Retention of iodine from iodized salt and inherent

1,023 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,023
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Retention of iodine from iodized salt and inherent

  1. 1. Retention of Iodine from Iodized salt and inherentfood iodine in commonly used Indian recipesT LongvahNational Institute of NutritionHyderabad – 500 007AP India
  2. 2. IODINE• Elemental iodine discovered in 1811.• Iodine occurs as a blue-black solid, which sublimes intogaseous form at room temperature.• Iodine with atomic weight of 126.9 is the heaviest and theleast electronegative among the naturally occurringmember of the halogens• Iodine is a nutrient that is needed daily in a minutequantity• The body contains between 15 and 20 mg of iodine andtwo-third of it is found in the thyroid gland
  3. 3. THYROID GLAND• Thyroid traps iodine for the production of hormones T3 & T4• Thyroid hormones regulates a wide range of action such as Brain development and maturation Physical growth and development Energy expenditure Regulating function of multiple organs
  4. 4. IOHNH2IIO CH2CHCOOHTriiodothyronine (T3)OHI NH2IIIO CH2CHCOOHThyroxine (T4)THYROID HORMONES
  5. 5. SOURCES OF IODINE• Food is the main source of iodine– Milk, Meat, fish & dairy products– Vegetables, cereals, fruits• Sea fish & seaweeds are rich sources of iodine• Sea salt is a poor source of iodine
  6. 6. IODINE REQUIREMENTSAge GroupIodine Requirement(µg/day)0 – 84 months 907 – 12 years 120> 12 years 150Pregnant & LactatingWomen200WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD Recommendation 2001
  7. 7. SPECTRUM OF IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERSLife stages EffectsFoetus Abortions, Stillbirths, Congenital anomaliesIncreased perinatal mortalityIncreased infant mortalityNeurological cretinism: mental deficiency, deafmutism, spastic diplegia, and squintMyxedematous cretinism: mental deficiency anddwarfismPsychomotor defectsNeonate Neonatal goitre, Neonatal hypothyroidismChild andAdolescentGoitreJuvenile hypothyroidismImpaired mental functionRetarded physical developmentAdult Goitre with its complications, HypothyroidismImpaired mental function
  8. 8. THE IDD PYRAMID• IDD is a worldwidemajor public healthproblem. Globally 1.5billion- risk of Iodinedeficiency disorders.• In India it is estimatedthat 120 millionpeople in India are atrisk of iodinedeficiency disordersof which 60 millionhave goiter, 2.2million are cretinsand 6.6 million havemilder neurologicaldisorders.1%-10%5% -30%30% - 70%Goitre &CretinismSome braindamageLess activepopulation due todecreased thyroidfunction(hypothyroidism)
  9. 9. GOVERMENT POLICY ON IDD• In 1983, Government of India took policy decisionto iodize all salt meant for human consumption– Universal Salt Iodization (USI)• The National iodine deficiency disorders controlprogramme was set up with the goal to Reduce theprevalence of Iodine Deficiency Disorders below10% in the entire country by 2012• “Elimination of goiter” was included in PrimeMinister’s 20-point National Development Program
