Nuclear Engineering ANS Outreach


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Principles of Nuclear Energy, Radiation Safety, Fission Power Generation, Fusion, Nuclear Medicine, Jobs, etc.

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  • Geiger counter: Incident radiation will penetrate the tube, ionize the gas, and create ions that will be attracted to the wire
  • Questions being asked:Why are there 3 pairs of quarks when only one pair is used to create matter?What gives particles mass?Why is the top quark so massive (35x larger)?
  • Radiotracer, Tracer, and Radiopharmaceuticals– drugs that emit radioactivity. They are radionuclides that have been chemically combined with pharmaceuticals
  • Diagnostic imaging (also known as “radio nuclide imagin” or “nuclear scintigraphy”)After the tracer has been administered to the patient, it will localize in the organ, tissue, bones, etc. External gamma cameras can then form images from the radiation emitted by the radiotracer. Different from, say, an x-ray. An X-ray uses external radiation that passes through the body to create a picture. Because the image is based on the uptake of the compound in the tissue, it gives information on how the organ is FUNCTIONING, not just how it LOOKS. “Unlike other imaging techniques, nuclear medicine imaging studies are less directed toward picturing anatomy and structure, and more concerned with depicting physiologic processes within the body, such as rates of metabolism or levels of various other chemical activity. Areas of greater intensity, called "hot spots", indicate where large amounts of the radiotracer have accumulated and where there is a high level of chemical activity. Less intense areas, or "cold spots", indicate a smaller concentration of radiotracer and less chemical activity.”CENTRAL POINT: Healthy tissues and organs will uptake compounds differently than tissues and organs that have a disease. Scan types: Planar: provides a 2-D image of the funcion of the image being processesSPECT:Provides 3-D computer-reconstructed images of multiple views and function of the organ being imaged. PET: Produces high energy, 3-D computer-reconstructed images measuring and determining the function or physiology in a specific organ, tumor, or other metabolically active site.In general, the PET has replaced older forms of nuclear medicine scans, such as gallium scans, indium white blood cell scans, MIBG and octreotide scans.Image fusions: examples being the SPECT/CT or PET/CT  the advantage is that you get information on the function and the anatomy of the organ.
  • Fusing the images, again, you get information on the function and the anatomy of the organ. So here in this healthy scan, you can see the anatomy from the CT, then the physiology from the PET, and it provides you with a more holistic picture of what the patient is experiencing. In this normal scan, we don’t see hot spots or cold spots on the PET scan, the tracers are being uniformly up taken in the body
  • In this Abnormal whole body PET/CT scan with multiple metastases from a cancer, we can see hot spots, or these darker regions on the image. When the images are fused, you can see where the uptake is located, and how that fits into the anatomy. The whole body PET/CT scan has became an important tool in the evaluation of cancer. it can also allow for diagnosis at an earlier stage than other diagnostic tests.  (you can see the increased uptake, for example, without having to have large growth in the anatomy. Or doing invasive surgery).
  • While there are applications of nuclear medicine in vitro (such as RIA, or Radioimmunoassay, which uses radiochemicals and antibodies to measure the levels of hormones, vitamins, and drugs in a patients blood), the majority of treatments are done in vivo, which is when radiopharmaceuticals are given directly to the patient. Nuclear Medicine can be used for disease treatment because it can deliver localized dose within the patient. The “rate of release” of the radiation is determined by the half life (biological and physical) of the radio isotope in the medicine.
  • It is good for the isotopes to decay quickly for two reasons. The first, is that more quickly an isotope decays, the more dose it will give to the tumorous tissue. The second, is that it will decay quickly, meaning that you will not have the dose long in your body.
