 2001 Removing All Text Removing Extraneous Information
  • Alternative Modes of Transportation for Food Distribution
    • Drivers on motorcycles
    • Transporting fresh product
    • To local markets
    • In crates
    • In this case, pigs…
    • … Very uncomfortable pigs
    Has the text on the page added to or distracted from the power of the graphic?
  • Is this an effective slide? Is More Less?
  • Is this an effective slide? Is More Less?
  • Reinforce your message.
    • Reinforcement Techniques:
    • Repeat your message using the old standard:
      • Tell them what you’re going to tell them
      • Tell them
      • Tell them what you’ve told them
    • Show examples
    • Explain how it impacts your audience
    • Require audience participation and interaction
    • Test comprehension and meaningful transfer
      • Reward positive transfer
      • Correct deficient transfer
    How Do You Get Your Message Across?
  • Tell them a story.
    • Every good story (…even in PowerPoint):
    • Has solid content
    • Is adapted to your audience
    • Has a beginning, a middle, and an end
    • Follows a logical sequence (narrative thread)
    • Has a point!
    How Do You Get Your Message Across?
  • How Do You Tell Your Story?
  • Use a common framework when creating your story. How Do You Tell Your Story? Story Context (Situation) Role of the Audience Point A (Current State) Point B (End State) Solution (Close the Gap) Orient your audience Define their role in the story Define the imbalance in where they are today Tell them where they should be. Show them the path forward Gap (or Conflict) 1 2 3 4 5 Example Storytelling Framework Reference: socialablemedia
  • You should be able to frame your story in as few as 5 slides. How Can You Apply The Storytelling Framework? Example Story Using The Framework Reference: socialablemedia Main Point (Header Statement) Story Frame We are going to conduct a cost vs. service tradeoff analysis to determine the optimum role, number, location, and size of facilities needed to meet future needs. Solution The future logistics network will be designed to satisfy capacity requirements based upon rational investments Point B The capacity among your current facilities will not meet future needs unless a significant investment is made Point A You must provide the distribution capacity to meet these revenue targets Audience Role Your company revenue is expected to double within the next 5 years Context
  • Follow a structured hierarchy (pyramid) to build the logic of your message. Next Steps Key Line (5 Minutes) Support (15 Minutes) Support (45 Minutes) Solution (Main Message) How Do You Organize Story Content? A structured hierarchy allows you to tailor the detail of your message to the length of time you have to present it. Context Role Gap
  • Inductive reasoning uses “bottom up” pyramid logic to draw inferences from the cumulative weight of the supporting evidence. You should implement “X” “ X” meets your requirements “ X” is the least costly solution “ X” represents the least risk Why? “ So What?” Statement What Is Inductive Reasoning? Supporting Detail Inductive Reasoning This is referred to as the “boiling the ocean” approach, when done to extreme.
  • Deductive reasoning also uses pyramid logic but requires an “ordered chain of ideas” that lead to an inevitable conclusion. To reduce your distribution costs, you should redesign your facilities Your distribution costs are higher than your competition Your competitors have reduced costs by redesigning their facilities Therefore, you should consider redesigning our facilities Supporting Detail What Is Deductive Reasoning? Chain of logic “ So What?” Statement or Hypothesis Deductive Reasoning Conclusion
  • Presentation development is a multi-step process with the sole aim of successfully communicating your message to your audience. How Do You Put Your Story Together? Gather content Filter content into the key messages Use a structure approach to develop a narrative story Build story line Design story board Conduct interviews, research, and analysis Map story line and supporting information to slides Understand objectives Add charts and graphics to emphasize your message Overlay graphics Prepare room, anchor nervousness, present message Perform live Summarize messages Define who you are presenting to and why Practice and edit to clarify your message Rehearse and edit Presentation Development Process
  • Presentation Formatting
  • The cover defines the topic, the audience, and the date. Presentation Formatting Title Page Client logo in upper left corner or overlaying Company graphic below Main Title of Presentation. Center over sub-title information below. Or, center presentation title on page when client logo is not used. Company or Client Graphic
  • The Agenda follows the title page to introduce the sections within the presentation. As an example… Presentation Formatting Agenda The Agenda page may also be used as divider page throughout your document by highlighting the section to be covered next.
  • Generally, each slide consists of a page title, a header statement, the slide body, and an optional tombstone statement.
    • The header statement must convey your main message.
    • The body of the page is used to support the main message.
      • The message should be conveyed in a logical sequence
      • Bulleted text is one way of organizing supporting material
        • Sub-bullets are used to further explain a topic
        • Avoid the use of:
          • A single sub-bullet only
          • Too many bullets on a page…like this, and
          • Very small text… like this
      • Charts and graphics on the page must also support your main message
    • Do not provide information on a slide that disputes or detracts from the main message.
