Indian food composition database project

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  • In food and nutrient insecure country like Inida intake of one variety over another can make the difference over nutrient deficiency and adequacy

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  • 1. FOOD COMPOSITION TABLES OFINDIAN FOODS
  • 2. S.NO LIST OF MAJOR EQUIPMENTS 2010-11 NOs1. Fully Automated Kjeldahl Nitrogen analyzer 22*. Fat Extraction system 23. Fully automated GC 24. Photochem 25. Fibertech 26. Fast HPLC with DAD-7 no’s and FLD/ELSD-4no’s117. Atomic absorption spectrometer 18. Microwave digestion system with cells 19. Ultra freezers – 80oC(500lt-4, 600lt-4) 810. Modular walk in cold room 111. 100 KVA UPS System 112. Spectrophotometers 3
  • 3. METHODS STANDARDIZED ANDVALIDATED• Proximates: Mositure, Protein, Fat, Ash, Dietaryfiber & Carbohydrates• Amino acids including sulfur containing aminoacids and tryptophan• Carbohydrates: Available carbohydrates, freesugars and starches• Fatty acid profile• Water soluble vitamins: Thiamine, riboflavin,niacin, pantothenic acid, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine& Pyridoxine, Biotin & folic acid
  • 4. METHODS STANDARDIZED ANDVALIDATED• Fat soluble vitamins: Vitamin A, D, E, K,carotenoids and Xanthophylls• Quantification of Betaine & Cholines,• Sterols: Stigmasterol, Campesterol & β-Sitosterol,cholesterol• Oligosaccharides: Raffinose, Stachyose,Verbascose and Ajucose• Quantification of Polyphenols• Water soluble and fat soluble antioxidant activity• DPPH assay
  • 5. METHODS STANDARDIZED ANDVALIDATED• Minerals: Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn,Cu, Al, As, Hg, Se, Sb, Pb, Cd, Ni,Li, Mo, Co, Cr & P• Organic acids – Oxalic, Malic, Citric, Fumaric,Succinic, Ascorbic, Cis-Aconitic & Tartaric• Bioactive substances: Trypsin inhibitor,amylase inhibitor, Phytate, total saponin, Totaland soluble oxalates, Non protein nitrogen
  • 6. QCQA PROGRAMME• Use of in house quality control material• Use of certified reference materials• Participation in proficiency testing ofnutrients and minerals
  • 7. KEY FOODSNNMB surveys NVIFg consumed each ingredient for all foodsg consumed X nutrient value of each ingredientRanked list of % contribution of food to totalnutrient intakeTop 80%IntakeKEY FOODS
  • 8. KEY FOODS1. Cereals & Millets 122. Pulses & Legumes 123. Leafy Vegetables 244. Roots & Tubers 155. Other Vegetables 366. Nuts & oils seeds 207. Condiments & Spices 208. Fruits 389. Fish&Other Sea foods 3010.Other Flesh foods 1511.Milk & Milk Products 8
  • 9. NATIONAL FOOD SAMPLING PLAN• A probability-based (PPS)) National sampling plan wasdeveloped to sample and analyse foods consumed in thecountry wherein the country was divided into six regions(North, South, East, West, Central and Northeast) withroughly equal populations• Each region comprises of states and the sample size ofeach state was based on the number of districts in theparticular state.• Population proportionate to size stratified sampling methodwas applied for the selection of districts within the statesbased on the number of natural geographical regions (NGR)in each state.• Wherever NGR was not available in the state, administrativeregions as followed by the state was taken for stratifiedsampling.• Sampling units in each district is the biggest town.• Primary sampling units in each town is a retail outlet
  • 10. NationalfoodSamplingpoints atdifferentlocations inthe country.
  • 11. SAMPLE COLLECTION• Identification number• Name of the product• Product variety (Cultivars within a species)• Size or amount of sample to be collected• Place and date of collection• Lot number or code• Local name• Description of the dispatch information (packing,shipping, and handling) sent to the analyticallaboratory
  • 12. COMPOSITE SAMPLES• Each food is composited at the respectiveregional center• Cultivars/varieties of the same food arecomposited as per the cultivar/varietydifferentiated by physical appearance• Photographs of all the food samples are taken atthe sampling site as well as the compositingcenter• Foods with different cultivars/varieties aretemporarily assigned code numbers todifferentiate them.
  • 13. Foods sampled• First round – 50 key foods• Second round – 50 Key foods• Analysis of varieties• Water samples form 107 sampling sites• Rice and wheat sampled from 107 sitestreated as individual samples – more samplesto be collected and analysed
  • 14. Region wise food varieties collectedName of thefoodNorthNortheastEast West SouthCentralAmarathus 1 2 1 1 3 2Apple 2 2 1 1 1 1Brinjal 5 14 11 14 11 5Chilli green 2 6 4 7 5 3Garlic 3 1 1 1 2 1Ginger fresh 1 3 1 1 1 1Potato 1 3 1 1 1 1Tomato Ripe 2 1 2 2 2 2
  • 15. Bottle Gourd
  • 16. Carrot
  • 17. Pumpkin
  • 18. Radish
  • 19. Snake Gourd
  • 20. Water melon
  • 21. FOOD NAMING & DESCRIPTIONS• Processing and preparation state• Maturity• Part/soucre of food• Biodiversity (Clutivar/breed/Variety)• Edible portion
  • 22. Food groupsA. Cereals and cerealproductsB. Roots, tubers and theirproductsC. Grain Legumes andtheir productsD. Vegetables and theirproductsE. Fruits and theirproductsF. Nuts and theirproductsG. Sugar, sweet andH. Meat, poultry and theirproductsI. Eggs and theirproductsJ. Fish and their productsK. Milk and their productsL. Fat and oilsM. BeveragesN. InsectsO. Wild animalsP. Miscellaneous
  • 23. FOOD CODE• Crucial for every food to have a unique code• Similar at all levels of the Database (e.g.Archival, reference and user table)• Allows tracing the data throughout the FCDB• Once food code assigned will not bereassigned• Alphabetical letter stands for food code andnumerical (001…….) the food number withinthe group
  • 24. NITROGEN TO PROTEIN CONVERSION FACTORSANIMAL PRODUCTS PLANT PRODUCTSMeat and fish 6.25 Grains andcereals- Wholekernel5.83 NutsGelatin 5.55 Barely andbarley flour5.83 - Bran 6.31 - Almond 5.18Milk and milkproducts6.38 Maize(corn)6.25 -Embryo 5.80 - Brazil 5.46Casein 6.40 Millet 5.83 -Endosperm5.70 - Peanut(groundnut)5.46Human milk 6.37 Oats 5.83 Legumes -Others 5.30Eggs Rice andrice flour5.95 Beans: Seeds 5.30- Whole 6.25 Rye andrye flour5.83 - Castor 5.30- Albumin 6.32 Sorghum 6.25 - Soya 5.71- Vitellin 6.12 Wheat: - Others 6.25
  • 25. Data sourceArchival databaseOriginal dataReference databaseUser databaseData flow in food composition databaseAnalyzed dataEnter assembled data in archival DBAggregation, calculation, estimation,comparison,Publish concise or comprehensiveuser database or table – printed, electronicEvaluate data against a set of criteria and assign qualitySelection of foods and components for user database30
  • 26. BRINJAL VARIETIES
  • 27. Content/100g Unit Content VariationWater soluble vitaminsB1, Thiamine mg 0.06  0.02 0.025 – 0.10B2, Riboflavin mg 0.11  0.02 0.050 – 0.16B3,Niacin mg 0.53  0.11 0.28 – 0.79B5, Panthothenic Acid mg 0.92  0.43 0.18 – 1.87B7, Biotin mgB8, Inositol phosphate mgB9, Folic Acid µgB12, Cyanocobalamin mg NDTotal Ascorbic acid 1.88  0.99 0.13 – 4.21L-Ascorbic Acid mg 0.28  0.24 0.02 – 0.088L-dehydroascorbic acid mg 0.83  0.61 0.13 – 3.29Glycine betaine mg 72.94  13.76 47.14 – 98.94Trigonelline mg 0.06  0.03 0.02 – 0.16Butyrobetaine mg NDCholine mg 50.33  7.47 20.44 – 77.37CDP-Choline mg 0.06  0.02 0.02 – 0.13Total Polyphenols 13.15  5.96 2.66 – 28.23Pyridoxamine µg 18.08  13.22 3.59 – 109.50Pyridoxal µg 32.13  9.82 17.95 – 57.84Pyridoxine µg 51.78  17.19 13.34 – 103.79TOTAL µg 98.52  25.95 46.62 – 186.03P C L nmolDPPH radical scavenging % 16.98  4.94 9.52 – 41.69IC50 26.63  7.44 16.87 – 53.30Content/100g Unit Content VariationFat soluble vitaminsLutein µg 62.84  47.27 13.63 – 15.55Zeaxanthin µg NDLycopene µg NDB-cryptoxanthin µg ND- carotene µg ND-carotene µg NDß-carotene µg ND-Tocopherol mg 0.09  0.05 0.02 – 0.22ß-Tocopherol mg ND ND-Tocopherol mg 0.04  0.01 0.03 – 0.05-Tocopherol mg ND ND-Tocotrienol mg ND NDß -Tocotrienol mg ND ND-Tocotrienol mg ND-Tocotrienol mg NDD3-Cholecalciferol NDD2-Ergocalciferol 1.28  1.46 0.21 – 9.20K1-Phylloquinone µg 16.54  9.70 2.80 – 35.30K2-Menaquinone µg NDCampasterol mg 6.19  1.82 3.12 – 9.89Stigmasterol mg 16.59  4.08 10.02 – 26.50ß -sitosterol mg 69.81  16.46 41.48 – 98.87BRINJAL (Solanum melongana)
  • 28. RICE LANDRACES FROM NORTHEAST INDIA
  • 29. Content/100g Unit Content VariationProximatesMoisture g 12.211.36 9.16 – 15.64Protein total[NCF:5.95]g 7.760.92 5.39 – 10.15Fat, total g 2.800.39 2.01 – 3.85Carbohydrate, total g 70.541.66 67.05 – 73.99Carbohydrate,availablegInsoluble dietaryfibreg 4.590.49 3.02 – 5.35Soluble dietary fibre g 0.960.08 0.64 – 1.09Total dietary fibre g 5.560.48 3.94 – 6.09Ash g 1.190.18 0.54 – 1.59Energy KCal 3406.1 323 - 356Anti-nutrientsSoluble oxalate mg 11.26 2.76 – 23.71Insoluble mg 4.19 1.15 – 10.66Total oxalate mg 15.64 7.04 – 29.99Phytate mg 3.90.19 3.05 – 4.12Tannin mgTrypsin Inhibitors mgContent/100g Unit Content VariationMineralsIron mg 0.890.23 0.58 – 1.70Zinc mg 1.250.40 1.55 – 3.34Manganese mg 2.110.59 0.96 – 3.89Copper mg 0.300.16 0.12 – 0.84Magnesium mg 12317 63 – 164Potassium mg 26735 171 – 354Phosphorous mg 29549 136 – 374Calcium mg 17.121.1 7.45 – 10.89Sodium mg 0.520.26 0.22 – 0.95Nickel mg 0.1120.06 0.01 – 0.167Cobalt mg 0.0060.002 0.001 – 0.009Chromium mg 0.0060.003 0.001 – 0.010Molybdenum mg 0.0850.02 0.018 – 0.082Lead mg 0.0350.023 0.002 – 0.088Cadmium mg 0.0010.0004 0.0001 – 0.0015Lithium mg ND NDArsenic mgMercury mgSelenium mgIodine mgBrown RiceOryza sativaFood Code: XXXRefuse ‘O’