  10. 10. IndividualIodine StatusWholesaleRetailTradersHouseholdSaltProductionSalt forFoodIndustryTableSaltOther Iodine SourcesFood air waterand beveragesIODINE SUPPLY TO THE POPULATIONProcess monitoringImpactmonitoring
  11. 11. COST OF SALT IODIZATIONTotal annual requirement of iodized salt in Indiafor 1,000 million population @5kg/person/year5 million tonsIodine required for salt iodisation@30ppm(30gm/ton)150,000 kg(150 tons)Price of iodine @ Rs. 666/Kg,Therefore total price for 150 tonsRs. 10 millionCost of iodine/person/year 10 paise
  12. 12. 1290% or more50% to 89%Less than 50%No recent dataLEVELS OF IODIZED SALT COVERAGESource: UNICEF (2002)
  13. 13. IODIZED SALT• Iodized salt remains the single most effectivemeans of eradicating IDD in India• Concerns on the implementation of USI• Vegans not consuming iodinesupplements, seaweeds or related productsmay be at risk of IDD• Wide diversity of food recipes consumedthroughout the country
  14. 14. IODINE LOSS FROM IODIZED SALT• Iodine added during salt production• Uneven distribution, loss during transportation andstorage affects iodine availability from iodized salt• Iodine in iodized salt also lost during the cookingprocesses• The WHO/UNICEF suggested there might be 20% lossduring cooking• Limited available studies have shown the losses fromdifferent food preparations ranging between 30 – 70%• Detailed information on retention of iodine fromiodized salt necessary to ensure adequate supply ofiodine
  15. 15. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY• Study initiated to evaluate the retention ofiodine in most commonly used Indian recipes• Retention of inherent food iodine during thecooking process• Investigate the iodine content in salt anddrinking water samples• Bread and milk as a source of iodine• Study covered 23 states and 48 districts
  16. 16. IODINE CONTENT IN DRINKING WATER (µg/L)19.711.711.32.7179.78.36.211.915.813.92.441.37.39.93.63.223.287.213.80510152025
  17. 17. IODINE CONTENT IN SALT SAMPLES (ppm)010203040506070Minimum Mean Maximum
  18. 18. IODINE RETENTION (%) AND CONTENT (µg/100g) OFCOOKED RECIPES (0 - 20% RETENTION)Recipe % Iodine RetentionIodine content(µg/100g)Makka Googrk 4.3 4.3Fenugreek leavesl 5.5 2.3Lady fingerVegetablel 6.6 1.9Radish Leavesk 11.8 4.6Meethi Danasabzik 12.1 2.0Mutton currym 12.5 7.5Chavla vegetablem 17.1 4.8PachkutaVegetablek 18.3 2.2
  19. 19. Recipe % Iodine Retention Iodine content (µg/100g)Sem ki Phalik 23.0 6.0Chickenm 27.4 15.3Aloo ghobi vegetablem 32.1 11.6Pannerl 32.8 19.3Beans curryf 33.1 21.2Gaur-patha vegetablek 33.1 17.9Green gram dalk 34.1 6.1Raya Sagt 36.0 48.6Boxva kochu Sagj 36.3 24.5Brinjal Vegetablel 36.3 7.4Dim curryj 36.3 19.5Chanra-fish Curryg 37.8 60.8Fish curryd 39.3 50.6Ringan-batata currye 39.7 28.5Karkal curryj 39.8 16.6IODINE RETENTION (%) AND CONTENT (µg/100g) OFCOOKED RECIPES (20 - 40% RETENTION)
