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Development of self and social cognition

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  • 1. Development of the Self and Social Cognition
  • 2. The Self Bandura – the set of cognitive processes and structures that are concerned with thoughts and perception  (Schultz, 2001) the combination of physical and psychological attributes that is unique to each individual  (Shaffer, 2005)
  • 3. The Self-Concept the perception one has of their unique combination of attributes  (Shaffer, 2005) self-concept is developed through communicating to others. it is characterized by social relationships we have with people in our surrounding environment. We develop our opinions about ourselves by observing the ways other respond to and communicate with us.  (Luke, 2012)
  • 4. The Emerging Self The point at which the sense of self emerges or comes to the fore front in childhood emerges in the early years of life and continues to develop into adulthood Unclear as to when children become aware of themselves Most research has found that this starts around the age of 2-3 months
  • 5. Self Recognition ability to recognise oneself in a mirror or a photograph, coupled with the conscious awareness that the mirror or photograph is a representative of the self Rouge Test  (Shaffer, 2005)
  • 6. Theory of the Mind
  • 7.  Theory of mind: proposed to explain this acquisition process and development It is construed as the “…understanding that people are cognitive beings with rich mental lives that are available to themselves and not to others” (p. 466, Shaffer, 1996).
  • 8. Conceptions of self in Middle Childhood
  • 9.  The term self-concept is a general term used to refer to how someone thinks about or perceives themselves. The self helps us determine how we process information related to the self (e.g., the motives behind our behavior). The looking-glass self is a social psychological concept, created by Charles Horton Cooley in 1902 ,stating that a persons self grows out of societys interpersonal interactions and the perceptions of others.
  • 10.  Baumeister (1999) provides the following self concept definition: "the individuals belief about himself or herself, including the persons attributes and who and what the self is". Lewis (1990) suggests that development of a concept of self has two aspects: -(1) The Existential Self(2) The Categorical Self
  • 11.  Children in middle childhood are struggling to understand who they are, and continue to explore answers to the question “Who am I?”
  • 12.  Children increase in the development of perspective taking. Between ages 8 and 15, children start to depend more on peers for feedback. However, parents continue to remain influential
  • 13.  During middle childhood, children begin to view themselves less in terms of external physical attributes and more in terms of psychological traits. Children realize they are good at some things and not so good at others. Their self-concepts become divided into personal and academic spheres…
  • 14. As children get older, their views of self become more differentiated.
  • 15. DEVELOPMENT OF SELFUNDERSTANDING  Changes in self esteem and self concept due to Social Comparisons  Social Comparisons: judging one’s appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others.
  • 16.  Children use SOCIAL COMPARISON, comparing themselves to the abilities, expertise, and opinions of others. Festinger proposed that when objective measures are absent, people rely on social reality to evaluate themselves (understanding that comes from studying how others act, think, feel, and view the world). Children look to others who are similar to themselves.
  • 17.  Children increasingly compare themselves to others. Children are developing their own internal standards. Self-esteem, for most children, increases during middle childhood.
  • 18. Therefore children begin to compare themselves to othersby their age sports academics physical attributes
  • 19.  Sometimes children make downward social comparisons with others who are obviously less competent or successful to raise or protect their self-esteem. Downward social comparisons involve comparing ourselves to someone who is in a worse state than us, thereby raising our self-esteem (e.g., finding someone with a worse test grade than yours)
  • 20.  Erikson’s Industry vs. Inferiority  According to Erikson, a combination of adult expectations and children’s drive towards mastery creates the crisis in this stage.  Formal schooling and socialization. Children are learning roles and talents.
  • 21. Eriksons Psychosocial Stages
  • 22.  Success in this stage is evidenced by feelings of mastery, proficiency, and confidence. Children evaluate themselves in terms of physical and psychological characteristics, but they also think of themselves as being good or bad (involves emotions).
  • 23. Adolescence Self Concept Adolescents mention attitudes, personality traits, religious/political beliefs, variation with context, and an orientation to the future.. Adolescents use hypothetical reasoning to experiment with different selves Adolescence is characterized by self-absorption, imaginary audience, personal fable, and illusion of invulnerability.
  • 24.  In adolescence, the self is defined by abstract characteristics, social competence, and social acceptance Adolescents can conceive of themselves in terms of a variety of selves, depending on the context With friends, siblings, parents, etc… Adolescents create a variety of selves in their search for identity
  • 25.  The adolescent thinker is more capable of complex thought, as previously discussed, but they experience the return of egocentrism. Adolescents experience cognitive distortions that effect the way adolescents see the world. Imaginary audience Personal fable Illusions of invulnerability
  • 26. Marcia’s identity status Identity achievement Moratorium Identity foreclosure Identity diffusion
  • 27.  Erikson’s Identity vs. Identity Confusion – the period during which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves Adolescents increasingly rely on their friends and peers as sources of information about their identity.
  • 28. SELF ESTEEM
  • 29. Self Esteem Self Esteem is used to describe a persons overall sense of self- worth or personal value. It may involve a variety of beliefs about the self, such as the appraisal of ones own appearance, beliefs, emotions and behaviours. (Braden, 1969). Positive links between healthy self-esteem including: happiness, humility, resilience and optimism. Low self-esteem is related to stress, depression anxiety and eating disorders.
  • 30. Is self-esteem stable overtime? Changes is seen in Self-Esteem Some children experience a decline into middle and high school Multiple stressors likely to contribute to declines Overall stability is lowest in childhood and early adolescence Relatively stable in late adolescence and early adulthood
  • 31. Culture, Ethnicity and Self Esteem Most research and theory on self-concept and self-esteem are based on Western cultures and populations. Self-esteem in Individualistic Cultures (US) is more likely to be based on the achievement of personal goals, whereas in the Collective Cultures (Asia, China) self-esteem is derived from the achievement of collective goals, such as those of family or society. Harry Triandis (1989). Hazel Markus and Shinobu Kitayama (1991) propose a similar distinction between Western and Eastern cultures in their
  • 32. Parental and Peer Influence The family is seen as the first medium of socialization. Most common negative impacts on self esteem are the verbal abuse children receive. Parental modelling is an important as any words that can be spoken. Positive modelling behaviours and positive self-talk. Children adapt the behaviours attitudes, precepts and self talk we instil in them. “Many experienced parents have noted, children won’t always do as you say but usually do as you do” (Manassis 1996).
  • 33. Establishing Positive Self-Esteem Establishing Positive Self-Esteem begins with parents. Look after yourself physically; Accept your imperfections (low self-esteem can lead to eating disorders) Slow down personalizing Develop skills. Do things for pleasure, for fun Use rewards, but avoid punishments Cultivate good relationships - with yourself and others Appreciate your body.
  • 34. THE END