  • 30. Content/100g Unit Content VariationWater soluble vitaminsB1, Thiamine mg 0.270.06 0.06 – 0.53B2, Riboflavin mg 0.050.01 0.0 – 0.08B3,Niacin mg 2.780.58 1.15 – 3.97B5, Panthothenic Acid mg 1.880.92 0.36 – 3.98B6, Pyridoxal phosphate µg 57.0722.47 20.32 – 122.36B7, Biotin mg 0.53 0.18 – 1.02B8, Inositol phosphate mgB9, Folic Acid µgB12, Cyanocobalamin mg NDL-Ascorbic Acid mg ND -L-dehydroascorbic acid mg ND -Glycine betaine mg 882 264 - 1319Trigonelline mg 0.23 0.00 – 1.94Butyrobetaine mg 3.84 0.00 – 34.29Choline mg 40.80 10.81 – 190.61CDP-Choline mg 0.03 0.00 – 0.1.95-methyltetrahydrofolate µg 259.7243.53 185.35 – 352.705-formyltetrahydrofolate µg 191.8156.48 127.61 – 283.93Tetrahydrofolate µg 134.1830.47 91.50 – 181.73Folic acid µg 60.8017.42 39.35 – 92.57Total folate µg 646.5178.69 513.67 – 789.41Antioxidant capacityP C L nmol 4.66  1.19 2.15 – 7.47DPPH radical scavenging % 40.76  12.59 20.14 – 86.63ABTS Assay %Content/100g Unit Content VariationFat soluble vitaminsLutein µg 6.10 4.25 – 7.77Zeaxanthin µg 6.05 3.79 – 10.65Lycopene µg NDB-cryptoxanthin µg ND- carotene µg ND-carotene µg NDß-carotene µg ND-Tocopherol mg 0.06 0.0 – 0.73ß-Tocopherol mg 0.04 0.0 – 0.60-Tocopherol mg 0.07 0.0 – 1.46-Tocopherol mg 0.05 0.0 – 0.09-Tocotrienol mg 0.06 0.0 – 0.65ß -Tocotrienol mg 0.02 0.0 – 0.22-Tocotrienol mg - --Tocotrienol mg 0.07 0.0 – 0.16D3-Cholecalciferol ND -D2-Ergocalciferol ND -25-HydroxycholecallcifierolND -K1-Phylloquinone µg 20.34 [Black rice]K2-Menaquinone µg 1.70Campasterol mg 11.075.56 3.69 – 23.28Stigmasterol mg 11.705.57 3.87 – 24.42ß -sitosterol mg 20693 70 - 446
  • 31. Amino acid composition (g/100protein)Amino acids MEAN ± SD RangeTryptophan 1.50 ± 0.14 1.20 – 1.88Aspartic acid 9.03 ± 0.39 8.29 – 10.43Threonine 3.57 ± 0.25 3.10 – 4.63Serine 4.85 ± 0.74 3.35 – 6.38Glutamic acid 19.88 ± 0.72 18.57 – 22.74Proline 2.86 ± 0.64 1.24 – 4.33Glycine 4.84 ± 0.22 4.40 – 5.47Alanine 6.34 ± 0.34 5.33 – 7.18Cystine 0.69 ± 0.13 0.41 – 1.08Valine 6.39 ± 0.61 4.94 – 7.32Methionine 1.24 ± 0.24 0.87 – 1.94Isoleucine 4.01 ± 0.38 3.05 – 4.69Leucine 8.65 ± 0.27 8.07 – 9.42Tyrosine 4.83 ± 0.28 4.02 – 5.43Phenylalanine 5.45 ± 0.17 4.50 – 5.71Histidine 2.54 ± 0.16 1.45 – 2.90Lysine 3.90 ± 0.15 3.44 – 4.27Arginine 8.61 ± 0.46 7.67 – 10.27Total Amino acids 99.19 ± 0.29 97.66 – 99.82Total Essential Aminoacids 38.74 ± 1.07 36.34 – 41.52Amino acid Score 67.17 ± 2.51 59.28 – 72.07Limiting Amino acid LYSINENPN (% in sample) 0.01 ± 0.00 0.00 – 0.01NPN (% in crude N) 0.58 ± 0.20 0.17 – 0.97Fatty acid composition (%)Fatty Acid (%) Mean±SD RangeC10:0 CAPRIC 0.03±0.02 0.01-0.11C14:0 MYRISTIC 0.84±0.21 0.42-1.55C16:0 PALMITIC 20.44±1.43 18.02-22.98C18:0 STEARIC 2.05±0.39 1.17-2.97C20:0 ARACHIDIC 0.31±0.1 0.16-0.65C22:0 BEHENIC 0.10±0.05 0.01-0.28C24:0 LIGNOCERIC 0.13±0.08 0.04-0.53C16:1 PALMITOLEIC 0.14±0.04 0.06-0.28C18:1n9c OLEIC 34.43±2.02 30.41-38.18C20: 1n9 EICOSENOIC 0.27±0.07 0.13-0.47C24:1n9 NERVONIC 0.02±0.01 0.01-0.08C18:2n6c LINOLEIC 39.68±2.12 36.08-44.71C18:3n3 LINOLENIC 1.54±0.28 0.96-2.58TSFA 23.91 21.04-27.96TMUFA 34.86 30.79-38.67TPUFA 41.22 37.43-46.13Organic acids (%)Content/100g Unit Content VariationOxalic acid mgCitric acid mgMalic acid mgQuinic acid mgFumaric acid mgSuccinic acid mgAcetic acid mg
  • 32. Rice Iron content (DM)
  • 33. Rice Zinc content (DM)Rice varietiesBrownrice; 5%Polished; 10%PolishedZnmgg-100
  • 34. Low glycemic index foods
  • 35. High GILow GI404550556065707580BlackglutinousWhiteglutinousNajdainganh-TaobamChuilonNandiMaibaDurgpatTaobamChangngatMolpheiLangmai/DaimeiBungnaTaobamNagdai-ChuilonNagduina-ChuilonTongnau-NapNaganadNapdoinNepaliRiceMachangGLYCEMIC INDEX OF RICE LANDRACES
  • 36. PROXIMATE & DIETARY FIBER CONTENT(g/100g) IN BROWN RICE VARIETIESParameters Hybrid Rice(N = 287)Range Landraces(N = 125)RangeMoisture 8.51 1.6 4.0 - 12.7 12.21 1.34 9.1 -15.7Protein 9.08 1.5 5.6 - 13.87 7.76 0.92 5.4 -10.2Fat 2.39 0.53 1.8 - 4.3 2.81 0.40 2.0 – 3.9Ash 2.04 0.53 1.9 - 3.5 1.19 0.17 0.6 – 1.6IDF 3.62 0.16 3.18-3.9 4.61 0.46 3.4 - 5.4SDF 0.79 0.06 0.66-0.92 0.91 0.08 0.7 - 1.1TDF 4.41 0.17 3.99-4.71 5.52 0.45 4.4 - 6.1
  • 37. Region wise oil varieties collectedName of thefoodNorth NortheastEast West SouthCentralSoya Bean Oil 11 6 5 7 4 16Rice Bran Oil 1 3 2 6 3Ground Nut Oil 5 1 4 8 13 7Coconut Oil 1 1 2 7 3Palmolein Oil 2 7 6 9 5Mustard Oil 18 12 14 9 11 17Gingerly Oil 1 1 4 13 3Sunflower Oil 7 6 5 9 10Saffola oil 1 1 1 2 1Cotton seed Oil 1 2Ghee 15 6 14 10 15 14
  • 38. Fatty Acid Profile of Mustard OilFatty Acids%FAMENVIF 2012 RangeN 68C16:0 (Palmitic) 2.90 2.06±0.22 1.82-2.73C18:0 (Stearic) 0.90 1.09±0.06 0.96-1.32C20:0 (Arachidic) 6.90 0.96 ± 0.14 0.84 -1.37C22:0 (Behenic) ND 1.26±0.14 0.88-1.56C18:1n9c (Oleic) 8.90 9.51±0.75 7.67-11.63C20:1n9 (Eicosaenoic) ND 5.14±0.35 4.39-6.02C22:1n9 (Erucic) 46.50 48.09±1.36 42.68-50.47C24:1n9 (Nervonic) ND 2.18±0.10 1.77-2.40C18:2n6c (Linoleic) 18.10 14.69±0.61 13.68-17.36C22:2 (Docosadienoic) ND 1.41±0.07 1.14-1.62C18:3n3 (α-Linolenic) 14.50 10.81±0.89 6.41-12.03TSFA 10.70 6.09±0.30 5.55-7.09TMUSFA 56.00 65.06±0.89 61.85-67.54TPUFA 32.60 28.57±0.91 24.28-31.06Note : Values are %FAME , Mean±SD;N-No.of SamplesTSFA- Total Saturated Fatty Acid;TMUSFA-Total Monounsaturated Fattyacids; TPUFA-Total PolyunsaturatedFatty acids
  • 39. 1937 1951 1971 1989 2012Moisture(g/100g)12.96 13.0 13.7 13.7 10.07Protein (g/100g) 6.85 6.9 6.8 6.8 8.76Fat(g/100g) 0.55 0.4 0.5 0.5 1.11Minerals(g/100g) 0.50 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.36Fibre(g/100g) --- --- 0.2 0.2 1.81Carbohydrate(g/100g)79.14 79.2 78.2 78.2 77.89Calcium(mg/100g)7.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 5.52Phosphorus(mg/100g)108 110 160 160 97Iron (mg/100g) 1.02 1.0 3.1 0.7 0.57Energy (Kcal) 348.9 348 345 345 356Rice, raw, milled
  • 40. 1937 1951 1971 1989 2012Moisture (g/100g) 14.68 14.7 14.7 14.7 7.40Protein (g/100g) 7.46 7.5 7.5 7.5 8.43Fat(g/100g) 0.12 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.30Minerals(g/100g) 3.41 3.4 3.8 3.8 1.87Fibre(g/100g) --- --- 0.3 0.3 1.95Carbohydrate(g/100g)74.33 74.3 73.6 73.6 79.05Calcium(g/100g) 24 20 23 23 16.8Phosphorus(g/100g)162 160 150 150 152Iron (mg/100g) 6.15 6.2 6.6 6.6 4.62Energy (Kcal) 329.1 328 225 325 361Rice, puffed
  • 41. 1937 1951 1971 1989 2012Moisture (g/100g) 12.41 12.4 12.4 12.4 8.99Protein (g/100g) 11.59 11.6 11.6 11.6 9.01Fat(g/100g) 4.99 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.31Minerals(g/100g) 2.65 2.7 2.3 2.3 1.40Fibre(g/100g) 1.22 1.2 1.2 1.2 13.09Carbohydrate(g/100g)67.14 67.1 67.5 67.5 62.20Calcium(g/100g) 0.049 0.05 0.042 0.042 0.019Phosphorus(g/100g)0.352 0.35 0.296 0.296 0.289Iron (mg/100g) 8.84 8.8 5.0 8.0 6.42Energy (Kcal) 359.9 360 361 361 332Bajra
  • 42. S.No.Common name(Scientific name)n= mg/100 gFe Zn Cu Mn K1Bajra(Pennisetumtyphoideum)6 6.42 ± 1.04 2.78 ± 0.16 0.54 ± 0.11 1.12 ± 0.17365.29 ±18.04NVIF Value 8.00 3.10 1.06 1.15 307.002Jowar(Sorghumvulgare)5 3.80 ± 1.07 1.89 ± 0.16 0.44 ± 0.12 1.19 ± 0.12331.29 ±26.95NVIF Value 4.1 1.6 0.46 0.78 131.003Maize, dry(Zea mays)6 2.53 ± 0.32 2.26 ± 0.16 0.45 ± 0.24 0.70 ± 0.09291.15 ±27.65NVIF Value 2.3 2.8 0.41 0.48 2864Ragi(Eleusinecoracana)4 8.37 ± 0.68 1.92 ± 0.13 0.67 ± 0.2235.18 ±9.39442.74 ±59.65NVIF Value 3.9 2.3 0.47 5.49 4085Rice, raw,milled(Oryza sativa)100 0.57 ± 0.35 1.21 ± 0.20 0.23 ± 0.06 0.79 ± 0.26 79.11 ± 27.54NVIF Value 0.7 1.3 0.17 0.666Wheat flour,whole(Triticumaestivum)6 4.10 ± 0.67 2.32 ± 0.29 0.33 ±0 .11 2.20 ± 0.53 301.5 ± 53.76NVIF Value 4.9 2.2 0.51 2.29 315Wheat flour,MINERAL CONTENT IN CEREAL GRAINS AND PRODUCTS
  • 43. S.No.Common name(Scientific name)n= mg/100gMg P Na Ca Al1Bajra(Pennisetum typhoideum)6 124.10±19.46 289.4±25.34 2.91±1.66 19.52±5.52 2.75±1.29NVIF Value 137.00 296.00 10.90 42.002Jowar(Sorghum vulgare)5 132.54 ± 16.56 279.17±37.61 2.75 ± 3.19 14.42±2.27 1.95±1.30NVIF Value 171.00 222.00 7.30 253Maize, dry(Zea mays)6 110.43±20.36 279.31 ± 35.25 1.50±1.58 6.07±718 1.35±0.57NVIF Value 139 348 15.9 104Ragi(Eleusine coracana)4 145.51±10.69 209.74±58.4011.67±11.999269.25±68.95 6.39±2.47NVIF Value 137 283 11 3445Rice, raw, milled(Oryza sativa)100 19.24 ± 8.26 97.33 ± 22.02 1.67±1.54 5.52 ± 1.82 0.58±0.53NVIF Value 61 160 106Wheat flour, whole(Triticum aestivum)6 85.49 ± 14.41217.89 ±73.153.21 ± 2.02 30.94 ± 5.55 1.73 ± 0.90NVIF Value 132 355 20 487Wheat flour, refined(Triticum aestivum)6 30.69 ± 2.77 135.13 ± 61.61 2.04 ± 0.81 20.4 ± 2.46 0.99 ± 0.41NVIF Value 54 121 9.3 23MINERAL CONTENT IN CEREAL GRAINS AND PRODUCTS Contd.
