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Personal Care Ingredients Glossary
 

Personal Care Ingredients Glossary

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    Personal Care Ingredients Glossary Personal Care Ingredients Glossary Document Transcript

    • Glossary of Personal Care Terms and InGredIenTs This glossary includes general terms used in connection with the science behind Shaklee skin and hair care products, and an extensive listing of ingredients currently used in the Enfuselle®, Minerelles®, Meadow Blend®, and ProSanté® product lines. Additional information on each of these lines can be found in the System Overview Product Briefs located at www.shaklee.net. A Accelerated Aging Changes in the appearance of the skin as a result of accumulated damage from free radical reactions due to exposure to ultraviolet light and environmental pollutants. The visible signs of accelerated aging include lines and wrinkles, blotchy discolorations, loss of firmness, and dry, flaky skin. (See Chronological Aging.) Acetylated Lanolin Alcohol An emollient ester of lanolin. Acrylates/Cl 0-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer A stabilizing and thickening agent that also serves as a skin conditioner. Acrylates/Hydroxyesters Acrylates Copolymer A fast-drying, non-hygroscopic (does not absorb water), flexible polymer that provides easy styling with significant holding strength and ease of combing. Acrylates Octylacrylamide Copolymer A film former. Active Hairs Hairs that are actively growing. In scientific terminology, this phase of hair growth is called the anagen phase. Alcohol The “alcohol” in skin care products that sometimes causes concern is Ethyl Alcohol. In this form (also known as Ethanol or SD Alcohol 40), alcohol is used as a solvent and can cause drying and skin sensitivity. The only Enfuselle product to include alcohol in this form is Acne Clarifying Complex™. Another group of ingredients (see Cetearyl Alcohol, Cetyl Alcohol, Coconut Alcohol, and Stearyl Alcohol) is comprised of “fatty alcohols,” which are used as emollients to actually help moisturize the skin. In addition, Benzyl Alcohol is an important ingredient in Enfuselle’s patented, non-irritating preservative system. Algae Extract An extract of sea algae, a natural botanical found in the sea. This extract hydrates the skin while it soothes and calms. Aloe barbadensis Leaf Juice The liquid pressed from the leaf of the aloe vera plant, also known as the “first-aid plant.” Long known for its skin-soothing, softening, and anti-irritant properties. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 1
    • Alpha-Glucan Oligosaccharide A complex sugar that has been reported to selectively enhance the growth of beneficial skin microflora and nurture the skin’s natural protective system. Alumina A natural mineral (aluminum oxide) used to stabilize skin care products. Aluminum Powder CI 77000 A mineral colorant. Aminomethyl Propanol A highly purified buffer used to adjust pH in personal care products, especially hair styling products. Ammonium Laureth Sulfate A compound that gently breaks up and holds oils and soil. (NOTE: Enfuselle and ProSanté products do NOT contain Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or Sodium Laureth Sulfate.) Antioxidant(s) A unique group of vitamins, minerals, and plant-derived nutrients that work with the body’s natural protective mechanisms to block and/or interrupt free radical reactions that can compromise cell integrity and damage the surface of the skin, scalp, and/or hair. Arctium lappa Root Extract A botanical extract of burdock root, which has been shown to be high in naturally occurring sugars and minerals. Aids in the normalization of sebum levels on the surface of the skin. Arnica montana Flower Extract Arnica is known to stimulate blood circulation. Ascorbic Acid Commonly known as vitamin C, Ascorbic Acid is a water-soluble nutrient found in many fruits and vegetables. In skin care products, vitamin C acts as an antioxidant, helps to promote skin firmness and elasticity, and aids in creating even skin tone. Vitamin C is an important component of Vital Repair+®, the triple-patented nourishing complex found exclusively in Enfuselle products. Ascorbyl Palmitate A unique form of vitamin C that dissolves easily in a non-water environment. Vitamin C is an important component of Vital Repair+ the triple-patented