  20. 20. Recipe% IodineRetentionIodinecontent(µg/100g)Eracheryd 41.0 17.7Suktoj 41.6 11.0Usalf 41.7 19.1Momo (NonVeg)t 41.8 28.6Istud 43.2 15.0Bottle guardvegetablel 45.5 10.5Brinjalbhajia 46.9 42.4Eronbav 46.9 28.0Jawar rotib 48.0 22.0Dal + GLa 50.0 82.0UlavaKattua 51.7 36.0ontinued.....Recipe% IodineRetentionIodinecontent(µg/100g)Thadarjuka bhagie 52.9 65.3Barda Pitlaa 54.1 21.5Bhaiganbhagif 54.2 18.0Aamtif 54.5 26.3Fish frycurryh 55.2 21.6Tapiocad 55.3 31.6Vadac 56.5 55.5Jowar roti 57.4 56.0Palanksaagj 58.1 63.0Theplae 58.9 63.0IODINE RETENTION (%) AND CONTENT (µg/100g) OFCOOKED RECIPES (40 - 60% RETENTION)
  21. 21. Recipe% IodineRetentionIodinecontent(µg/100g)Kadhiq 63.0 43.5Haakr 63.2 45.9Khadie 63.5 37.2Vatli dalf 63.7 30.7Kadhil 65.0 41.4Alu-paratai 66.7 30.6MixedVegetables 68.9 40.7Rotlae 68.9 68.0Dale (Tuar) 69.6 68.2MixedVegetablen 70.8 69.6Karela fryi 71.4 81.0Palakbhagif 72.2 58.8Koval fryi 72.5 82.1Recipe% IodineRetentionIodinecontent(µg/100g)Baiganbhartan 73.7 97.5Dal dhoklae 73.7 66.5Putimasu 73.9 46.6Malka kidalo 74.1 70.4Aloo sabzin 74.2 96.2Pohab 74.6 72.0Cabbage kaBagie 75.1 90.1Akki Rotib 75.4 52.0Sambarc 75.5 34.4Palakpaneeri 77.2 36.9Idlyc 79.8 33.3IODINE RETENTION (%) AND CONTENT (µg/100g) OFCOOKED RECIPES (60 - 80% RETENTION)
  22. 22. IODINE RETENTION (%) AND CONTENT (µg/100g) OFCOOKED RECIPES (80 - 100% RETENTION)Recipe% IodineRetentionIodinecontent(µg/100g)Bhatt kidals 81.1 44.5Alu-fryi 81.7 60.7Rajma dals 81.7 60.0Vanghibathb 82.7 35.6Choleo 83.1 28.0Veg.kabab14 83.1 70.1Urad kidalo 83.6 40.0Dum alooq 83.9 66.5Mixed dalp 84.4 51.6Recipe% IodineRetentionIodinecontent(µg/100g)Sambarb 84.6 34.8Chakemw 85.2 44.8Pairuiv 86.0 47.3Alooparanthaq 86.9 59.5Fish fryj 87.6 30.4Urad badip 88.1 46.5Khichdip 88.8 47.2Kalechaner 90.3 36.2Alu-sabjii 95.4 66.0Purim 97.1 17.6
  23. 23. IODINE RETENTION OF COOKED RECIPES FROMDIFFERENT STATES (%)020406080100120Minimum Mean Maximum
  24. 24. IODINE CONTENT (µg/100g) OF COOKED RECIPES FROMDIFFERENT STATES020406080100120Minimum Mean Maximum
  25. 25. EFFECT OF PREPARATION METHODS ON IODINERETENTIONPreparation method Number of recipes% Iodine retentionMean RangeShallow frying withoil32 52.2 ± 23.4 5.5 - 84.0Boiling 9 52.8 ± 27.2 12.1 – 86.0Frying and boiling 37 54.6 ± 22.5 12.5 – 95.4Shallow fryingwithout oil11 63.4 ± 16.2 37.5 – 86.9Boiling and oilseasoning13 64.5 ± 13.2 42.4 – 78.5Steaming 5 68.1 ± 16.1 41.8 – 86.4Shallow frying andcooking6 68.5 ± 10.2 57.6 – 85.8Pressure cookingand shallow frying16 68.9 ± 17.0 34.1 – 85.9Deep frying 3 77.8 ± 20.7 56.0 – 97.1Pressure cooking 8 82.2 ± 6.2 74.1 – 88.8
  26. 26. POSTHOC MULTIPLE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENTCOOKING METHODS ON IODINE RETENTIONShallowfryingwith oilBoilingFrying+boilingShallowfryingwithoutoilBoiling + oilseasoningSteamingShallowfrying +cookingPressurecooking+ shallowfryingDeepfryingPressurecookingShallow fryingwith oil - - - - - - - * * *Boiling- - - - - - - * - *Frying + boiling- - - - - - - - - -Shallow fryingwithout oil - - - - - - - - - -Boiling + oilseasoning * - - - - - - - - -Steaming- - - - - - - - - -Shallow frying+cooking - - - - - - - - - -Pressure cooking+ shallow frying * - * - - - - - - -Deep frying* - - - - - - - - -Pressure cooking* * * - - - - - - -- Not significant * P<0.05 using Least significant difference posthoc method