  • 44. S.No.Common name(Scientific name)n=mg/100 gFe Zn Cu Mn K1Bengal gram, whole(Cicer arietinum)6 6.78 ± 0.75 3.37 ± 0.26 0.85 ± 0.12 2.71 ± 0.33935.21 ±37.87NVIF value 4.6 6.1 1.18 1.21 8082Bengal gram, dhal(Cicer arietinum)6 6.08 ± 0.27 3.65 ± 0.37 0.82 ± 0.12 1.68 ± 0.16899.96 ±34.97NVIF value 5.3 1.7 1.34 1.05 7203Black gram, whole(Phaseolus mungo Roxb.)6 11.80 ± 2.82 3.05 ± 0.24 0.76 ± 0.12 1.86 ± 0.401093.05 ±24.45NVIF value 3.3 1.05 1.014Black gram, dhal(Phaseolus mungo Roxb.)6 4.95 ± 1.02 3.00 ± 0.18 0.64 ± 0.08 1.46 ± 0.061157.11 ±37.99NVIF value 3.8 3 0.93 0.96 8005Green gram, whole(Phaseolus aureus Roxb.)6 5.20 ± 0.99 2.67 ± 0.13 1.0 ± 0.14 1.05 ± 0.081177.04 ±74.30NVIF value 4.4 3 0.39 2.47 8436Green gram, dhal(Phaseolus aureus Roxb.)6 3.93 ± 0.30 2.49 ± 0.12 0.97 ± 0.11 0.98 ± 0.061268.28 ±85.32NVIF value 3.9 2.8 0.39 1.02 11507Red gram, whole(Cajanus cajan)6 5.37 ± 1.36 2.99 ± 0.25 1.32 ± 0.15 1.34 ± 0.291302.63 ±103.50NVIF value 3.1 1.23 0.968Red gram, dhal(Cajanus cajan)6 3.90 ± 0.46 2.63 ± 0.10 1.14 ± 0.14 1.12 ± 0.081395.49 ±118.48NVIF value 2.7 0.9 1.2 0.69 1104MINERAL CONTENT IN PULSES AND LEGUMES
  • 45. S.No.Common name(Scientific name)n=mg/100 gMg P Na Ca Al1Bengal gram, whole(Cicer arietinum)6159.83 ± 17.49 266.53 ± 21.8514.86 ±5.87 149.77 ± 18.35 2.10 ± 0.20NVIF value 119 312 37.3 2022Bengal gram, dhal(Cicer arietinum)6117.95 ± 12.91 324.90 ± 13.9717.79 ±10.26 46.32 ± 5.12 0.75 ± 0.55NVIF value 130 331 73.2 563Black gram, whole(Phaseolus mungoRoxb.)6161.53 ± 64.62 344.76 ± 36.5129.08 ±8.05 93.68 ± 16.52 9.33 ± 4.27NVIF value 1544Black gram, dhal(Phaseolus mungoRoxb.)6162.37 ± 57.34 375.05 ± 43.7518.80 ±2.27 60.83 ± 7.21 1.59 ± 1.06NVIF value 130 385 39.8 1545Green gram, whole(Phaseolus aureusRoxb.)6197.98 ± 39.19 353.07 ± 33.65 2.58 ± 0.63 74.63 ± 17.04 1.78 ± 1.15NVIF value 127 326 28 1246Green gram, dhal(Phaseolus aureusRoxb.)6158.90 ± 20.73 415.8 ± 22.38 3.28 ± 2.06 31.46 ± 3.04 0.90 ± 0.44NVIF value 122 405 27.2 757Red gram, whole(Cajanus cajan)6154.67 ± 23.10 312.05 ± 38.28 2.10 ± 1.71 127.85 ± 47.27 4.45 ± 2.66MINERAL CONTENT IN PULSES AND LEGUMES Contd.
  • 46. S.No.Common name(Scientific name)n=mg/100gFe Zn Cu Mn K1Amaranthus(Amaranthus gangeticus)9 5.97 ± 2.91 1.03 ± 0.31 0.20 ±0.07 1.45 ±0.77629.63 ±146.02NVIF value 3.49 0.18 0.08 0.36 3412Amaranthus, spinosus(Amaranth spinosus)6 8.31 ± 5.87 1.41 ± 0.74 0.26 ± 0.12 1.08 ± 0.76583.93 ±80.07NVIF value 22.93Cabbage(Brassica oleracea var.capitata)9 0.54 ± 0.80 0.17 ± 0.07 0.03 ± .01 0.33 ± 0.36 227.7 ± 60.79NVIF value 0.8 0.3 0.02 0.184Coriander leaves(Coriandrum sativum)6 5.19 ± 1.41 0.65 ± 0.16 0.23 ± 0.04 0.93 ± 0.23511.84 ±172.91NVIF value 1.42 0.32 0.14 0.5 2565Fenugreek leaves(Trigonella foenum graecum)4 6.25 ± 1.33 0.53 ± 0.06 0.17 ± 0.02 0.91 ± 0.19255.82 ±54.34NVIF value 1.93 0.36 0.1 0.23 316Gogu leaves(Hibiscus cannabinus)5 8.33 ± 2.89 0.65 ± 0.11 0.22 ± 0.08 1.97 ± 0.31204.28 ±61.87NVIF value 2.28 0.27 0.08 0.37Spinach(Spinacia oleracea)5 3.78 ± 2.29 0.50 ± 0.11 0.17 ± 0.05 1.33 ± 0.56321.02 ±141.49NVIF value 1.14 0.3 0.1 0.56 206MINERAL CONTENT IN GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES
  • 47. S.No.Common name(Scientific name)n=mg/100gMg P Na Ca Al1Amaranthus(Amaranthus gangeticus)9167.59 ±46.4065.25 ±17.7032.05 ± 22.45274.48 ±89.705.75 ±2.61NVIF value 122 83 230 3972Amaranthus, spinosus(Amaranth spinosus)6198.94 ±59.5874.97 ±32.965.82 ± 4.74361.51 ±93.6735.24 ±30.29NVIF value 50 8003Cabbage(Brassica oleracea var.capitata)9 23.56 ± 19.7129.80 ±10.9424.26 ± 14.02 69.76 ± 38.75 NDNVIF value 31 44 394Coriander leaves(Coriandrum sativum)6 71.91 ± 21.8462.75 ±13.223.93 ± 2.15142.58 ±24.87111.96 ±45.97NVIF value 31 71 58.3 1845Fenugreek leaves(Trigonella foenumgraecum)4 72.75 ± 5.7256.76 ±12.68101.39 ± 80.16177.01 ±29.815.30 ±1.41NVIF value 33 51 76.1 3956Gogu leaves(Hibiscus cannabinus)5 83.94 ± 30.66 40.87 ± 6.43 12.81 ± 3.81161.55 ±47.964.69 ±0.47NVIF value 66 40 1727Pumpkin leaves(Cucurbita maxima)3 91.58 ± 39.1266.43 ±19.924.42 ± 4.12235.80 ±183.224.42 ±4.12NVIF value 112 3928Spinach(Spinacia oleracea)5 87.25 ± 9.56 34.11 ± 9.25403.66 ±122.7981.34 ± 6.792.41 ±1.81MINERAL CONTENT IN GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES Contd.
  • 48. S.No.Common name(Scientific name)n= µg/100gPb Cd Ni Co Cr Li Mo1Bajra(Pennisetumtyphoideum)6 11.43± 6.43 2.23 ± 0.53 50.98 ± 6.46 27.99 ± 6.80 26.69 ± 3.902.11 ±0.6546.29 ±12.06NVIF Value 0.02 0.0692Jowar (Sorghumvulgare)5 ND 0.14 ± 0.06 44.00 ± 5.90 32.59± 8.07 11.82 ± 2.370.96 ±0.1637.00 ±8.30NVIF Value 0.008 0.043 Maize, dry (Zea mays) 6 ND 0.12 ± 0.03 34.46 ± 9.62 9.87 ± 0.63 10.54 ± 3.72 ND29.49 ±5.89NVIF Value 0.004 0.0384 Ragi (Eleusine coracana) 4 ND 6.79 ± 1.7969.55 ±17.8819.84 ± 4.08 19.14 ± 3.436.53 ±3.13NDNVIF Value 0.028 0.105Rice, raw, milled(Oryza sativa)100 3.37 ± 1.39 1.90 ± 0.81 17.22 ± 6.54 3.15 ± 1.35 3.30 ± 1.401.21 ±0.3955.04 ±19.40NVIF Value 0.005 0.056Wheat flour, whole(Triticum aestivum)6 3.17 ± 1.13 1.70 ± 0.44 9.60 ± 3.20 0.99 ± 0.19 4.32 ± 0.762.77 ±0.9110.13 ±2.36NVIF Value 0.006 0.047Wheat flour, refined(Triticum aestivum)6 ND 0.68 ± 0.09 ND ND 3.52 ± 0.631.49 ±0.1711.43 ±1.88NVIF Value 0.001 0.01CEREAL GRAINS AND PRODUCTS
  • 49. S.No.Common name(Scientific name)n= µg/100gPb Cd Ni Co Cr Li Mo1Bengal gram, whole(Cicer arietinum)6 5.73 ±1.52 ND 81.42 ± 23.12 21.012 ± 4.5515.22 ±3.22 5.08 ± 1.50 40.00 ± 5.08NVIF value 0.008 0.1542Bengal gram, dhal(Cicer arietinum)6 NDND171.40 ±23.20 25.76 ± 5.54 3.42 ± 0.06 2.72 ± 1.35 19.83 ± 6.64NVIF value 0.001 0.1953Black gram, whole(Phaseolus mungo Roxb.)6ND ND245.38 ±29.82 12.61 ± 3.414.14 ±1.92 1.73 ± 0.10 34.53 ± 10.60NVIF value 0.012 0.814Black gram, dhal(Phaseolus mungo Roxb.)6ND ND245.40 ±29.82 12.61 ± 3.3714.14 ±1.92 1.74 ± 0.10 34.53 ± 10.58NVIF value 0.029 0.4255Green gram, whole(Phaseolus aureus Roxb.)6ND ND127.10 ±21.99 29.95 ± 6.50 8.36 ± 0.18 1.20 ± 0.37 104.00 ± 17.61NVIF value 0.014 0.3046Green gram, dhal(Phaseolus aureus Roxb.)6ND ND 89.52 ± 14.91 5.94 ± 0.58 2.89 ± 0.20 ND 281.43 ± 81.14NVIF value 0.01 0.4467Red gram, whole(Cajanus cajan)6 4.150 ±0.580 ND160.09 ±43.10 17.94 ± 3.5722.80 ±3.96 8.07 ± 1.55123.72 ± 13.12NVIF value 0.01 0.2228Red gram, dhal(Cajanus cajan)6ND ND202.07 ±19.58 4.43 ± 1.00 5.76 ± 1.282.022 ±0.62 53.82 ± 9.94NVIF value 0.001 0.283PULSES AND LEGUMES
  • 50. S.No.Common name(Scientific name)n=µg/100gPb Cd Ni Co Cr Li Mo1Amaranthus(Amaranthus gangeticus)94.030 ±0.611.96 ± 0.83 17.40 ± 7.0 6.90 ± 3.40 21.38 ± 4.21 6.21 ± 2.72 4.49 ± 2.30NVIF value 0.007 0.132Cabbage(Brassica oleracea var.capitata)9 ND 0.12 ± 0.03 7.24 ± 1.40 2.79 ± 1.41 1.02 ± 0.34 0.79 ± 0.21 1.93 ± 0.46NVIF value 0.005 0.0783Coriander leaves(Coriandrum sativum)6 0.79 ± 0.45 0.07 ± 0.02 36.60 ± 9.5 1.45 ± 0.25 32.91 ± 6.17 5.89 ± 1.54 9.6 ± 3.40NVIF value 0.014 1.124Fenugreek leaves(Trigonella foenum graecum)4 5.17 ± 0.59 0.68 ± 0.2127.92 ±7.0736.97 ±2.7838.87 ±4.4184.24 ±1.627.04 ± 2.0NVIF value 0.006 0.45Gogu leaves(Hibiscus cannabinus)50.496 ±0.180.05 ± 0.02 45.30 ± 5.5 4.39 ± 1.3565.44 ±12.033.54 ± 1.39 7.68 ± 1.78NVIF value 0.0056Spinach(Spinacia oleracea)5 0.12 ± 0.04 0.07 ± 0.0423.40 ±4.2026.94 ±4.901.19 ± 0.14439.63 ±2.787.41 ± 3.51NVIF value 0.005 0.01GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES
  • 51. Water soluble vitamins [µg/100g]I.Cereal grains andproductsThiamine (B1)Riboflavin(B2)Niacin(B3)Pantothenic acid(B5)Biotin (B7)S. No. Name of the sample n1Bajra(Pennisetumtyphoideum)6 260 ± 22.80 205 ± 5.02 873 ± 55.29 4953 ± 519 636 ± 49.672Jowar(Sorghum vulgare)5 352 ± 39.62 140 ± 12.92 1176 ± 137 682 ± 38.34 772 ± 1063Maize, dry(Zea mays)6 343 ± 40.82 90 ± 3.60 666 ± 92.01 561 ± 47.81 471 ± 84.004Ragi(Eleusine coracana)4 187 ± 25.00 167 ± 5.91 340 ± 29.44 1735 ± 92.13 1055 ± 2645Rice, raw, milled(Oryza sativa)100 53 ± 20.64 47 ± 6.15 692 ± 132 347 ± 128 611 ± 1446Rice, puffed(Oryza sativa)6 61 ± 20.04 14 ± 1.79 1865 ± 95.24 630 ± 146 ND7Rice, flakes(Oryza sativa)6 138 ± 13.29 43 ± 8.07 1623 ± 146 481 ± 57.81 385 ± 87.998Varagu(Setaria italica)5 144 ± 38.63 22 ± 6.64 1511 ± 59.94 691 ± 47 1560 ± 2219Wheat, whole(Triticum aestivum)52 465 ± 90.71 179 ± 15.59 1685 ± 205 825 ± 325 620 ± 18010Wheat flour, whole(Triticum aestivum)6 418 ± 44.01 192 ± 2.50 1400 ± 141 779 ± 313 761 ± 16211Wheat flour, refined(Triticum aestivum)6 156 ± 16.02 61 ± 8.86 765 ± 56.83 706 ± 108 608 ± 13112Wheat flour, semolina(Triticum aestivum)6 293 ± 36.39 41 ± 2.86 1156 ± 170 13481 ± 985 466 ± 95.22
  • 52. I. Cereal grains and products Vitamin- B6 [µg/100g] Total folates (B9) [µg/100g]S.No.Name of the sample n PM PL PN TOTAL B6TetrahydrofolateMethyltetrahydro folateFormyltetrahydro folateFolicacidTotalfolates1Bajra(Pennisetum typhoideum)647.85 ±19.04107 ±15.0435.31 ±10.21181 ±20.253.37 ±1.020.20 ±0.15139 ±16.822.41 ±0.780145 ±17.352Jowar(Sorghum vulgare)520.28 ±10.2253.78 ±17.117.90 ±3.8078.24 ±17.201.77 ±0.580.32 ±0.18112 ±22.761.68 ±0.438116 ±22.953Maize, dry(Zea mays)629.28 ±15.5976.14 ±24.5615.37 ±5.32115.39 ±36.821.35 ±0.540.354 ±0.00197 ±42.791.01 ±0.66200 ±42.684Ragi(Eleusine coracana)413.01 ±2.6117.75 ±0.1943.45 ±16.6072.21 ±17.8952.45 ±12.40ND20.13 ±5.881.05 ±0.4973.631 ±17.635Rice, raw, milled(Oryza sativa)10015.96 ±7.6018.01 ±11.3815.71 ±14.3546.51 ±25.0810.71 ±9.350.342 ±0.3544.80 ±14.910.110 ±0.1455.97 ±24.776Rice, puffed(Oryza sativa)68.96±2.6024.10 ±8.5935.74 ±9.3568.80 ±7.79ND ND ND ND ND7Rice, flakes(Oryza sativa)622.45 ±8.220.00 ±0.0026.56 ±5.8449.00 ±12.99ND ND ND ND ND8Varagu(Setaria italica)57.31 ±1.543.61 ±0.791.93 ±0.4711.35 ±1.698.40 ±1.03ND3.92 ±0.85ND12.32 ±0.7949Wheat, whole(Triticum aestivum)5218.05 ±4.9984.98 ±25.79139 ±32.98239 ±33.6011.49 ±9.720.708 ±0.3477.52 ±21.630.753 ±0.4390.48 ±32.1410Wheat flour, whole(Triticum aestivum)616.46 ±7.9641.90 ±13.5696.71 ±17.70152.80 ±21.4414.81 ±5.890.73 ±0.2067.17 ±11.502.31 ±0.8485.02 ±17.4011Wheat flour, refined(Triticum aestivum)612.77 ±3.150.00 ±0.0040.70 ±14.5850.78 ±14.738.62 ±1.770.25 ±0.1329.01 ±7.313.96 ±1.6941.85 ±9.1312Wheat flour, semolina(Triticum aestivum)626.38 ±10.6056.01 ±20.86115.49 ±33.33192 ±51.783.29 ±3.59ND14.59 ±3.767.45 ±1.6625.33 ±3.63
  • 53. Wheat flour, wholeWater solubleVitamins (mg/100g)EastIndiaWestIndiaNorthIndiaSouthIndiaCentralIndiaNort-eastIndiaMin. Max. Avg. SDB1 400 460 480 380 420 370 370 480 418 44B2 188 191 195 194 193 193 188 195 192 3B3 1260 1620 1510 1340 1270 1400 1260 1620 1400 142B5 510 420 577 1150 1060 960 420 1150 779 314B7 920 540 900 810 820 580 540 920 762 163B6PM 17.77 13.37 16.38 12.18 7.95 31.11 7.95 31.11 16.46 7.96PL 33.20 38.84 65.65 33.24 49.98 30.50 30.50 65.65 41.90 13.56PN 123 89 91 79 83 115 79 123 97 18Total B6 174 139 171 122 141 170 122 174 153 21B9THF 22.43 8.13 10.79 15.56 10.91 21.04 8.13 22.43 14.81 5.89MTHF 0.85 0.69 0.50 0.50 0.94 0.89 0.50 0.94 0.73 0.20FTHF 78.53 47.31 63.16 66.43 69.68 77.92 47.31 78.53 67.17 11.51FA 3.54 2.45 1.50 2.10 1.36 2.93 1.36 3.54 2.31 0.84Total Folate 105 59 76 85 83 103 59 105 85 17Water soluble vitamins-regional wise difference
  • 54. Water soluble vitamins-regional wise differenceAppleWater solubleVitamins(mg/100g)EastIndiaWestIndiaNorthIndiaSouthIndiaCentralIndiaNort-eastIndiaNort-eastIndiaMin. Max. Avg. SDB1 11.00 13.00 9.00 10.00 12.00 10.00 11.00 9.00 13.00 10.86 1.35B2 2.00 2.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 3.00 2.00 0.58B390.00 80.00 90.00 90.00 100.00 80.00 90.00 80.00 100.00 88.57 6.90B5 680 810 1000 790 830 730 560 560 1000 771 137B7 10.28 5.42 11.75 10.04 11.82 15.56 8.93 5.42 15.56 10.54 3.09B6PM 8.43 8.36 2.54 13.09 2.64 2.81 6.43 2.54 13.09 6.33 3.97PL 24.79 11.80 17.30 20.48 24.60 14.43 22.03 11.80 24.79 19.35 5.02PN 41.44 24.53 29.15 41.63 36.61 29.56 35.58 24.53 41.63 34.07 6.53Total B6 410 550 410 360 490 520 440 360 550 454 68B9THF 0.85 0.66 0.68 0.78 0.70 1.37 0.92 0.66 1.37 0.85 0.25MTHF 3.00 4.27 2.29 1.89 3.64 5.16 5.81 1.89 5.81 3.72 1.45FTHF 79.33 80.45 82.72 79.90 105.02 110.91 106.27 79.33 110.91 92.08 14.47FA 0.23 0.21 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.22 0.20 0.10 0.23 0.17 0.06TotalFolate 83.42 85.59 85.80 82.68 109.47 117.65 113.20 82.68 117.65 96.83 15.76VitCAA84.56 129.00 180.00 128.00 147.53 138.00 132.00 84.56 180.00134.16 28.36DHA 860 572 610 502 1331 696 1110 502 1331 812 308Toal AA 865 401 241 502 1331 834 1483 241 1483 808 468
  • 55. Water soluble vitamins-regional wise differenceChillies, dryWater solubleVitamins(mg/100g)EastIndiaWestIndiaNorthIndiaSouthIndiaCentralIndiaNort-eastIndiaMin. Max. Avg. SDB1 490 480 440 490 420 410 410 490 455 36B2 435 419 432 435 428 446 419 446 433 9B3 6140 7270 6680 6640 7670 7230 6140 7670 6938 552B5 1620 1470 1890 1720 1540 1580 1470 1890 1637 149B7 9.18 18.34 10.65 10.10 3.74 0.51 0.51 18.34 8.75 6.17B6PM279.66 232.77 301.17 245.17 266.62 343.37 232.77343.37278.13 40.16PL 1962 1817 3582 1874 1948 2069 1817 3582 2209 678PN 2252 2067 3895 2130 2220 2416 2067 3895 2496 695Total B6 470 370 430 490 410 400 370 490 428 45B9THF 268 284 268 257 264 263 257 284 267 9MTHF 323 336 320 332 318 338 318 338 328 9FA 19.30 19.49 18.80 19.15 19.61 19.67 18.80 19.67 19.34 0.33TotalFolate 611 639 607 609 602 620 602 639 615 14
  • 56. Water soluble vitamins (µg/100g)I.Cereal grains andproductsThiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Total folatesS. No. Name of the sample1 Bajra 260 ± 22.80 205 ± 5.02 873 ± 55.29 145 ± 17.35NVIF Data 330 250 2300 45.002 Jowar 352 ± 39.62 140 ± 12.92 1176 ± 137 116 ± 22.95NVIF Data 370 130 3100 20.003 Maize, dry 343 ± 40.82 90 ± 3.60 666 ± 92.01 200 ± 42.68NVIF Data 420 100 1800 20.004 Ragi 187 ± 25.00 167 ± 5.91 340 ± 29.44 73.631 ± 17.63NVIF Data 420 190 1100 18.305 Rice, raw, milled 53 ± 20.64 47 ± 6.15 692 ± 132 55.97 ± 24.77NVIF Data 60 60.00 1900 8.006 Rice, puffed 61 ± 20.04 14 ± 1.79 1865 ± 95.24 NDNVIF Data 210 10.00 41007 Rice, flakes 138 ± 13.29 43 ± 8.07 1623 ± 146 NDNVIF Data 210 50.00 4000 ---8 Varagu 144 ± 38.63 22 ± 6.64 1511 ± 59.94 12.32 ± 0.794NVIF Data 330 90.00 2000 23.009 Wheat, whole 465 ± 90.71 179 ± 15.59 1685 ± 205 90.48 ± 32.14NVIF Data 450 170 5500 36.0010 Wheat flour, whole 418 ± 44.01 192 ± 2.50 1400 ± 141 85.02 ± 17.40NVIF Data 490 170 4300 35.8011 Wheat flour, refined 156 ± 16.02 61 ± 8.86 765 ± 56.83 41.85 ± 9.13NVIF Data 120 70.00 2400 ---Cereal grains and its products
  • 57. Water soluble vitamins (µg/100g)III.Green LeafyvegetablesThiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Total folatesS.No. Name of the sample1 Amaranthus 3.09 ± 0.79 228 ± 37.59 689 ± 61.98 61.65 ± 7.17NVIF Data 10.00 180 --- ---2Amaranthus,spinosusND 98.49 ± 11.12 589 ± 66.59 3059 ± 1038NVIF Data --- --- --- ---3 Cabbage 34.17 ± 4.29 28.89 ± 6.01 258 ± 29.69 25.25 ± 3.49NVIF Data 60.00 90.00 400 23.004 Coriander leaves 94.29 ± 6.07 46.70 ± 3.49 729 ± 21.68 77.73 ± 16.64NVIF Data 50.00 60.00 800 ---5 Fenugreek leaves 113 ± 11.81 149 ± 23.01 712 ± 51.23 65.49 ± 3.74NVIF Data 40.00 310 800 ---6 Gogu leaves 134 ± 23.02 55.83 ± 8.05 571 ± 39.91 77.28 ± 13.32NVIF Data 70.00 390 1100 ---7 Pumpkin leaves 68.67 ± 5.58 131 ± 28.73 1490 ± 126 757 ± 92.35NVIF Data --- --- --- ---8 Spinach 1.78 ± 0.60 94.47 ± 7.79 323 ± 19.56 1072 ± 279NVIF Data 30.00 260 500 123Green Leafy Vegetables