  • Nuclear Engineering ANS Outreach

    1. 1. What is Nuclear Engineering?<br />American Nuclear Society<br />Purdue Student Chapter<br />1<br />
    2. 2. This is it, right?<br />2<br />What is <br />Nuclear <br />Engineering?<br />
    3. 3. Nuclear engineering is harnessing the power of the atom to do work<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Early History<br />450 BC: Democritus termed atomos as the “smallest indivisible particle of matter”<br />Early models of the atom:<br />John Dalton, 1803: ‘Cannonball’ like atoms<br />JJ Thomson, 1904: Plum pudding model<br />After his 1897 discovery of the electron<br />
    5. 5. Discovering the Nucleus <br />Bad news for Thomson<br />Plum pudding was disproved by Rutherford with his classic backscattering experiment<br />This proved the existence of the nucleus in 1911<br />
    6. 6. Discovering Electrons<br />Enter Niels Bohr<br />Electrons must have energy levels<br />Proposes planetary model of the atom based on Rutherford’s<br />Math checks out for light elements<br />
    7. 7. Discovering Radiation<br />1896: Henri Becquerel discovers that uranium emits gamma rays<br />In the following years, Marie Curie finds more radioactive elements, like radium<br />
    8. 8. Discovering Fission<br />Hahn and Meitner discover fission in 1938<br />Fermi conducts first successful chain reaction at the University of Chicago in December, 1942<br />
    9. 9. First Nuclear Weapons<br />Manhattan Project (1945) <br />“Little Boy” – uranium device dropped on Hiroshima<br />“Fat Man” – plutonium device dropped on Nagasaki<br />
    10. 10. First Nuclear Power<br />1951: EBR-1 in Idaho is first reactor to generate electricity<br />1957: Shippingport Reactor in Pennsylvania is the first commercial nuclear power plant in U.S.<br />
    11. 11. Radiation<br />Nuclear Engineering is…<br />11<br />
    12. 12. The Atom<br />12<br />electrons<br />neutrons<br />protons<br />nucleus<br />
    13. 13. Gamma Radiation<br />13<br />γ<br />
    14. 14. Alpha Radiation<br />14<br />α<br />
    15. 15. Beta Radiation<br />15<br />β<br />
    16. 16. Neutron Radiation<br />16<br />n<br />
    17. 17. Radiation Damage<br />
    18. 18. How does radiation damage happen?<br />4 kinds of radiation:<br />Alpha, Beta, Neutron<br />Gamma<br />¾ are PARTICLES<br />Primary mode of damage:<br />COLLISIONAL<br />~ Billiard Balls<br />Damage is a function of:<br />KINETIC ENERGY TRANSFER<br />[1]<br />
    19. 19. Biological Radiation Damage<br />The damage process<br />Incident particles interact with the material<br />Cause ionizations<br />Change/Destroy Molecules<br />Biological materials do not have a crystal lattice to add strength<br />Much more readily damaged<br />[3]<br />
    20. 20. Biological effects, continued [4]<br />With incident radiation cells can be:<br />Unchanged<br />Damaged<br />Damage can be repaired, can return to normal functioning<br />Damage can be repaired, cell functions are off-normal<br />Can damage other cells, can reproduce unhealthy cells, can be unable to reproduce<br />Killed <br />The number and type of cells damaged or killed determines the impact of a radiation does to biological materials <br />
    21. 21. How do you protect yourself from radiation?<br />21<br />Shielding<br />Distance<br />Time<br />Amount<br />
    22. 22. Radiation Shielding<br />22<br />α<br />β<br />γ<br />n<br />lead<br />atom<br />paper<br />aluminum<br />
    23. 23. How do you detect radiation?<br />23<br />
    24. 24. Answer: Detectors<br />There are many types of detectors<br />Today we will use a Geiger-Müller Counter<br />Basic concept:<br />Radiation enters chamber<br />Ionizes the gas<br />Creates ions that are attracted to the wire <br />
    25. 25. Geiger Counter<br />25<br />click!<br />
    26. 26. Radiation is everywhere<br />26<br />cosmic<br />rays<br />concrete<br />x-rays<br />earth<br />food<br />
    27. 27. Quantum mechanics<br />
    28. 28. Want to split an atom? Look at your Television!<br />CRT (giant TV’s) take electrons and speeds them up.<br />They’re smashed into phosphor molecules on the screen<br />Collision releases energy and lights the TV screen<br /><br />