    • The “tombstone” is an optional device that:
      • Summarizes your point
      • Provides a point of emphasis, and/or
      • Creates a transition to the next page
    Presentation Formatting Page Structure As rule of thumb, your audience should be able to understand your entire presentation by reading the header statement on each page. Page Title Header Statement Slide Body Tombstone
  • Maintain page layout consistency by applying the slide master template to each page. Presentation Formatting Page Layout Consistency Slide Master View Header statement Text body with font and bullet formatting Page Number
  • A slide layout may be changed through the format slide layout menu of options. Presentation Formatting Changing Page Layout Slide Layout Options Header Only Header & Text Title Slide Master Title & 2 Columns
  • Start of Presentation End of Presentation % of You Paying Attention 0% 100% Typical Attention Span Curve Where We Are Using Charts & Graphics Source: Numerous Scientific Studies
  • Graphics should only be used to support your message.
    • Use simple and concise graphics
    • Ensure your message is immediately evident
    • Do not use a graph unless it supports your point
    • Encourage eye movement through graphic elements (e.g. chevrons)
    • Place a title on your chart
    • Identify the source of your information
    • Avoid content free clip-art
    • No eye charts!
    Using Charts & Graphics General “Rules” Needless Clip Art Source: Bad PowerPoint Presentation
  • Clip art can be effective if used to visualize your message. Using Charts & Graphics “Acceptable” Clip Art Original artwork can be created by ungrouping, combining and altering existing PowerPoint clip-art to graphically convey a message Inbound Outbound Scan
  • Use a consistent color scheme and text style for graphic elements and tables throughout your document. Layout type and graphics Perform live Print hardcopy and rehearse Task Benefit 1. No. 1 Task 2. No. 2 Task 3. No. 3 Task No. 1 Benefits No. 2 Benefits No. 3 Benefits Using Charts & Graphics Style Consistency Examples
  • Most data sets lend themselves to five basic modes of comparison. Kinds of Comparison COMPONENT ITEM TIME SERIES FREQUENCY CO-RELATION Basic Chart Forms PIE BAR COLUMN STEP LINE/ CURVE SURFACE SCATTER Using Charts & Graphics Graphing Data Relative Comparison Ranking Importance Variation Over Time Histogram Correlation of Data
  • Use pie charts to compare relative magnitudes.
    • Place labels on the outside the pie
    • Begin at 12 o‘clock and go clockwise
    • Use contrasting values
    • Limit the number of wedges (ideally, no more than 4 or 5)
    • Do not use more than one pie chart on the same page unless their areas measure with the same scale
    XYZ Corp 59% Percent Share of the 2006 Widget Market Competitor A 13% Competitor B 28% Using Charts & Graphics Pie Charts Source: Company Analysis
  • Use bar charts to compare absolute magnitudes.
    • Use bar charts instead of line graphs when time intervals are irregular or irrelevant
    • Bar charts are easier to read because labels are horizontal
    • Order elements either by logical sequence or by size
    • Label the value (y) axis with the unit of measurement
    2006 XYZ Corp Widget Sales by Region Source: Company Analysis Sales $MM $48MM $20MM $15MM $10MM $5MM 0 10 20 30 40 50 South Mountain Midwest East West Using Charts & Graphics Bar Charts
  • Use column charts to emphasize levels or magnitudes over time.
    • Column charts are best used when few time periods will be plotted
    • Column charts are most effective for small groupings
    • Column charts are more space efficient due to their vertical format
    2004 2005 2006 $0 $10 $20 $30 $40 Revenue ($MM) Year 2006 XYZ Corp Revenues Source: Company Analysis Using Charts & Graphics Column Charts
  • Use stacked column charts to depict the contribution of multiple values over time. Year Over Year Inventory Level ($MM) 65 100 175 80 20 20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 FY04 FY05 FY06 45 Other Europe U.S. 125 165 275 15 45 Inventory Level ($MM) Year Source: Company Analysis Using Graphics & Charts Stacked Columns
  • Use waterfall charts to depict the build up of a total value. 1.94 1.19 2.11 1.39 2.12 0.82 0.6 10.75 1.79 3.33 4.23 0.58 Direct Labor Materials Indirect Labor Salaries Investment and Other Fixed Charges Other OH & Other Plant Expenses Freight Direct Plant Non-Direct Salaries & Wages Other Overhead & Plant Expenses Design Delivery Total 0.29 – Mfg. License 0.29 – Engineering Source: Company analysis Dollars Per Unit By Cost Element Supply Chain Cost per Unit - XYZ Corp. Using Graphics & Charts Waterfall Charts
  • Use line graphs and surface charts to show variation and trend over time.