  • 58. Water soluble vitamins (µg/100g)IV. Roots and tubersThiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Total folatesS. No.Name of thesample1 Beet root 10.92 ± 2.62 11.04 ± 2.22 205 ± 14.14 78.82 ± 9.49NVIF Data 40.00 90.00 400 ---2 Carrot 36.69 ± 3.96 31.76 ± 2.37 130 ± 15.81 27.22 ± 6.93NVIF Data 40.00 20.00 600 15.003 Colocasia 57.92 ± 6.79 27.53 ± 2.04 186 ± 6.06 61.52 ± 6.37NVIF Data 90.00 30.00 400 54.004 Onion (Big) 37.17 ± 6.15 7.50 ± 0.84 90.00 ± 20.98 46.71 ± 4.15NVIF Data 80.00 10.00 400 6.005 Potato 66.50 ± 13.98 9.00 ± 0.93 678 ± 53.03 88.22 ± 13.54NVIF Data 100 10.00 1200 7.006 Radish 26.96 ± 5.13 21.84 ± 3.57 300 ± 46.51 NDNVIF Data 60.00 20.00 500 ---7 Tapioca 63.38 ± 10.19 17.95 ± 4.36 455 ± 15.81 322 ± 25.63NVIF Data 50.00 10.00 300 ---8 Yam, elephant 38.33 ± 3.87 9.50 ± 0.87 210 ± 23.45 29.29 ± 6.47NVIF Data 60.00 70.00 700 ---9 Yam, ordinary 37.70 ± 3.07 25.23 ± 5.70 263 ± 22.80 28.63 ± 1.42NVIF Data 70.00 --- 700 17.50Roots and Tubers
  • 59. S.No.Common name(Scientific name)n=Vit D (µg/100g) Vit K (µg/100g)D2 K11Bajra(Pennisetum typhoideum)6 164.06±30.93 ND2 Jowar (Sorghum vulgare) 5 39.61±2.97 43.82±4.843 Maize, dry (Zea mays) 6 33.60±2.82 ND4 Ragi (Eleusine coracana) 4 40.98±3.38 ND5Rice, raw, milled(Oryza sativa)100 ND ND6Wheat, whole(Triticum aestivum)52 18.87±6.25 ND7 Wheat flour, whole 6 14.43±2.68 ND8 Wheat flour, refined 6 6.73±0.96 ND9 Wheat flour, semolina 6 8.19±0.81 NDVitamin D & K in cerealsNote: Values are mean ±SD; n=sample size; ND, Not detected
  • 60. Pulses and legumesS.No.Common name(Scientific name)n=Vit D (µg/100g) Vit K (µg/100g)D2 K11Bengal gram, whole(Cicer arietinum)6 192.54±16.74 ND2 Bengal gram, dhal 6 175.38±17.36 ND3Black gram, whole(Phaseolus mungo Roxb.)6 338.37±27.94 121.78±8.504 Black gram, dhal 6 248.96±17.02 83.37±4.545Green gram, whole(Phaseolus aureus Roxb.)6 337.22±47.91 12.63±1.236 Green gram, dhal 6 199.41±25.24 8.35±0.817Red gram, whole(Cajanus cajan)6 277.97±4.98 91.83±7.968 Red gram, dhal 6 211.90±8.02 66.33±8.18LOSS of Vitamin D & K contentin dhals vs. whole of pulsesNote: Values are mean ±SD; n=sample size; ND, Not detected
  • 61. S.No.Common name(Scientific name)n=Vit D (µg/100g) Vit K (µg/100g)D2 K11Amaranthus (Amaranthus gangeticus)9 35.49±1.73 292.10±33.342Amaranthus, spinosus(Amaranth spinosus) 6 15.17±0.24 443.03±3.193Cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata) 9 0.20±0.02 7.41±0.234Coriander leaves(Coriandrum sativum) 6 3.48±0.26 285.31±3.215Fenugreek leaves(Trigonella foenum graecum) 4 2.31±0.29 434.80±2.746Gogu leaves(Hibiscus cannabinus)5 4.27±0.12 434.14±2.667Pumpkin leaves (Cucurbita maxima)3 32.20±0.85 243.50±4.448Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)5 0.26±0.03 324.86±2.46Note: Values are mean ±SD; n=sample size; ND, Not detectedVitamin D & K in Green leafy vegetables
  • 62. S.NoCommon name(Scientific name)n=Vit A(Retinol)(µg/100g)Vit D (µg/100g)Vit K(µg/100g)D325-OH-D3K21aChicken, leg(Gallus bankivamurghi)4 ND 98.81 0.2 41.31b Chicken, thigh 4 ND 56.48 0.1 23.51c Chicken, chest 4 ND 72.29 0.15 19.21d Chicken, wings 4 ND 46.19 0.1 9.882 Egg hen 5478.41±17.6320.27±2.883.62±0.5157.60±1.41Note: Values are mean ±SD; n=sample size; ND, Not detectedVitamin D & K in meat and egg
  • 63. S.No.Common name(Scientific name)n=Tocopherol (µg/100g) Tocotrienol(µg/100g)α β γ δ α β γ1Rice, raw, hand pounded(Oryza sativa)9 500±22 22±1.9 100±3.0 70±3 90±42Wheat, whole(Triticum aestivum)52 450±24 32±9 26±0.12 590±253Bengal gram, whole(Cicer arietinum)6 1550±1201330±17080±14Soya bean(Glycine max Merr.)7 1070±702390±210540±14 50±25Gogu leaves(Hibiscus cannabinus)5 4640±3308990±5406Colocasia(Colocasia antiquorum)6 330±20 80±10 130±207Cluster beans(Cyamopsis tetragonobola)5 760±8 300±4 40±170±18 Kovai (Coccinia cordifolia) 7 700±20 140±109Mango, green(Mangefera indica)6 1910±150 ND 170±2010Mustard Seeds(Brassica nigra)6 1190±1204180±3301270±231140±4011Chillies, dry(Capsicum annum)1 20310±2541320±13012Garlic, dry(Allium sativum)6 1490±50Vitamin-e content in Various food groups
  • 64. RICH food SOURCES OFVitaminS A, D, E & KS.No.A(Retinol)(µg/100g)D(D2 + D3 +25-OH-D3)(µg/100g)E(Tocopherol+Tocotrienols)(mg/100g)K(Phylloquinone+Menaquinone)(µg/100g)1Egg(478)Black gram(338)Chillies(21)Drumstick(358)2 -Green gram(336)Gogu leaves(14)Chicken, leg(273)3 -Bajra(164)Pumpkinleaves (8)Blackgram(122)4 -Coriander(130)Mango, green(2)Red gram(92)5 -Chicken, leg(98)Knol-khol(1.6)Pumpkin(83)
  • 65. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINSI.D. REGION SAMPLE NAMEVITAMIN D [µg/100g] VITAMIN K [µg/100g]D2 K118 EI Green gram dhal 215.53 9.0018 WI Green gram dhal 208.69 7.3018 NI Green gram dhal 162.83 9.5018 SI Green gram dhal 225.45 7.7018 CI Green gram dhal 210.85 8.2018 NE Green gram dhal 173.09 8.40Avg. 199.41 8.35SD 25.24 0.81Range 162.83 – 225.45 7.30 – 9.50FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINSI.D. REGION SAMPLE NAMEVITAMIN D [µg/100g] VITAMIN K [µg/100g]D2 K1044-2 EI Tomato Ripe (LOCAL) 12.95 18.9044-2 WI Tomato Ripe (LOCAL) 13.93 12.8044-2 NI Tomato Ripe (LOCAL) 11.54 17.3044-2 SI Tomato Ripe (LOCAL) 15.93 19.5044-2 CI Tomato Ripe (LOCAL) 10.98 16.2044-2 NE Tomato Ripe (LOCAL) 9.11 12.1Avg. 12.41 16.13SD 2.40 3.09Range 9.11 – 15.93 12.10 – 19.50Regional variations among Vitamin- D & K content in foods
  • 66. Phytosterols_Cereal Grains & ProductsS.No.Common name(Scientific Name)NPhytosterols (mg/100g)Campesterol Stigmasterol β-Sitosterol1 Bajra (Pennisetum typhoideum) 6 14.66 2.13 4.85 0.41 74.49 6.932 Jowar (Sorghum vulgare) 5 21.41 2.22 5.65 0.68 42.68 6.663 Maize, dry (Zea mays) 6 11.48 1.73 3.93 0.73 75.96 12.924 Ragi (Eleusine coracana) 4 3.72 1.58 1.08 0.29 36.60 16.165 Rice, raw, milled (Oryza sativa ) 100 3.59 0.96 1.58 0.34 20.87 5.126 Rice, puffed (Oryza sativa ) 6 2.66 0.53 1.3 0.24 16.17 2.397 Rice, flakes (Oryza sativa) 6 4.90 0.82 2.38 0.34 26.81 4.928 Varagu (Setaria italica) 5 3.82 2.16 3.28 1.87 31.45 11.379Wheat flour, whole (Triticumaestivum)6 7.43 1.60 7.21 1.85 41.26 8.3710Wheat flour, refined (Triticumaestivum)6 4.44 0.68 0.53 0.10 29.34 5.0511Wheat flour, semolina (Triticumaestivum)6 8.13 2.19 1.11 0.30 42.38 12.75Note : Values are expressed as Mean SD
  • 67. Phytosterols _Pulses & LegumesS.No.Common name(Scientific Name)NPhytosterols (mg/100g)Campesterol Stigmasterol β-Sitosterol1 Bengal gram, whole (Cicer arietinum) 6 6.91 1.05 5.61 0.82 82.52 6.372 Bengal gram, dhal (Cicer arietinum) 6 7.58 1.11 3.11 0.30 79.69 5.573Green gram, whole (Phaseolus aureusRoxb.) 63.22 0.53 11.65 1.98 54.86 5.724Green gram, dhal (Phaseolus aureusRoxb.) 62.75 0.65 10.70 2.84 47.57 8.835 Red gram, whole (Cajanus cajan) 6 7.00 1.36 10.98 1.63 70.45 11.566 Red gram, dhal (Cajanus cajan) 6 7.53 0.64 11.43 1.19 73.19 8.847Bengal gram, roasted (Cicerarietinum) 711.89 1.02 4.94 1.11 113.64 5.978 Cow pea (Vigna catjang) 7 7.42 1.43 24.37 3.05 46.45 10.099Field bean, dry (Phaseolus vulgarisL.) 72.81 0.84 31.76 4.87 40.70 8.3410 Peas, dry (Pisum sativum) 6 5.42 0.81 2.65 0.39 75.09 8.8911 Peas, green (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.)69.69 1.41 4.33 0.45 115.36 13.1712 Rajmah (Phaseolus vulgaris) 11 2.73 0.42 16.45 1.32 62.72 7.0513 Soya bean (Glycine max Merr.) 7 11.49 3.68 12.47 5.56 82.23 20.97Note : Values are expressed as Mean SD
