Several varieties/cultivars of one plant food may be consumed by the population, however most national food composition database provides value for only one cultivar or average across several varieties or cultivars thereby masking important information about nutrient diversity in foods
In food and nutrient insecure country like Inida intake of one variety over another can make the difference over nutrient deficiency and adequacy
Low GI foods does not overburden insulin secretion therefore It is recommended for diabetes and in weight loss program
Food systems methodology and the importance of capturing icdam 2012
T. LongvahNational Institute of NutritionHyderabad – 500 007AP India* Food systems methodology and theimportance of capturingbiodiversity in dietary assessments– India’s experience
**Home to 1.2 billion people*India is one of the 17 megadiverse countries that is hoststo 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of all avian, 6.2% of allreptilian, 4.4% of all amphibian, 11.7% of all piscine, and6.0% of all flowering plant species.*The Indian economy is the worlds eleventh-largestby nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing powerparity (PPP).*Yet India continues to face the challengesof poverty, illiteracy,, malnourishment and inadequatehealthcare.
*Established in 1972 the bureau is currently in operation inthe States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala,Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, UttarPradesh and West Bengal with the following objectives:1) To collect, on a continuous basis, data on dietarypattern and nutritional status of the Indian population2) To periodically evaluate the on-going National NutritionProgrammes to identify their strengths and weaknesses,and to recommend appropriate corrective measures.
**Cross sectional community based survey in 10 states*Selected villages spread over natural geographic regionsof the states*120 villages covered in each state of which 90 are frombaseline (1975-79), first repeat (1988 – 90) and secondrepeat (1996 -97) and the remaining 30 are fresh villages*15629 households covered for anthropometry, clinicalexamination and history of morbidity in 2011 survey*Diet survey carried out in every alternate householdcovered for nutritional assessment
**Combination of 24 hour recall + weighmentmethod used for diet surveys*Diets Survey carried out in all seasons of theyear*Appropriate and useful across a wide rangeof population therefore suitable for nationaldietary assessment*NNMB data is the only nationallyrepresentative dietary survey available in thecountry*Captures time trends of food and nutrientintakes as well as changes in food supply
*Cereals and grain products:27 (27)Pulses and legumes: 19 (19)Leafy vegetables: 67 (49)Roots and tubers: 22 (21)Other vegetables: 51 (45)Nuts and oilseed: 24 (16)Condiments and spices: 23(20)Fruits: 72 (40)Fish and seafoods: 85 (68)Meat and poultry: 20 (18)Milk and milk products: 15(15)Fats and edible oils: 16 (14)Sugars; 8 (5)Beverages (Alcoholic); 3Beverages (Non alcoholic): 2Less familiar foods: 140
**Provides detailed information on the food andnutrient intake of the Indian population*Captures the different varieties of commonlyconsumed foods within food groups*Captures different types of cooking oils*Captures fish varieties*Does not capture the neglected underutilizedfood species*Fails to capture seasonal changes in foodsupply*Fails to differentiate varieties within species
**The PDS is the key element in the food securitysystem in India particularly for the poor.*Instrument for ensuring availability of food grainsmainly rice, wheat, sugar and kerosene at subsidizedrates*Government of India introduced the Targeted PDS in1997 to provide highly subsidized food grains to thosebelow the poverty line.*Budgetary allocation for food subsidy during the year2010-11 was US $ 11.1 billion*Major instrument in the government’s anti povertyprogramme the TPDS supports over 400 million Indiansbelow the poverty line*Provides cheap calories to the households
**The green revolution packages during the 1960’s, increasedper capita incomes and PDS brought a tremendous change inthe people’s diet*The low price of subsidized rice and wheat led to a decreaseconsumer demand of millets*This led to producer shift from traditional crops mostly rain feddry land crops towards high value water intensive crops.*Shift from locally available, wild, farm, leafy and otherseasonal vegetables to some common vegetables*Loss in food biodiversity and important germplasm*Overdependence of population on too few crops
**Food composition data provide detailedinformation on the nutritional composition offoods*FCT are used in a variety of ways by a spectrumof users*Data on what is actually present in foods arecritical for those involved in nutrition research,epidemiological studies and productdevelopment as well as for developinggovernment policies regarding health, nutritionand agriculture.
**A probability-based (PPS)) National sampling plan wasdeveloped to sample and analyse foods consumed in thecountry wherein the country was divided into six regions(North, South, East, West, Central and Northeast) withroughly equal populations*Each region comprises of states and the sample size of eachstate was based on the number of districts in the particularstate.*Population proportionate to size stratified sampling methodwas applied for the selection of districts within the statesbased on the number of natural geographical regions (NGR) ineach state.*Wherever NGR was not available in the state, administrativeregions as followed by the state was taken for stratifiedsampling.*Sampling units in each district is the biggest town.*Primary sampling units in each town is a retail outlet
High GILow GI404550556065707580BlackglutinousWhiteglutinousNajdainganh-TaobamChuilonNandiMaibaDurgpatTaobamChangngatMolpheiLangmai/DaimeiBungnaTaobamNagdai-ChuilonNagduina-ChuilonTongnau-NapNaganadNapdoinNepaliRiceMachangGLYCEMIC INDEX OF RICE LANDRACES
**Nutrient content can vary widely within speciestherefore the consumption of different varieties orbreeds can have a significant impact on nutritionaladequacy.*Differences in the nutrient composition within speciescan have large influence on data interpretation*Cultivar specific nutrient data can be the key todevise food based nutrition intervention strategies asthe key for addressing global hunger, micronutrientmalnutrition and chronic degenerative diseases*Capturing biodiversity in diet surveys will also be animportant step towards understanding the impact ofbiodiversity on food and nutrition security*Capturing food cultivar specific data in diet surveys isthe need of the day