    • Line graphs can contain one trend line or multiple lines
    • Multiple lines are either comparative or cumulative
    Consumer Goods Consumer Services 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 Consumer Goods Consumer Services Food Defense Source: Government Report Using Charts & Graphics Line or Surface Charts Consumer Spending ($ Billons) Gross National Product ($ Billions) Source: Government Report Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Nov Dec Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Nov Dec
  • Use scatter diagrams to show data correlations and highlight significant patterns.
    • Scatter charts depict the “shape” of the data
    • When creating these charts, use an arrow or shading over the area of interest to highlight the expected direction or pattern
    Lines Per Hour Source: Company Analysis Using Charts & Graphics Scatter Diagrams Units/Line Productivity 60 50 40 30 20 10 1 Average Units Per Line 1 5 10 20 25 30 35
  • Use process flow charts to explain activity sequence and dependencies. Using Charts & Graphics Process Flow Charts Collect Historical Data Comparative & Sensitivity Analysis Future Scenario Models Future Baseline Model Project to Future Period Adjust Historical Data Historical Baseline Model Qualitative Evaluation Alternative Definitions
    • Assumptions
    • Missing Data
    • Abnormal Events
    Modeling Assumptions Future Business Plans Collected Data Distribution Network Analysis Process
  • If a page requires graphics and bulleted text, split the page based on the graphic’s orientation.
    • If the graphic is vertical, round or square, place the bulleted text to the side of the graphic.
      • If the graphic is used to help illustrate a point within the text, place the graphic to the right of the text
      • If the text is used to explain the graphic, place the graphic to the left
    • If the graphic is horizontal, place the bulleted text above or below the graphic.
      • If the graphic is used to help illustrate a point within the text, place the graphic below the text
      • If the text is used to explain the graphic, place the graphic above the text
    Using Charts and Graphics Graph Placement
  • PowerPoint “Rules of Thumb”
    • Serif fonts are difficult to read on screen…this is Times font
    • Italics are difficult to read on screen...this is also Times font
    • Sanserif fonts are clearer…this is Tahoma font
    • Normal or bold fonts are clearer
    • Underlines may signify hyperlinks
    • Instead, use colors to emphasize
    Use readable fonts (e.g. Tahoma) and color to draw attention. PowerPoint “Rules of Thumb” Fonts
  • Use a text size large enough for the audience to read.
    • This is Tahoma 10
    • This is Tahoma 14
    • This is Tahoma 18
    • This is Tahoma 24
    • This is Tahoma 32
    • This is Tahoma 44
    • This is Tahoma 60
    PowerPoint “Rules of Thumb” Text Size
  • Make It Clear.
    • ALL CAPITAL LETTERS ARE DIFFICULT TO READ
    • Title Case Is Better But It Can Also Be Difficult to Read
    • Sentence case is the easiest to read
    PowerPoint “Rules of Thumb” Capitalization
  • Use numbers for lists with sequence, priority, or reference. For example:
    • How do you put an elephant into a fridge?
    • Open the door of the fridge
    • Put the elephant in
    • Close the door
    • Today’s Priorities:
    • 1. Find a new home for the elephant
    • 2. Take the elephant out of the fridge
    • 3. Take the elephant to it’s new home
    • 4. Get a new fridge
    PowerPoint “Rules of Thumb” Number Sequence
  • Save the detail for the supporting report or appendix.
    • The “Primary Objective ” for the Warehouse Consolidation track will be to aggressively attack warehouse consolidation opportunities in order to recognizes financial or strategic benefits for the enterprise and as such, the following objectives should be viewed with that approach in mind.
    • Project objectives are as follows:
      • Warehouse Consolidation: Object will be to consolidate existing 3rd party warehouses within targeted market areas utilizing (a) existing warehouses or (b) vacant warehouses/facilities. The project goal will be to develop and implement a warehouse consolidation strategy, when possible (Note: Not all market areas analyzed will result in consolidations due to customer requirements, long term lease commitments, systems integration issues, cost benefits, timing of RDC rollout, etc.), that will substantially reduce the total number of network warehouses. Available project time and resources will be skewed toward this objective.
        • Regardless of whether the consolidation analysis results in actual warehouse consolidation, data gathered will be later utilized by the RDC track and will accelerate the speed of final market consolidation.