    29. 29. How a high- energy accelerator works<br />Differences from the TV?<br />Particles are bigger<br />Particles move faster (near speed of light!)<br />Move in a circular track<br />Collision results in more subatomic particles<br />How it works?<br />Particles are accelerated using EM waves like a surfer riding a swell<br />The more energetic the particle, the easier it is to see the structures.<br />Example? If you hit a cue ball in pool and make it go faster the rack of balls will scatter faster and further.<br /><br />
    30. 30. What is detected?<br />There are many types of detectors<br />Things that can be detected:<br />Number of particles <br />Energy<br />Mass<br /><br />
    31. 31. Nuclear energy<br />Nuclear Engineering is…<br />31<br />
    32. 32. I-135<br />neutrons<br />U-235<br />U-236<br />Tc-99<br />Fission<br />32<br />
    33. 33. Fission Chain Reaction<br />33<br />
    34. 34. 34<br />H-2<br />n<br />α<br />H-3<br />Fusion<br />
    35. 35. BWR: Boiling Water Reactor<br />
    36. 36. Nuclear Power Plants in the U.S.<br />
    37. 37. Nuclear Power Facts<br />Even though no new plants have been built, the percentage of US electricity generated has increased!<br />Radiation from nuclear power has never caused a death or cancer in the United States<br />A nuclear power plant cannot undergo a nuclear explosion<br />
    38. 38. Inertial Confinement Fusion<br />
    39. 39. Magnetic Confinement Fusion<br />
    40. 40. Challenges for Nuclear Fusion Power<br />Materials challenges<br />First wall<br />High-power superconducting magnets<br />High energy neutron fluxes<br />Lithium blankets, neutron absorbers<br />Control of plasma<br />We can do this if we solve the materials challenges<br />
    41. 41. Nuclear Fuel Cycle<br />41<br />Mining & Milling – Uranium Oxide (U3O8)<br />Conversion to UF6<br />Enrichment to 3-4% U-235<br />Fabrication in to Fuel Assemblies <br />Burned in Reactor<br />Storage in Spent Fuel Pool<br />Dry Cask Storage<br />Permanent Underground Storage<br />Reprocessing to Make New Fuel<br />
    42. 42. Energy Equivalence<br />1 Uranium <br />Pellet<br />3 Barrels<br />of Oil<br />17,000 Cubic Feet<br />of Natural Gas<br />1 Ton of Coal<br />42<br />
    43. 43. Energy Equivalence<br />1000 MWe<br />Nuclear Power Plant<br />1 km2<br />1000 Windmills<br />100 km2<br />Solar Cells<br />5000 km2<br />43<br />
    44. 44. Nuclear Power vs. Nuclear Bomb<br />44<br />U-235<br />U-238<br />
    45. 45. Solving Problems<br />Nuclear Engineering is…<br />
    46. 46. Radioactive Waste<br />Low-level waste: items that have become contaminated or radioactive<br />Contaminated protective shoe covers and clothing<br />Wiping rags, mops, filters, tools<br />Luminous dials<br />Medical tubes, swabs, injection needles, syringes, and laboratory animal carcasses and tissues<br />Low-level waste is disposed underground<br />46<br />
    47. 47. Spent Nuclear Fuel<br />About 1/3 of the core is removed every 12-18 months<br />Spent fuel is extremely radioactive!<br />Stored in spent fuel pool at plant for 5 years to cool<br />Moved to dry storage once pool is full<br />Currently have 60,000 metric tons of spent fuel (covers a football field, 7 yards deep)<br />What are we going to do with it?<br />
    48. 48. Nuclear Non-Proliferation<br />Nuclear material from the nuclear fuel cycle could be diverted to a weapons program<br />Atomic Bomb<br />Need to chemically separate or enrich material<br />Takes a lot of time, money, and technology<br />Dirty Bomb: disperse radioactive materials<br />International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)<br /> Facilitates peaceful use of nuclear technology<br />Protects nuclear material around the world and verifies that it is not diverted<br />
    49. 49. Homeland Security<br />CIA works with IAEA to detect nuclear weapons<br />Seismic monitoring can detect nuclear weapons testing (like in North Korea)<br />Portal radiation monitors <br /> scan incoming cargo<br />49<br />
    50. 50. Nuclear Medicine<br />