  • 68. Phytosterols _Green Leafy VegetablesS.No.Common name(Scientific Name)NPhytosterols (mg/100g)Campesterol Stigmasterol β-Sitosterol1Amaranthus(Amaranthusgangeticus)9 ND 27.32 14.71 127.71 25.272 Amaranthus spinosus 6 5.15 1.94 31.37 4.23 170.14 15.283Cabbage (Brassicaoleracea var. capitata)9 27.11 1.24 2.56 0.94 135.55 10.834Coriander leaves(Coriandrum sativum)6 5.27 0.44 50.42 4.20 94.63 9.105Fenugreek leaves(Trigonella foenumgraecum)4 11.60 2.15 15.43 1.87 173.66 17.826Gogu leaves (Hibiscuscannabinus)5 32.17 4.97 34.00 6.67 315.24 78.987Pumpkin leaves(Cucurbita maxima)3 2.41 0.48 12.27 3.38 98.45 11.818Spinach (Spinaciaoleracea)5 9.65 0.85 51.78 3.22 156.29 14.93Note : Values are expressedas Mean SD
  • 69. Cereal Grains & ProductsS.No.Common name(Scientific Name)NOligosaccharides (g/100g)Raffinose Stachyose Verbascose Ajucose1 Bajra (Pennisetum typhoideum) 6 0.08 0.04 0.01 0.001 ND ND2 Jowar (Sorghum vulgare) 5 0.01 0.001 0.02 0.001 ND ND3 Maize, dry (Zea mays) 6 ND ND ND ND4 Ragi (Eleusine coracana) 4 0.01 0.002 ND ND ND5Rice, parboiled, milled (Oryzasativa )1 ND ND ND ND6Rice, raw, hand pounded (Oryzasativa )9 ND ND ND ND7 Rice, puffed (Oryza sativa ) 6 ND ND ND ND8 Rice, flakes (Oryza sativa) 6 ND ND ND NDNote : Values are expressed asMean SD; N-No.of SamplesRaffinose Family Oligosaccharides
  • 70. Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides_ Pulses & LegumesS.No.Common name(Scientific Name)NOligosaccharides (g/100g)Raffinose Stachyose Verbascose Ajucose1Bengal gram, whole (Cicerarietinum)6 0.23 0.06 0.57 0.13 ND ND2Bengal gram, dhal (Cicerarietinum)6 0.23 0.05 0.60 0.51 ND ND3Black gram, whole (Phaseolusmungo Roxb.)6 0.02 0.01 0.17 0.05 0.99 0.13 0.05 0.024Black gram, dhal (Phaseolusmungo Roxb.)6 0.03 0.01 0.17 0.05 1.13 0.16 0.06 0.035Green gram, whole (Phaseolusaureus Roxb.)6 0.11 0.05 0.30 0.07 1.57 0.31 0.03 0.026Green gram, dhal (Phaseolusaureus Roxb.)6 0.07 0.01 0.32 0.06 0.90 0.12 0.02 0.027 Red gram, whole (Cajanus cajan) 6 0.24 0.07 0.64 0.17 0.61 0.14 ND8 Red gram, dhal (Cajanus cajan) 6 0.33 0.05 0.81 0.12 0.61 0.14 ND9Horse gram, whole (Dolicusbiflorus)6 0.04 0.02 1.59 0.24 ND ND10 Rajmah (Phaseolus vulgaris) 11 0.05 0.02 1.32 0.29 0.02 0.01 ND11 Soya bean (Glycine max Merr.) 7 0.33 0.08 1.98 0.42 0.04 0.02 NDNote : Values are expressed asMean SD;N-No.of Samples
  • 71. Fatty Acid Profile of Cereals grains & ProductsFatty AcidBajra(Pennisetumtyphoideum)Jowar(Sorghumvulgare)Ragi(Eleusinecoracana)Wheat,whole(Triticumaestivum)Wheatflour, whole(Triticumaestivum)Wheatflour,refined(Triticumaestivum)Wheatflour,semolina(Triticumaestivum)N 6 5 4 52 6 6 6Total Fat(g/100g)5.31 0.48 3.28 0.27 1.82 0.12 2.83 0.33 2.83 0.33 1.73 0.36 2.25 0.22C16:0(Palmitic)18.72 0.17 14.85 0.60 21.60 1.05 17.83 0.66 17.50 0.38 18.8 0.70 17.02 0.79C18:0 (Stearic) 3.26 0.46 1.41 0.08 2.06 0.24 1.31 0.11 1.32 0.27 1.58 0.43 1.48 0.32C18:1n9c(Oleic)26.58 0.48 31.23 1.2943.990.8014.13 1.04 13.54 0.85 10.54 1.02 14.26 1.65C18:2n6c(Linoleic)47.13 0.76 50.53 1.47 27.29 0.7562.560.8263.551.0565.511.7863.231.66C18:3n3(Linolenic)3.58 0.22 1.98 0.43 5.06 0.964.160.314.100.163.570.194.010.16TSFA 22.45 0.46 16.26 0.66 23.66 1.26 19.15 0.67 18.82 0.61 20.38 1.06 18.49 0.97TMUSFA 26.83 0.42 31.23 1.29 43.99 0.80 14.13 1.04 13.54 0.85 10.54 1.02 14.26 1.65TPUFA 50.74 0.86 52.51 1.69 32.35 1.1566.720.9067.540.9669.081.8867.241.65NOTE : Values are expressed as %FAME,Mean SDTSFA-Total Saturated Fatty acids; TMUFA-Total Mono Unsaturated Fatty acids;; TPUFA-Total PolyUnsaturated Fatty acids.ND: Not Detected, N-No.of Samples
  • 72. Fatty Acid Profile of Pulses & LegumesFatty acidsBengal gram,whole(Cicerarietinum)Bengalgram, dhal(Cicerarietinum)Black gram,whole(Phaseolusmungo Roxb.)Black gram,dhal(Phaseolusmungo Roxb.)Red gram,whole(Cajanuscajan)Red gram,dhal(Cajanuscajan)N 6 6 6 6 6 6Total Fat(g/100g)5.08 0.28 4.98 0.45 1.77 0.28 1.70 0.13 2.85 0.71 2.69 0.35C16:0(Palmitic)10.58 0.53 11.14 0.76 18.82 1.10 18.84 1.22 23.16 2.63 22.32 0.41C18:0(Stearic)1.58 0.18 1.36 0.07 4.09 0.56 4.35 0.76 3.99 0.43 3.52 0.22C18:1n9c(Oleic)23.81 0.79 22.51 0.70 14.05 0.71 15.76 1.04 9.47 4.15 8.84 0.68C18:2n6c(Linoleic)59.961.2861.051.3710.34 0.60 13.00 1.4057.372.8260.020.51C18:3n3 (α-Linolenic)3.18 0.18 3.04 0.1452.692.5248.052.466.02 2.29 5.30 0.46TSFA 12.52 0.75 12.85 0.77 22.62 1.59 23.19 1.94 27.14 2.86 25.84 0.52TMUSFA 24.34 0.84 23.06 0.70 14.05 0.71 15.76 1.04 9.47 4.15 8.84 0.68TPUFA 63.14 1.36 64.06 1.35 63.03 1.97 61.05 2.65 63.38 1.56 65.31 0.29NOTE : Values are expressed as %FAME,Mean SDTSFA-Total Saturated Fatty acids,TMUFA-Total Mono Unsaturated Fatty acids,TPUFA-Total Poly Unsaturated Fatty acids.ND: Not Detected, N-No.of Samples
  • 73. Fatty Acid Profile of Condiments & SpicesFatty AcidsChillies, dry(Capsicumannum)Chillies,green(Capsicumannum)Coriander,seeds(Coriandrumsativum)Cumin,seeds(Cuminumcyminum)Garlic, dry(Alliumsativum)Ginger,fresh(Zinziberofficinale)Tamarind,pulp(Tamarindusindicus)Turmeric,powder(Curcumadomestica)N 1 28 6 6 10 6 6 6Total Fat(g/100g)14.27 0.93 1.0 0.75 18.74 0.77 21.42 0.85 1.55 0.64 0.76 0.09 1.91 0.66 4.29 0.55C16:0(Palmitic)17.45 0.79 14.88 1.10 4.35 0.25 3.77 0.11 22.83 1.04 25.31 1.98 26.42 1.20 18.88 1.39C18:0(Stearic)2.75 0.09 3.56 0.60 1.01 0.04 0.74 0.03 2.31 0.59 3.09 0.61 4.18 0.4418.112.47C18:1n9c(Oleic)12.62 1.32 4.79 0.6077.250.9662.670.2110.52 2.75 10.46 1.32 42.95 2.34 11.05 2.03C18:2n6c(Linoleic)60.02 2.2266.083.0115.40 0.52 32.07 0.14 54.60 2.35 44.12 1.07 6.59 1.98 38.51 0.76C18:3n3 (α-Linolenic)3.56 0.27 7.05 1.06 0.31 0.04 0.33 0.03 6.43 1.34 11.77 1.6514.842.269.00 0.87TSFA 22.53 0.99 21.26 2.38 6.56 0.43 4.66 0.15 28.09 1.77 33.65 2.04 35.61 2.21 41.44 1.83TMUSFA 13.89 1.22 5.60 0.41 77.73 0.93 62.93 0.21 10.88 2.76 10.46 1.32 42.95 2.34 11.05 2.03TPUFA 63.57 2.00 73.13 2.13 15.71 0.56 32.40 0.15 61.04 3.43 55.89 1.22 21.44 1.18 47.51 1.17
  • 74. Fatty Acid Profile of Cereals _NVIF ComparisonFatty AcidYearBajra(Pennisetumtyphoideum)Jowar(Sorghumvulgare)Maize, dry(Zea mays)Ragi(Eleusinecoracana)Wheat, whole(Triticumaestivum)NVIF 5.50 3.30 4.80 1.50 2.90Total Fat 2012 5.31 3.28 4.23 1.82 2.83C16:0 (Palmitic)NVIF 1.00 0.50 0.70 0.30 0.402012 0.99 0.49 0.58 0.39 0.50C18:0 (Stearic)NVIF 0.24 0.07 0.20 0.02 0.102012 0.17 0.05 0.08 0.04 0.04C18:1n9c (Oleic)NVIF 1.20 1.00 1.10 0.70 0.302012 1.41 1.02 1.08 0.80 0.40C18:2n6c (Linoleic)NVIF 2.20 1.50 2.20 0.30 1.102012 2.50 1.66 2.41 0.50 1.77C18:3n3 (Linolenic)NVIF 0.13 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.172012 0.19 0.06 0.06 0.09 0.12TSFANVIF 1.24 0.57 0.90 0.32 0.502012 1.19 0.53 0.67 0.43 0.54TMUSFANVIF 1.20 1.00 1.10 0.70 0.302012 1.42 1.02 1.09 0.80 0.40TPUFANVIF 2.33 1.55 2.25 0.35 1.272012 2.69 1.72 2.48 0.59 1.89Note : Values are expressed as Mean, g/100gTSFA-Total Saturated Fatty Acids;TMUSFA-Total Monounsaturated Fatty Acids; TPUFA-Total PolyunsaturatedFatty Acids
  • 75. Fatty Acid Profile of Legumes_NVIF ComparisonFatty acids YearCow pea(Vignacatjang)Peas, dry(Pisumsativum)Rajmah(Phaseolusvulgaris)Soya bean(Glycine maxMerr.)Total FatNVIF 2.90 2.10 2.20 20.002012 2.65 1.95 2.12 12.34C16:0 (Palmitic)NVIF 0.60 0.20 0.30 1.402012 0.63 0.25 0.37 1.56C18:0 (Stearic)NVIF 0.10 0.06 0.04 0.802012 0.09 0.07 0.05 0.40C18:1n9c (Oleic)NVIF 0.20 0.40 0.20 5.402012 0.22 0.51 0.16 2.88C18:2n6c (Linoleic)NVIF 0.80 0.80 0.50 10.402012 1.09 0.94 0.60 6.40C18:3n3 (α-Linolenic)NVIF 0.50 0.15 0.70 1.402012 0.55 0.19 0.95 0.97TSFANVIF 0.80 0.26 0.40 2.202012 0.78 0.32 0.41 2.05TMUSFANVIF 0.20 0.40 0.20 5.402012 0.23 0.51 0.16 2.92TPUFANVIF 1.30 0.95 1.20 11.802012 1.64 1.12 1.55 7.37Note : Values are expressed as Mean, g/100gTSFA-Total Saturated Fatty Acids;TMUSFA-Total Monounsaturated Fatty Acids; TPUFA-TotalPolyunsaturated Fatty Acids