  27. 27. Iodine content in different bread typesBreadtypeSalttypenWeight/slice (g)Iodine content(µg/100g)Iodinecontent/SliceMean Range Mean Range Mean RangeMilkbreadIodized 18 20.4± 3.8 14.5 – 26.6 23.4± 2.2 19.8 – 26.5 4.7±0.9 3.3 – 6.6Noniodized8 18.1±2.8 15.2 – 23.6 3.8± 0.7 2.8 –4.5 0.74± 0.2 0.5 – 0.9Sandwich breadIodized 15 28.5 ± 2.2 24.6 – 32.8 26.5±2.9 20.3 – 30.4 7.6 ± 1.1 5.3 – 8.9Noniodized5 27.5± 2.4 25.4 – 31.4 3.7± 0.3 3.3 – 4.1 0.95± 0.1 0.8 – 1.1WholewheatbreadIodized 13 26.6± 3.1 22.3 – 32.4 25.5± 3.5 20.1 – 32.7 6.8± 1.3 4.7 – 8.4Noniodized5 26.7± 4.2 19.8 – 30.4 3.7±0.5 3.2 – 4.5 0.96± 0.2 0.7 – 1.2All breadtypesIodized 46 24.8±4.7 14.5 – 32.8 25.0± 3.1 20.1 – 32.7 6.25±1.6 3.3 – 8.9Noniodized18 23.1 ± 5.5 15.2 – 31.4 3.74± 0.5 2.8 – 4.5 0.9 ± 0.2 0.53 – 1.19
  28. 28. IODINE CONTENT IN MILK SAMPLES (µg/L)0100200300400500600700A B C D TotalMinimum Mean Maximum
  29. 29. RETENTION OF INHERENT FOOD IODINERecipeIodine Retention (% )WithoutIodisedSaltWithIodisedSaltAlu parantha 61.5 86.9Alu Sabji 54.5 74.2Bajra Roti 77.1 67.5BangainBharta61.4 73.7Brinjal Fry 42.9 53.2Chakem 82.9 85.2Chhole 71.6 83.1Dum Alu 50.0 83.9Eronba 48.2 46.9Fried Rice 67.4 78.4Galho 63.4 68.1GobhiParantha62.6 84.0RecipeIodine Retention (% )WithoutIodisedSaltWithIodisedSaltKhichidi 60.4 88.8Koval Fry 63.9 72.5Malka ki Dal 69.4 74.1Mixed Dal 76.5 84.4Mixed vegetable 76.1 70.8Momo 81.6 69.8Pairui 98.0 86.0Palak ka Saag 78.4 82.0Paneer ki sabji 53.8 71.3Rajmah Dal 68.3 81.7Urd Khichidi 82.4 88.6Uti 83.7 75.4Vegetable Kabab 74.6 83.1
  30. 30. STATEWISE RETENTION OF INHERENT FOODIODINEState nIodine retention (%)Mean ± SD RangeBihar 5 43.7 ± 15.7 27.8 – 63.9Haryana 6 68.1 ± 9.3 5.8 – 78.4Himachal Pradesh 4 66.1 ± 8.2 56.8 – 76.1Northeast states 7 77.7 ± 16.5 48.2 - 98Punjab 4 64.7 ± 14.1 50.0 – 84.5Uttar Pradesh 5 68.5 ± 11.4 53.2 – 82.4Uttaranchal 6 64.7 ± 13.2 42.5 – 76.5Total 37 65.9 ± 15.3 27.8 – 98.0
  31. 31. IODINE CONTENT OF COOKED RECIPESRecipeIodine Content(μg/100g)WithoutIodisedSaltWithIodisedSaltAlu parantha 2.3 59.5Alu Sabji 3.7 96.2BangainBharta9.4 97.5Bhatt ki Dal 0.7 44.5Brinjal Fry 8.3 81.3Chakem 1.3 44.8Chane kiDubke1.2 37.9Chhole 2.4 28.0Dum Alu 2.2 66.5Fried Rice 2.2 49.9Galho 1.3 19.8GobhiParantha3.3 18.5RecipeIodine Content(μg/100g)WithoutIodisedSaltWithIodisedSaltKhichidi 3.1 47.2Koval Fry 0.9 82.1Malka ki Dal 0.8 70.4Mixed Dal 1.1 51.6Mixedvegetable3.2 69.6Pairui 10.0 47.3Palak ka Saag 5.2 27.9Paneer ki sabji 1.4 16.6Puri 3.2 24.8Rajmah Dal 1.7 60Uti 2.2 33.2VegetableKabab6.4 70.1
  32. 32. CONCLUSION• The increased iodine content in bread and milk observedin the present study indicates a positive indirect impact ofthe implementation of USI• The Mean retention of iodine in 140 recipes was 60±21%• Retention of iodine from iodized salt and inherent foodiodine comparable• Mean iodine content of all the 140 recipes was 32.1 ± 24.1µg/100g• Average consumption of cooked food in rural India is 757gper day that would translate to roughly 242 µg iodine perday• Fortification level of salt with 30 ppm iodine appearsreasonable and has produced the desired effect in thecountry
  33. 33. REFERENCESEmail: tlongvah@gmail.com
  34. 34. Iodized Salt for prevention of IDD

×