    51. 51. What is Nuclear Medicine?<br />Nuclear Medicine is a branch of medicine that uses radioisotopes to: diagnose, treat, and track diseases in the human body.<br />Basic Principle:<br />Certain organs and tissue uptake specific isotopes or chemical compounds<br />Radioisotopes are combined with pharmaceuticals that will be absorbed in the tissue or organ in question<br />
    52. 52. Diagnose<br />Imaging based on function and physiology, not solely on anatomy.<br />Scan types:<br />Planar<br />SPECT: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography<br />PET: Positron Emission Tomography<br />CAT and MRI scans do not use radioactivity<br />
    53. 53. Normal PET/CT<br />
    54. 54. Abnormal PET/CT <br />
    55. 55. Treatment<br />Radiopharmaceuticals emit ionizing radiation that travels a short distance in the body<br />Minimizes unwanted side effects and damage to noninvolved organs and tissues <br />Some Examples: <br />Iodine-131 : hyperthyroidism<br />Yttrium-90: Lymphoma<br />Strontium-89: bone pain treatment<br />
    56. 56. How it Works<br />Imaging<br />Administration<br />IV<br />Inhaled as a gas<br />Swallowed<br />The tracer accumulates, and then is imaged with gamma cameras<br />Treatment<br />Administration<br />IV<br />Inhaled as a gas<br />Swallowed<br />The tracer accumulates, and then decays, delivering localized dose<br />
    57. 57. What happens after invivo treatment? <br />Treatments are generally outpatient treatments<br />The treatment will continue to decay while in your body <br />Isotopes are choose with have short half lives, so they decay quickly<br />Your body also has a natural “filtration system” that removes the tracers from your system, known as a biological half-life. <br />
    58. 58. Applications of Nuclear Technology<br />58<br />
    59. 59. Space Application: Power<br />Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RGT)<br />Long life power source (months-100yr)<br />Alpha decay heats thermocouples for electricity<br />New Horizons<br />Mission to Pluto<br />RTG<br />Apollo 14<br />
    60. 60. Space Application: Power<br />Fission Surface Power Source<br />Fission Reactor to be used on the surface of the moon or mars<br />Would be used to power a permanent outpost<br />Liquid metal coolant used instead of water<br />
    61. 61. Space Applications: Propulsion<br />Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines<br />Propellant gas (hydrogen) is heated in a reactor and is pushed through a nozzle<br />Ion Propulsion<br />Ionized hydrogen gas (protons) are accelerated by a strong electric field powered by a nuclear reactor or RTG<br />NERVA rocket<br />Ion Engine<br />
    62. 62. Consumer Products: Smoke Detectors<br />Smoke Detectors<br />An alpha emitter (Am-241) is used in smoke detection circuit<br />Alphas ionize an electric plate<br />Smoke stops ionization of the plate which sets off alarm <br />NOTE: To properly dispose of a smoke detector, just send it back to the manufacturer.<br />
    63. 63. Consumer Products: Self-Powered Lighting<br />Beta emitters (such as Tritium) are combined with a phosphorescent material to produce light<br />Can make lights that run continuously for 20 years<br />Example products<br />Watch dials<br />Emergency signs<br />Gun scopes<br />
    64. 64. Consumer Products: Irradiated Gemstones<br />Color in gemstones is caused by small imperfections in the crystal structure <br />Most types of radiation (especially neutrons) can effectively change the color of a gemstone to something more desirable<br />
    65. 65. Manufacturing: Radiation Hardening<br />Radiation causes small defects in a material which hardens it<br />Gamma radiation is most commonly used because it can penetrate deep into materials<br />Examples:<br />Polymerization of plastics<br />Protective coatings for hard wood floors<br />
    66. 66. Food Irradiation<br />Food irradiation:<br />Does not “kill” or spoil the food (it is already dead)<br />Does not make the food radioactive<br />Does kill living things in the food (bacteria, viruses)<br />Irradiation can prevent:<br />Food borne diseases<br />Food infestation<br />Food contamination and spoilage<br />66<br />