        • Each GMA targeted by the Warehouse Consolidation track has approximated 5-15 facilities and the speed, which facilities within these markets can be appropriately analyzed, visited and consolidated cannot be accurately determinable at this time. Therefore, the Warehouse Consolidation team will focus efforts to rapidly complete 1 GMA review as a pilot study to fine tune approach as well as time/cost/benefits estimates.
        • Number of facilities closed as well as benefits achieved will be calculated throughout the project life cycle.
      • Collect Data for RDC Track : Scope will include all off-site warehouses located in markets targeted for RDC warehouse consolidation with information requirements including the following:
        • Lease terms and conditions (rates, duration, etc.)
        • Through-put
        • Services provided including unique customer requirements
        • Current inventory analysis (turns, obsolescence etc.)
        • Data collection efforts will be targeted at the first 2 regions selected for warehouse consolidation.
      • Governance : Develop and implement a detailed governance document relative to warehouse operations including but not limited to the following:
        • Opening/closing warehouses
        • Allocations of warehouse cost between sectors for shared warehouses
      • Procedures & Processes: Develop and document detailed understanding of procedures and processes related to:
        • Inventory visibility
        • Inventory accuracy (includes reconciliation process between 3PL’s and business units)
        • 3PL invoicing for services
      • Warehouse Database: Develop a detailed warehouse database that represents the “definitive source” of key warehouse data for the enterprise including but not limited to warehouse name, location, key contacts, through-put, KPI’s, lease terms and conditions etc..
    PowerPoint “Rules of Thumb” Text Detail Too Detailed!
  • Round numbers unless the detail is absolutely required. PowerPoint “Rules of Thumb” Number Detail Too Detailed! Much Simpler! 3,045,654 9,532,111 12,234,123 December 6,678,125 478,023 5,864,034 November 5,596,096 9,945,890 2,608,096 October 9,950,498 18,923,239 4,032,045 September 17,230,095 18,107,110 8,674,234 August 18,885,786 15,347,934 8,890,345 July 4,123,656 678,095 16,184,345 June 14,856,456 10,345,394 8,036,897 May 7,940,096 10,870,954 16,098,897 April 16,034,786 6,567,123 17,234,778 March 16,128,234 12,345,567 1,078,456 February 3,034,564 14,123,654 11,532,234 January Tokyo London Atlanta 3.0 9.5 12.2 December 6.7 0.5 5.9 November 5.6 9.9 2.6 October 10.0 18.9 4.0 September 17.2 18.1 8.7 August 18.9 15.3 8.9 July 4.1 0.7 16.2 June 14.9 10.3 8.0 May 7.9 10.9 16.1 April 16.0 6.6 17.2 March 16.1 12.3 1.1 February 3.0 14.1 11.5 January Tokyo London Atlanta (MM)
  • Use contrasting colors. PowerPoint “Rules of Thumb” Colors No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
  • Use differences to attract not distract. PowerPoint “Rules of Thumb” Drawing Attention
    • Differences draw attention
    • Differences may imply importance
    • Use surprises to attract not distract
    • Differences draw attention
    • Differences may imply importance
    • Use surprises to attract not distract
    • Differences draw attention
    • Differences may imply importance
    • Use surprises to attract not distract
    • Differences draw attention
    • Differences may imply importance
    • Use surprises to attract not distract
    • Differences draw attention
    • Differences may imply importance
    • Use surprises to attract not distract
    Attracting Distracting
    • Differences draw attention
    • Differences may imply importance
    • Use surprises to attract not distract
  • Minimize animated transition effects that detract from your message.
    • "Appear" and "Disappear" are more subtle
    PowerPoint “Rules of Thumb” Transitions
    • This transition is annoying, not enhancing
  • Here a few key takeaways from today’s discussion: Summary
    • Use as a means of communicating your message
    PowerPoint
    • Use sentence case with large font and minimal text per page
    • Use highly contrasting colors (e.g. black on white)
    • Use subtle and minimal animated transitions
    “ Rules of Thumb”
    • Use to support rather than distract from your main point
    Charts and Graph
    • Be consistent from page to page
    • Make your point in the header statement of each slide
    Presentation Formatting
    • Think of your presentation as a story with a beginning, middle, and end
    • Follow a logical sequence with a narrative thread
    • Apply the pyramid principle to support your main points
    Storytelling
    • Tailor to audience
    • Minimize noise (less is more!)
    • Reinforce your point with visual cues, examples, participation, etc.
    • Seek emotional hook
    Messaging
    • Inform AND persuade (credibility, logic, and emotion)
    Purpose
    • Don’t wait until it’s too late
    Development Key Takeaway Topic
  • How Are Your Presentation Development Skills Now? Before Training! After Training!
  • Questions?