  • 76. Fatty Acid Profile of Pulses_NVIF ComparisonFatty acids YearBengal gram,whole (Cicerarietinum)Black gram,whole(PhaseolusmungoRoxb.)Green gram,whole(Phaseolusaureus Roxb.)Red gram,whole(Cajanuscajan)Total FatNVIF 6.9 1.70 1.70 2.202012 5.08 1.77 1.76 2.85C16:0 (Palmitic)NVIF 0.50 0.20 0.40 0.402012 0.54 0.33 0.45 0.66C18:0 (Stearic)NVIF 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.082012 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.11C18:1n9c (Oleic)NVIF 1.20 0.20 0.05 0.102012 1.21 0.25 0.06 0.27C18:2n6c (Linoleic)NVIF 3.50 0.10 0.60 1.002012 3.05 0.18 0.82 1.64C18:3n3 (α-Linolenic)NVIF 0.20 0.70 0.20 0.102012 0.16 0.93 0.35 0.17TSFANVIF 0.57 0.30 0.45 0.482012 0.64 0.40 0.53 0.77TMUSFANVIF 1.20 0.20 0.05 0.102012 1.24 0.25 0.06 0.27TPUFANVIF 3.70 0.80 0.80 1.102012 3.21 1.12 1.17 1.81Note : Values are expressed as Mean, g/100gTSFA-Total Saturated Fatty Acids;TMUSFA-Total Monounsaturated Fatty Acids; TPUFA-Total Polyunsaturated FattyAcids
  • 77. Fatty Acid Profile of Condiments & Spices_NVIF ComparisonFatty Acids YearChillies, dry(Capsicum annum)Coriander, seeds(Coriandrum sativum)Cumin, seeds(Cuminum cyminum)Total Fat (g/100g)NVIF 17.00 20.00 9.002012 14.27 18.74 21.42C16:0 (Palmitic)NVIF 2.20 0.60 0.302012 2.49 0.82 0.81C18:0 (Stearic)NVIF 0.34 0.10 0.082012 0.39 0.19 0.16C20:0 (Arachidic)NVIF ND ND ND2012 0.06 0.04 0.03C16:1 (Palmitoleic)NVIF ND ND ND2012 0.06 0.04 0.06C18:1n9c (Oleic)NVIF 1.80 12.50 4.702012 1.80 14.48 13.42C18:2n6c (Linoleic)NVIF 9.10 3.00 2.102012 8.56 2.89 6.87C18:3n3 (α-Linolenic)NVIF 0.26 0.02 0.482012 0.51 0.06 0.07TSFANVIF 2.54 0.70 0.382012 3.22 1.23 1.00TMUSFANVIF 1.90 12.50 4.702012 1.98 14.57 13.48TPUFANVIF 9.36 3.02 2.582012 9.07 2.94 6.94Note : Values are expressed as Mean, g/100gTSFA-Total Saturated Fatty Acids;TMUSFA-Total Monounsaturated Fatty Acids; TPUFA-Total Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
  • 78. Fatty Acid Profile of Nuts & Oil Seed_NVIF ComparisonFatty Acids YearCoconut, dry(Cocos nucifera)Ground nut(Arachis hypogea)Mustard Seeds(Brassica nigra)Total Fat (g/100g)NVIF 40.00 40.00 40.002012 53.49 37.72 30.94C8:0 (Caprylic)NVIF ND ND ND2012 3.02 ND NDC10:0 (Capric)NVIF ND ND ND2012 2.87 ND NDC12:0 (Lauric)NVIF ND ND ND2012 25.94 ND NDC14:0 (Myristic)NVIF ND ND ND2012 10.77 ND NDC16:0 (Palmitic)NVIF 8.00 3.50 0.402012 4.51 4.34 0.85C18:0 (Stearic)NVIF 4.00 1.70 0.202012 1.41 1.36 0.38C18:1n9c (Oleic)NVIF 3.20 21.00 5.002012 3.88 17.32 3.56C22:1n9 (Erucic)NVIF ND ND 22.002012 ND ND 13.81C18:2n6c (Linoleic)NVIF 0.60 10.00 5.002012 1.01 12.00 4.90C18:3n3 (α-Linolenic)NVIF ND 0.20 3.502012 ND ND 3.28TSFANVIF 36.00 8.80 2.002012 48.60 8.03 2.05TMUSFANVIF 3.20 21.00 27.002012 3.88 17.69 19.83TPUFANVIF 0.60 10.20 8.502012 1.01 12.00 9.06
  • 79. RIDGE GOURD - 69.1FATTY ACIDS EI WI NI SI NE CI AVG. SDC14:0 Myristic 1.01 0.64 0.54 1.07 0.51 0.47 0.71 0.27C16:0 Palmitic 36.27 46.63 36.17 57.46 39.96 34.72 41.87 8.77C18:0 Stearic 5.47 6.73 4.93 8.40 5.83 4.81 6.03 1.35C20:0 Arachidic 0.99 1.23 0.87 1.43 1.08 1.15 1.12 0.19C22:0 Behenic 1.52 1.41 1.40 1.72 1.59 1.32 1.49 0.15C24:0 Lignoceric 1.99 2.08 1.75 2.44 2.41 1.80 2.08 0.29C16:1 Palmitoleic 0.64 1.53 0.60 1.28 1.83 0.45 1.06 0.57C18:1n9c Oleic 1.49 1.48 1.67 2.24 1.09 2.00 1.66 0.41C18:2n6c Linoleic 26.24 23.87 24.36 17.22 23.46 24.27 23.24 3.10C18:3n3 α - Linolenic 24.39 14.39 27.71 6.73 22.25 29.00 20.75 8.59TSFA 47.25 58.73 45.65 72.53 51.37 44.28 53.30 10.76TMUFA 2.12 3.01 2.27 3.52 2.93 2.45 2.72 0.53TPUFA 50.63 38.26 52.08 23.96 45.71 53.27 43.98 11.25
  • 80. COW PEA - 96.1FATTY ACIDS CI EI NI NE WI SI AVE. SDC16:0 PALMITIC 25.23 25.50 15.19 24.21 25.57 25.83 23.59 4.15C18:0 STEARIC 3.98 3.43 3.28 3.88 3.68 3.76 3.67 0.27C20:0 ARACHIDIC 0.72 0.48 0.34 0.66 0.72 0.68 0.60 0.16C22:0 BEHENIC 1.40 0.72 0.58 1.23 1.30 1.35 1.10 0.35C24:0 LIGNOCERIC 0.43 0.28 0.21 0.39 0.50 0.47 0.38 0.11C18:1n9c OLEIC 7.80 5.90 15.25 8.89 6.25 6.58 8.45 3.51C20:1n9 EICOSAENOIC 0.33 0.28 0.20 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.27 0.04C18:2n6c LINOLEIC 38.77 38.63 52.55 41.27 38.18 37.98 41.23 5.67C18:3n3 LINOLENIC 21.34 24.77 12.40 19.22 23.53 23.05 20.72 4.51TSFA 31.76 30.42 19.60 30.37 31.77 32.10 29.33 4.83TMUFA 8.13 6.18 15.45 9.13 6.52 6.87 8.71 3.48TPUFA 60.11 63.40 64.96 60.49 61.71 61.04 61.95 1.87
  • 81. I.D. REGION SAMPLE NAMECampesterol Stigmasterol b Sitosterolmg/100g11 CI Chillies dry 23.42 5.93 104.3911 NE Chillies dry 16.88 4.54 86.7311 WI Chillies dry 13.56 4.55 78.5111 SI Chillies dry 14.64 4.76 83.4611 NI Chillies dry 12.91 6.75 59.6411 EI Chillies dry 16.53 5.49 84.61Min. 12.91 4.54 59.64Max. 23.42 6.75 104.39Avg. 16.32 5.34 82.89SD 3.82 0.89 14.42Inter-regional Variations in Phytosterols
  • 82. I.D. REGION SAMPLE NAMECampesterol Stigmasterol b Sitosterolmg/100g29 CI Onion(big) 5.27 1.83 31.3229 NE Onion(big) 4.00 3.64 52.7229 WI Onion(big) 3.89 1.02 38.7329 EI Onion(big) 3.32 3.15 50.9729 SI Onion(big) 3.20 3.50 55.1129 NI Onion(big) 5.17 2.28 66.84Min. 3.20 1.02 31.32Max. 5.27 3.64 66.84Avg. 4.14 2.57 49.28SD 0.89 1.04 12.58
  • 83. I.D. REGION SAMPLE NAMECampesterol Stigmasterol b Sitosterolmg/100g32 CI Plantain,green 11.5 17.3 64.2232 NI Plantain,green 12.27 18.92 67.1132 NE Plantain,green 6.12 13.69 48.6732 WI Plantain,green 5.17 3.84 41.5632 EI Plantain,green 11.04 18.77 58.6432 SI Plantain,green 7.91 6.41 56.40Min. 5.17 3.84 41.56Max. 12.27 18.92 67.11Avg. 9.00 13.16 56.10SD 3.01 6.55 9.60
  • 84. S.NoName of the Sample nSuper oxide radical activity DPPH inhibition activity FRAPLipid soluble(nmol/gTEAC)Watersoluble(nmol/gAEAC)Lipidsoluble%DPPHWatersoluble%DPPH(mg/100gAEAC)1Cauliflower(Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)8 319±198 655±872 25.39±5.44 22.75±5.13 15.85±14.122Cluster beans(Cyamopsis tetragonobola)5 1502±536 2722±1386 27.45±5.80 12.09±1.84 6.26±5.223Cucumber(Cucumis sativus)15 110±66 128±163 23.10±5.60 11.89±2.93 4.59±3.394Field beans, tender(Vicia faba)7 900±505 4261±5753 17.09±2.33 14.09±0.99 5.70±2.665French beans(Phaseolus vulgaris)6 191±102 252±301 21.18±2.46 18.59±1.47 5.36±7.186Kovai(Coccinia cordifolia)7 150±60 149±67 16.82±1.28 8.54±1.20 10.29±11.647Ladies fingers(Abelmoschus esculentus)6 339±131 559±268 38.07±5.47 12.69±2.59 9.40±14.28Pumpkin(Cucurbita maxima)7 85±32 33±21 17.60±1.17 4.75±0.90 7.59±10.999Ridge gourd(Luffa acutangula)9 144±104 138±225 20.72±6.50 14.51±3.38 3.79±2.0410Snake gourd(Trichosanthes anguina)9 78±81 64±111 13.70±2.24 7.52±1.27 4.93±5.06Values are Mean±SD;TEAC-Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity;AEAC-Ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity;FRAP-Ferric reducing antioxidant power.Antioxidant activity of different Vegetables
  • 85. S.NoName of the Sample nSuper oxide radicalactivityDPPH inhibition activity FRAPLipidsoluble(nmol/gTEAC)Watersoluble(nmol/gAEAC)Lipidsoluble%DPPHWatersoluble%DPPH(mg/100gAEAC)1Apple(Malus sylvestris)7 0.39±0.19 0.86±1.53 17.07±2.43 19.80±2.54 4.873±2.812Banana, ripe(Musa paradisiaca)10 341±241 1171±1865 19.18±2.32 18.82±4.05 6.71±5.483Blackberry(Rubus spp.)3 15767±0.00 7293±0.00 57.21±13.07 64.05±1.09 40.04±14.204Grapes(Vitis vinifera)15 3822±4590 909±910 40.59±7.62 34.63±21.24 25.72±17.055Guava(Psidium guajava)4 2293±465 4670±745 51.31±13.38 5.72±0.79 23.72±9.716Jack fruit(Artocarpus heterophyllus)4 476±527 79.86±18.64 21.95±1.65 29.12±18.84 12.41±6.527Mango, ripe(Mangefera indica)18 1205±860 1922±899 26.44±4.17 13.13±2.75 20.03±21.128Sapota(Achras sapota)6 713±198 0.00±0.00 27.52±2.28 70.60±7.84 7.63±4.2Values are Mean±SD;TEAC-Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity;AEAC-Ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity;FRAP-Ferric reducing antioxidant power.Antioxidant activity of different Fruits
