04 cardiorespiratory adaptation to training


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04 cardiorespiratory adaptation to training

  1. 1. CARDIORESPIRATORY ADAPTATIONS TO TRAINING  Endurance - two different concepts - muscular e., cardiorespiratory e.  Muscular E - ability of muscle to sustain high- intensity, repetitive or static exercise (important for sprinters, weight lifter, boxer, wrestler) - related to muscular strength and anaerobic development.  Cardiorespiratory E. - ability of the body to sustain prolonged exercise. (cyclist, distance runners, swimmers) related to development of cardiovascular and respiratory systems, thus aerobic development.
  2. 2. Evaluation E. Capacity  Aerobic Power - Vo2 max with endurance training - more oxygen delivered - 6 months training - increase in VO2 max of 20 percent - perform e. activities at higher work rate, faster.  Oxygen Transport System shared by CR systems - VO2 SV x HR x a - VO2 diff.
  3. 3. A - CV Adaptations To Training 1) Heart Size - heart´s weight, volume, LV wall thickness, chamber size increase - „Athlete´s Heart“ LV internal dimension increases - increase in ventricular filling (rise in plasma volume), LV wall thickness, increase (hypertrophy) - increase in strength potential of its contractions. 2) Stroke Volume - higher after endurance tr. at rest, during exercise, stronger heart, availability of greater blood
  4. 4. 3) Heart Rate (HR) - decrease of HR after endurance tr. (elite athletes 30 - 40 beats (min.) - increase in parasympathetic tone. At submaximal exercise tr. - decrease of HR by about 20 - 40 beats/min. after 6 months. Maximal HR - unchanged or slightly decreased (allowing for optimum SV to maximize CO). HR recovery time - decrease - well suited to tracking an indvidual´s progress with tr. 4) Cardiac Output (CO) - at rest, during submaximal levels of ex. - unchanged , at maximal levels - considerable increase (mainly by of SV). CO in untrained 14 - 16 l/min., 40 l intrained athletes.
  5. 5. 5) Blood Flow (BF) enhanced muscle blood supply following training: a) increased capillarization of trained muscles - new capillaries develop - capillary to fiber ratio b) greater opening of existing capillaries c) more effective blood redistribution (shunting away from areas that don´t need high flow) 6) Blood Pressure (BP) - resting blood pressure reduced, no changes during submaximal or maximal work rates.
  6. 6. 7) Blood Volume (BV) - E. tr. - BV, mainly by increase in blood plasma volume ( ADH, aldosterone, amount of plasma proteins). Red blood cells count increases, (pseudoanemia). Blood viscosity - improvement of circulation). Plasma volume - high correlation with VO2 max increase in plasma volume - most significant training effect
  7. 7. B - Respiratory Adaptations To Training  Lung Volumes - no change in VC, RV, TLC, slight increase in TV  Respiratory Rate increase in maximal exercise levels of pulmonary ventilation - slightly reduced at rest, maximal pulmonary ventilation substantially increased. Untrained - 120 l/min, trained - 240 l/min.  Pulmonary Diffusion - no change at rest, increase in maximal exercise  A-v O2 diff. - increase after training (↓mixed venous O2 content)
  8. 8. Metabolic Adaptations  Lactate Threshold - E. tr. - lactate thr. n - higher rate of work at higher rate of O2 consumption without raising blood lactate. Maximal blood lactate levels increase slightly.  Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) - at rest - RER (greater utilization of FFA), at maximal levels of work - RER in trained individuals. (sustained hyperventilation excessive CO2 release)
  9. 9.  Maximal O2 Consumption - substantial increase following training - individual limitation, major limiting factor - oxygen delivery to the active muscles (lack of oxidative enzymes in mitochondria, central and peripheral circulatory factor limit endurance capacity)
  10. 10.  Long-term Improvement in Endurance Highest attainable VO2 max usually reached within 18 months of intense e. conditioning, further improvement with continued tr. for many additional years - body´s ability perform at increasing percentage of VO2 max for extended periods - result of increase in lactate threshold
  11. 11.  Factors Affecting the Response to Aerobic Training  Heredity Genetic factors establish boundaries for an individual endurance training can push Vo2 max to the upper limits of these boundaries.  Age Age related decrease - decrease in activity levels. Decline in VO2 max - attenuated by continuing training
  12. 12.  Gender Highly conditioned female e. athletes - 10 percent lower VO2 max values  Responders x Nonresponders Large improvements - responders, little or no improvement (nonresponders) to the same training programs - genetic influence
  13. 13.  Specificity of Training Selection of appropriate training program - closely matched with athlete´s individual needs to maximize the physiological adaptations to training  Cross Training Training for more than one sport at the same time or tr. for several fitness components (endurance strength) at one time
  14. 14.  Cardiorespiratory Endurance and Performance E. - the most important component of physical fitness. E. - athlete´s major defense against fatigue - major deterrent to optimal performance – (muscle strength decreased, reaction and movement times prolonged, neuromuscular coordination reduced, concentration and alertness reduced). Extent of endurance training needed varies, dependence on E. demands of chosen activity (marathon runner x baseball, golf player)  All Athletes Can Benefit from Maximizing Their Endurance