    67. 67. Imaging<br />Neutron radiography<br />Neutron imaging can be used to find cracks in thick materials such as bridges or aircraft wings<br />Neutrons can also provide clearer images than X-rays<br /><ul><li>Ground Imaging
    68. 68. Neutrons are used in oil well logging
    69. 69. Neutrons are also used to determine the water concentration of soil before building heavy structures</li></ul>X-ray image<br />Neutron image<br />
    70. 70. Careers Opportunities<br />
    71. 71. More nuclear professionals are needed<br />The demand exceeds the supply of graduates trained in nuclear science and technology<br />Many nuclear professionals are retiring and need to transfer their knowledge to the next generation of experts.<br />Scholarships, awards, and honors exist for student education and research<br />Nuclear Engineers have the 3rd highest median income among the engineering professions at $102,000/year<br />
    72. 72. Government and National Security<br />Nuclear Regulatory Commission<br />Department of Energy<br />Research at national labs<br />Homeland security<br />Central Intelligence Agency<br />NASA<br />
    73. 73. Military<br />Navy<br />Department of Defense<br />Naval reactor research and development<br />
    74. 74. Nuclear Power Plants<br />Reactor Operator<br />Core Designer<br />Safety Analysis<br />Radiation Protection<br />
    75. 75. Power Industry<br />Reactor vendors<br />Engineering firms<br />Designer, core analysis, engineering support of nuclear power plants<br />
    76. 76. Medical<br />Hospitals or research<br />Nuclear Pharmacy (radioactive tracers)<br />Radiation Therapy (cancer)<br />Positron Emission Tomography (PET)<br />Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)<br />DNA Sequencing<br />
    77. 77. Purdue Nuclear Engineering<br />
    78. 78. Research Areas<br />Ultraintense Laser Science and Technology<br /> Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment<br />Radiation Materials and Surface Interactions<br />Nuclear Detection and Remote Sensing<br />Radiation Shielding for Space Applications<br />Thermal Hydraulics and Reactor Safety<br />Fuel Cycle and Waste Management<br />Hydrogen and Fuel Cell<br />Nuclear Systems Simulation<br />Applied Intelligent Systems<br />Reactor Fusion<br />Reactor Physics<br />
    79. 79. First Year Engineering<br />Introduction to Engineering<br />Calculus I and II<br />Chemistry I and II<br />Physics I and II<br />English<br />Communications<br />Computer Science<br />
    80. 80. Nuclear Engineering Curriculum<br />Math (4)<br />Intro to Nuclear Engr.<br />Mechanical Engr. (3)<br />Radiation Lab<br />Materials (2-3 & Lab)<br />Neutron Physics (2)<br />Thermal-Hydraulics (2)<br />Fluid Mechanics Lab<br />Linear Circuit Analysis<br />Reactor Lab<br />Nuclear Power Systems<br />Nuclear Reactor Theory<br />Colloquium Series<br />Technical Electives (6)<br />General Electives (6)<br />Senior Design (2)<br />
    81. 81. <ul><li>Only nuclear reactor in Indiana
    82. 82. Used for research and teaching
    83. 83. Get to operate it senior year!</li></ul>PUR-1<br />
    84. 84. Questions?<br />Nuclear Engineering is…<br />?<br />
    85. 85. Sources<br />American Nuclear Society<br />U.S. Department of Energy<br />U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission<br />Nuclear Energy Institute<br />International Atomic Energy Agency<br />American Wind Energy Association<br />World Nuclear Association<br />NASA<br />
    86. 86. Three Mile Island Accident – Pennsylvania 1979<br />Cooling malfunction caused part of the core to melt, destroyed reactor<br />Some radioactive gas was released a couple of days after the accident, but not above background levels to local residents<br />No injuries or adverse health effects<br /><br />
    87. 87. Chernobyl Accident – Ukraine 1986<br />Flawed reactor design, operated by inadequately trained personnel, unsafe operation<br />Steam explosion and fire released 5% of the radioactive reactor core into the atmosphere <br />28 people died within four months from radiation or thermal burns, 19 have subsequently died, and about 9 deaths from thyroid cancer: total 56 fatalities<br />Damaged reactor currently contained in sarcophagus<br />New sturdy steel containment to be built soon<br /><br />