  • 86. Aminoacids(g/100gprotein)Bengalgram dhalBengalgram wholeBlack gramdhalBlack gramwholeGreen gramdhalGreen gramwholeHorse gramwholeRed gramdhalRed gramwholeTRY 1.00±0.14 1.11±0.11 1.07±0.07 1.07±0.12 1.11±0.32 0.98±0.27 1.02±0.16 0.70±0.08 0.75±0.12ASP 11.80±0.61 11.66±0.49 11.68±0.63 11.87±0.50 11.64±0.47 11.36±0.89 11.15±0.54 9.93±0.34 9.90±0.19THR 3.40±0.33 3.54±0.29 3.25±0.14 3.40±0.09 3.40±0.12 3.40±0.08 3.72±0.18 3.52±0.25 3.55±0.23SER 4.85±0.88 4.92±0.74 5.57±0.45 5.32±0.61 5.15±0.54 5.32±0.47 5.43±0.97 4.45±0.50 4.47±0.39GLU 18.21±0.50 17.99±0.47 18.6±0.27 17.83±0.20 19.01±0.09 18.45±0.56 18.00±0.33 21.04±0.90 20.57±0.64PRO 3.85±0.11 3.84±0.08 3.90±0.02 3.95±0.13 4.05±0.08 4.48±0.59 4.23±0.54 4.15±0.62 4.14±0.62GLY 3.74±0.19 3.86±0.18 3.48±0.16 3.99±0.12 3.67±0.08 3.79±0.17 4.37±0.29 3.48±0.07 3.57±0.06ALA 4.38±0.20 4.46±0.19 4.60±0.26 4.56±0.29 4.59±0.21 4.69±0.37 4.42±0.29 4.42±0.17 4.47±0.16CYS 1.33±0.08 1.44±0.10 0.72±0.03 0.80±0.06 0.67±0.06 0.70±0.01 1.30±0.05 1.11±0.06 1.13±0.06VAL 4.75±0.69 4.90±0.48 5.41±0.47 5.67±0.70 5.78±0.39 5.47±1.03 4.95±0.49 4.81±0.55 4.83±0.56MET 1.35±0.19 1.43±0.18 1.69±0.19 1.70±0.15 1.34±0.13 1.24±0.18 1.08±0.09 1.06±0.13 1.19±0.14ILU 4.33±0.41 4.37±0.44 4.44±0.38 4.44±0.42 4.60±0.29 4.27±0.54 4.23±0.24 3.84±0.19 3.86±0.28LEU 7.58±0.19 7.67±0.13 8.46±0.18 8.37±0.07 8.22±0.12 7.98±0.11 7.36±0.14 7.12±0.07 7.22±0.21TYR 2.94±0.04 3.03±0.02 3.29±0.10 3.41±0.11 3.01±0.07 3.22±0.07 3.57±0.16 2.76±0.11 2.79±0.03PHE 6.76±0.83 6.76±0.85 7.38±0.68 6.59±0.32 6.44±0.10 6.71±0.42 8.94±0.45 10.20±0.85 9.80±0.65HIS 2.41±0.18 2.43±0.16 2.71±0.16 2.82±0.06 2.62±0.27 2.85±0.05 2.96±0.08 3.35±0.16 3.46±0.11LYS 6.47±0.13 6.62±0.12 6.44±0.21 6.89±0.24 6.89±0.37 7.00±0.06 7.01±0.33 6.39±0.30 6.48±0.13ARG 9.69±1.33 9.12±0.89 6.61±0.58 6.60±0.15 7.09±0.30 7.20±0.15 5.38±0.07 6.52±0.54 6.50±0.36Total AA 98.86±0.28 99.15±0.07 99.3±0.47 99.27±0.08 99.29±0.22 99.08±0.12 99.12±0.41 98.83±0.12 98.66±1.00Values are Mean±SDAmino acid composition of different pulses and legumes (g/100g of protein)
  • 87. AminoacidsBajra Jowar Rice flakes Rice puffedWheat flour(Refined)Wheat flour(whole)WheatsemolinaWheat wholeTRY 1.19±0.26 1.24±0.15 1.18±0.03 1.27±0.10 0.67±0.62 0.75±0.66 0.79±0.68 1.39±0.10ASP 8.65±0.78 6.93±0.23 9.18±0.32 9.11±0.48 4.87±0.48 5.58±0.20 5.37±0.25 5.45±0.22THR 3.96±0.29 3.13±0.02 3.21±0.38 3.43±0.29 2.64±0.22 2.90±0.11 2.89±0.14 3.00±0.12SER 4.76±0.43 4.06±0.49 4.22±0.26 4.60±0.43 4.38±0.56 4.36±0.99 4.42±0.80 3.97±0.18GLU 19.42±0.90 20.87±0.08 19.15±0.44 19.06±0.44 33.17±0.67 31.00±0.87 31.24±0.77 28.54±0.68PRO 5.90±0.27 7.63±0.02 4.35±0.08 4.38±0.49 10.60±0.13 9.68±0.10 9.75±0.27 10.21±1.24GLY 3.86±0.32 3.14±0.08 4.46±0.08 4.20±0.16 3.62±0.07 4.00±0.08 3.83±0.23 4.17±0.08ALA 8.15± 0.47 9.02±0.29 5.97±0.30 5.81±0.36 3.15±0.19 3.67±0.21 3.48±0.23 3.63±0.13CYS 1.85±0.20 1.56±0.09 2.30±0.11 1.99±0.03 2.18±0.12 2.09±0.03 2.05±0.07 2.20±0.19VAL 5.74±0.54 5.18±0.28 6.59±0.51 6.44±0.45 4.69±0.65 4.91±0.77 4.89±0.61 5.53±0.23MET 2.60±0.33 1.98±0.44 2.24±0.96 2.32±0.17 1.66±0.18 1.60±0.17 1.69±0.11 1.72±0.16ILU 3.97±0.28 3.97±0.05 4.33±0.16 4.28±0.15 3.66±0.18 3.54±0.40 3.67±0.24 3.82±0.07LEU 9.47±0.33 13.10±0.32 8.29±0.11 8.14±0.15 6.86±0.04 6.81±0.12 6.89±0.12 6.79±0.14TYR 2.97±0.06 3.77±0.02 4.15±0.16 4.43±0.37 3.12±0.25 3.02±0.18 3.24±0.17 3.14±0.18PHE 5.65±0.80 5.52±0.05 5.46±0.18 5.59±0.19 4.94±0.07 4.91±0.02 4.97±0.09 4.79±0.15HIS 2.42±0.14 2.18±0.18 2.39±0.14 2.21±0.11 2.34±0.34 2.51±0.38 2.55±0.28 2.67±0.25LYS 3.65±0.36 2.24±0.11 3.87±0.31 3.30±0.26 2.40±0.17 2.94±0.35 2.73±0.28 3.12±0.25ARG 5.07±0.52 4.18±0.32 8.02±0.22 7.64±0.23 4.01±0.12 4.72±0.25 4.57±0.20 5.11±0.15Total AA 99.35±0.42 99.77±0.37 99.44±0.40 98.26±1.58 99.09±0.35 99.04±0.40 99.09±0.20 99.35±0.21Amino acid composition of different Cereal grains and its products (g/100g of protein)Values are Mean±SD
  • 88. Amino acid(g/100gprotein)Bengal gram whole Black gram dhal Green gram whole Horse gram whole Red gram dhalMEAN SD NVIF MEAN SD NVIF MEAN SD NVIF MEAN SD NVIF MEAN SD NVIFTRY 1.11 0.11 0.8 1.07 0.07 1.12 0.98 0.27 0.96 1.02 0.16 1.12 0.70 0.08 0.64THR 3.54 0.29 3.52 3.25 0.14 3.52 3.40 0.08 3.2 3.72 0.18 3.68 3.52 0.25 3.2CYS 1.44 0.10 1.28 0.72 0.03 1.28 0.70 0.01 0.96 1.30 0.05 2.08 1.11 0.06 0.96VAL 4.90 0.48 4.96 5.41 0.47 4.96 5.47 1.03 5.12 4.95 0.49 6.24 4.81 0.55 4.16MET 1.43 0.18 1.28 1.69 0.19 1.44 1.24 0.18 1.28 1.08 0.09 1.12 1.06 0.13 0.96ILU 4.37 0.44 5.12 4.44 0.38 5.44 4.27 0.54 5.6 4.23 0.24 5.92 3.84 0.19 4.0LEU 7.67 0.13 9.28 8.46 0.18 8.0 7.98 0.11 8.16 7.36 0.14 8.64 7.12 0.07 7.2TYR 3.03 0.02 2.88 3.29 0.10 2.24 3.22 0.07 1.6 3.57 0.16 3.5 2.76 0.11 2.08PHE 6.76 0.85 5.76 7.38 0.68 4.96 6.71 0.42 5.6 8.94 0.45 6.08 10.20 0.85 7.36HIS 2.43 0.16 2.56 2.71 0.16 2.72 2.85 0.05 2.72 2.96 0.08 3.04 3.35 0.16 4.0LYS 6.62 0.12 7.04 6.44 0.21 6.4 7.00 0.06 7.36 7.01 0.33 8.32 6.39 0.30 7.68ARG 9.12 0.89 9.12 6.61 0.58 8.32 7.20 0.15 8.0 5.38 0.07 8.48 6.52 0.54 5.76Total AA 52.42 3.77 53.6 51.47 3.19 50.4 51.02 2.97 50.56 51.52 2.44 58.22 51.38 3.29 48Comparison of amino acid composition data with existing NVIF database-LegumesNVIF- Nutritive Value of Indian Foods
  • 89. Amino acid(g/100gproteinBajra(Pennisetum typhoideum)Jowar(Sorghum vulgare)Wheat flour (Refined)(Triticum aestivum)Wheat whole(Triticum aestivum)MEAN SD NVIF MEAN SD NVIF MEAN SD NVIF MEAN SD NVIFTRY 1.19 0.26 1.76 1.24 0.15 1.12 0.67 0.62 0.96 1.39 0.10 1.12THR 3.96 0.29 3.84 3.13 0.02 3.36 2.64 0.22 2.4 3.00 0.12 2.88CYS 1.85 0.20 1.76 1.56 0.09 1.44 2.18 0.12 2.24 2.20 0.19 2.24VAL 5.74 0.54 5.28 5.18 0.28 5.44 4.69 0.65 3.84 5.53 0.23 4.48MET 2.60 0.33 2.4 1.98 0.44 1.6 1.66 0.18 1.44 1.72 0.16 1.44ILU 3.97 0.28 4.16 3.97 0.05 4.32 3.66 0.18 3.52 3.82 0.07 3.52LEU 9.47 0.33 12.0 13.10 0.32 2.88 6.86 0.04 6.4 6.79 0.14 6.56TYR 2.97 0.06 3.2 3.77 0.02 2.88 3.12 0.25 2.08 3.14 0.18 2.88PHE 5.65 0.80 4.64 5.52 0.05 4.8 4.94 0.07 4.64 4.79 0.15 4.48HIS 2.42 0.14 2.24 2.18 0.18 2.56 2.34 0.34 1.92 2.67 0.25 2.08LYS 3.65 0.36 3.04 2.24 0.11 2.4 2.40 0.17 1.76 3.12 0.25 2.72ARG 5.07 0.52 4.8 4.18 0.32 3.84 4.01 0.12 3.04 5.11 0.15 4.64Total AA 48.54 4.11 49.12 48.05 2.03 36.64 39.17 2.96 34.24 43.28 1.99 39.04NVIF- Nutritive Value of Indian FoodsComparison of amino acid composition data with existing NVIF database-Cereal grains
  • 90. Sampling for fish and meat• Fish and other sea foods will be sampled onlyfrom the coastal districts of the country• Fresh water fish – Rohu, Katla and catfish willbe sampled from the six compositing centersonly• Meat and meat products will also be sampledfrom the six compositing centers
  • 91. MAJOR AND MINOR EQUIPMENTSREQUIRED• LCMS – 1• Kjeldahl nitrogen analyzer – 1• AAS – 1• Fast HPLC – 3• 100 KVA UPS• Muffle furnace – 2• Autoclave – 2• BOD incubator – 1• Weighing balances – 0.1 mg – 4, 0.01 mg – 4• Multi position magnetic stirrer - 10
  • 92. Conclusion• New food composition data showed distinct changes inthe nutrient composition compared to the NVIF• Regional variations are observed in the nutrients withinindividual foods• Many additional nutrients and bioactive substancesare included in the new food composition database• The Indian Food Composition Database is beingprepared in consonant with internationally setguidelines.• The New Indian Food Composition Database should beready for release by December 2013 hopefully.