nourishing complex found exclusively in Enfuselle products. Astringent In addition to making the skin feel refreshed, astringents give skin a tighter and firmer look and feel. Avena sativa (Oat) Kernal Extract (Beta Glucan) A naturally occurring form of glucose (sugar), which provides antioxidant benefits as and is exceptionally soothing, to minimize environmental irritation. Beta Glucan is an important component of Vital Repair+, the triple-patented nourishing complex. Avena sativa (Oat) Kernel Flower Oat flower is rich in proteins, lipids, and beta glucan and provides calming, soothing, and antioxidant properties. B Beech Tree Bud Extract See Fagus sylvatica (Beech Tree Bud) Extract. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 2
    • Beeswax A natural ingredient derived from honeycombs, beeswax thickens and adds “body” to skin care products. The only Enfuselle products that contain Beeswax are Hydrating Moisturizer and Lip Treatment SPF 15. Also, Minerelles® Eye Pencils and Lip Pencils contain Beeswax. Behentrimonium Chloride A conditioning agent for hair that helps reduce “fly-aways” while increasing combability. Benzophenone-3 A highly efficient, waterproof sunscreen that absorbs UVA and UVB rays (see Ultraviolet Light). Listed as an “active ingredient” according to over-the-counter drug labeling regulations. Benzyl Alcohol A natural constituent of jasmine, hyacinth, and other plants. The “alcohol” in personal care products that some- times causes concern is Ethyl Alcohol. In this form (also known as Ethanol or SD Alcohol 40), alcohol is used as a solvent and can cause drying and skin sensitivity. The only Enfuselle and ProSanté products to contain alcohol in this form are Enfuselle Acne Clarifying Complex™, ProSanté Nourishing Scalp Treatment, and the ProSanté Finishing Spray. Another group of ingredients (see C14-22 Alkylalcohol, Cetearyl Alcohol, Cetyl Alcohol, Coconut Alcohol, and Stearyl Alcohol) is comprised of “fatty alcohols,” which are used as emollients to actually help mois- turize the skin, scalp, and hair. In addition, Benzyl Alcohol, that is an important ingredient in Shaklee’s patented, non-irritating preservative system, originally developed for Enfuselle skin care products. Bilbery Fruit Extract See Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilbery Fruit) Extract. Bisabolol An exceptionally skin-soothing ingredient that is naturally derived from the herbs chamomile and matricaria. Bismuth Oxychloride CI 77163 A coloring and perlescent agent. Blue 1 CI 42090 A colorant. Blue 1 Lake CI 42090 A colorant. Borage Oil See Borago officinalis (Borage) Oil. Borago officinalis (Borage) Oil The oil expressed from the seeds of the borage herb. Borage oil contains natural emollient properties and essential fatty acids that are important to proper functioning of cell membranes. Botanicals Substances obtained from a plant source. Bronze Powder CI 77400 A mineral amalgam colorant. Bulges in the Cuticle “Blister-like” eruptions in the cuticle of the hair. This is most frequently caused by the application of excessive heat to the hair such as during styling with a blow dryer, curling iron, or straightening iron. Burdock Root Extract See Arctium lappa Root Extract. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 3
    • Butylene Glycol A humectant that is used to create extracts of many botanicals used in skin and hair care products. C C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate An ester of benzoic acid, a naturally occurring component of cherry bark, raspberries, tea, anise, and cassia bark. In skin care products, C12-15 alkyl benzoate acts as a non-comedogenic emollient ester with a light, dry feel that is never greasy or sticky. C12-20 Alkylglucoside A naturally derived cleansing agent and emulsifier that gently breaks up and emulsifies oils and soil so that they can be rinsed away. Adds body to hair and skin care products without feeling heavy or greasy. C14-C16 Olefin Sulfonate A mild cleansing agent that exhibits good foaming characterstics and is biodegradable. C14-22 Alkylalcohol A naturally derived emollient and emulsifier that adds body to hair and skin products without feeling heavy or greasy. C18-36 Acid Glycol Ester An emollient ester. Calcium Lactate A naturally derived astringent and buffering agent used to adjust pH in skin care products. (The only Enfuselle product that contains Calcium Lactate is Infusing Mineral Masque.) Calendula Extract See Calendula officinalis (Calendula) Extract. Calendula officinalis (Calendula) Extract An extract of the pot-marigold herb, which has been shown to help purify the skin. Camellia oleifera (Tea) Extract A natural ingredient with antioxidant and soothing properties. Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Leaf Extract An extract of green tea leaves providing powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Soothes the skin and scalp irritation. Candelilla Wax See Euphorbia cerifera (Candelilla Wax). Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride A naturally derived emollient ester from coconuts and palm kernels that helps the skin retain moisture. Capryloyl Glycine A naturally derived humectant and emollient for skin and scalp that helps maintain the natural pH while also helping to maintain the natural microflora of the skin. Caprylyl Glycol A compound naturally derived from coconut with the unique property of inhibiting microbial growth from bacteria and yeasts and, at the same time, lending exceptional “feel,” or texture that consumers desire. Carbomer An emulsifier, thickening, and stabilizing agent. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 4
    • Carmine CI 75470 A natural red color (pigment). Carnauba Wax See Copernicia cerifera (Carnauba Wax). Castor Seed Oil See Ricinus communis (Castor) Seed Oil. Ceteareth-20 An emulsifier and thickening agent. Cetearyl Ethylhexanoate See Cetearyl Octanoate. Cetearyl Octanoate A light emollient ester that helps skin feel moist and conditioned. Cetyl Acetate A naturally derived emollient ester that improves the look and feel of skin. Cetyl Alcohol A stabilizing and thickening agent. The “alcohol” in skin care products that sometimes causes concern is Ethyl Alcohol. In this form (also known as Ethanol or SD Alcohol 40), alcohol is used as a solvent and can cause drying and skin sensitivity. The only Enfuselle product to include alcohol in this form is Acne Clarifying Complex™. Another group of ingredients (see also Cetearyl Alcohol, Coconut Alcohol, and Stearyl Alcohol) is comprised of “fatty alcohols,” which are used as emollients to actually help moisturize the skin. Benzyl Alcohol that is an important ingredient in Enfuselle’s patented, non-irritating preservative system. Cetyl Dimethicone A silicone-based, “waterproof” emollient that smoothes and protects skin, and never feels sticky or greasy. Cetyl Dimethicone Copolyol A silicone-based emulsifier contained in Enfuselle’s patented sunscreen products. Cetyl Lactate A naturally derived emollient ester that improves the look and feel of skin. (The only Enfuselle product that contains Cetyl Lactate is Hydrating Moisturizer.) Chromium Hydroxide Green CI 77289 A mineral-based colorant. Chromium Oxide Green CI 77288 A mineral-based colorant. Chronological Aging The physical changes to the skin and underlying tissues that occur naturally with the passage of time, including skin thinning, decreased production of natural oils, reduced ability to retain moisture, and loss of elasticity. (See Accelerated Aging.) Cinnamidopropyltrimonium Chloride A specialized ultraviolet light absorber developed specifically for hair care products that protects hair from UV damage. Citric Acid A natural buffering agent used to adjust pH in personal care products. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 5
    • Cocamide DEA Mild cleansing agent derived from coconuts that provides excellent foam boosting, stabilizing, and viscosity-building properties. Cocamidopropyl Betaine A gentle, thorough cleansing and conditioning agent for skin or hair, naturally derived from coconuts. Coco Phosphatidlyl PG-Dimonium Chloride (Sodium Coco PG-Dimonium Chloride Phosphate) A stabilizing agent and preservative, as well as an important component of Enfuselle’s patented, non-irritating preservative system. Coco-Glucoside A naturally derived emollient that helps soften the skin, scalp, and lips, as well as condition the hair. Coconut Alcohol An emollient and stabilizing agent naturally derived from coconuts. The “alcohol” in skin care products that sometimes causes concern is Ethyl Alcohol. In this form (also known as Ethanol or SD Alcohol 40), alcohol is used as a solvent and can cause drying and skin sensitivity. No Enfuselle products contain alcohol in these forms. Another group of ingredients (see also Cetearyl Alcohol, Cetyl Alcohol, Coconut Alcohol, and Stearyl Alcohol) is comprised of “fatty alcohols,” which are used as emollients to actually help moisturize the skin. Benzyl Alcohol is an important ingredient in Enfuselle’s patented, non-irritating preservative system. (The only Enfuselle product, that contains Coconut Alcohol is Moisturizing Shower Gel.) Coconut Oil See Cocos nucifera (Coconut) Oil. Cocos nucifera (Coconut) Oil A natural oil with moisturizing and emollient properties. Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ-10) See Ubiquinone. Collagen The connective tissue found in the dermis (the skin layer under the surface layer, or epidermis) that gives skin its elasticity, strength, and texture (see Elastin). Comedone(s) The scientific term for clogged pores, commonly referred to as pimples or blackheads (see Non-Comedogenic). Copernicia cerifera (Carnauba Wax) A highly refined, vegetable wax obtained from the leaves of the Brazilian wax palm tree. Known to be hypoallergenic, Carnauba Wax is commonly used to add body and texture to personal care products. Copper See Minerals. Copper Powder CI 77400 A natural, mineral-based copper colorant. Corn Gluten See Synthetic Wax, Zea mays (Corn) Gluten. Corn Starch See Zea mays (Corn) Starch. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 6
    • Cortex The inner layer of the hair primarily composed of long chains of keratin protein. It is responsible for the resiliency and curliness of hair. This layer contains the melanin, the natural colorant in hair, and is particularly susceptible to damage. Craters in the Cuticle Holes in the cuticle left behind following abrasion of a bulge. (See Bulges in the Cuticle.) Cuticle The outermost layer of the hair, primarily composed of keratin protein formed into platelets. It provides significant pro- tection for the cortex, which this layer covers. Combing, styling, and chemicals can cause damage and even remove this platelet layer, thereby exposing the cortex and causing the condition known as split ends. (See Split Ends.) Cuticle Abrasion Any process that removes parts of the cuticle, including combing or brushing the hair, as well as the application of heat and harsh chemicals that lift the cuticle, making it more brittle and susceptible to breakage. Cuticle De-cementation Any process that breaks the bonds responsible for holding adjacent cuticle platelets together. The chemicals found in hair colorants, permanent waving solutions, and straighteners are some of the most aggressive sources of cuticle de-cementation. Cyclodextrin A donut-shaped complex sugar molecule that is capable of suspending oil-soluble substances in a water-based solution. (Used in Acne Clarifying Complex™ to deliver Tea Tree Oil to the skin.) Cyclomethicone A versatile, silicone-based emollient that imparts a soft, silky smoothness to the skin, scalp, and hair, and helps retain natural moisture. Cyclopentasiloxane Derived from silica, this silicone fluid has excellent spreadibility and emolliency properties. D Decyl Glucoside A naturally derived cleansing agent and emulsifier that gently breaks up and emulsifies oils and soil so that they can be rinsed away. Adds body to hair and skin care products without feeling heavy or greasy. Decyl Polyglucose A compound that breaks up and holds oils and soil. Widely used in skin care formulas because of its ability to clean gently without irritation. Dextrin A natural starch used as a thickening and gelling agent. Diethylhexyl Adipate An emollient. Diisostearoyl Trimethylolpropane Siloxy Silicate A silicone ester with a silky feel and emollient properties. Dimethicone A versatile, silicone-based emollient that creates a soft, silky-smooth feel to the skin and helps the skin retain natural moisture. Non-comedogenic and “waterproof.” Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 7
    • Dimethicone Copolyol A silicone-based emulsifier that is similar to Cetyl Dimethicone Copolyol. Used in skin and hair care products. In skin care products, it provides a barrier to prevent water loss, while in hair care products it imparts shine and manageability. Dimethicone/Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer An emollient and skin feel modifier. Dipentaerythrityl Hexacaprylate/Hexacaprate A light, dry, non-comedogenic emollient that provides a rich skin feel without oiliness. Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate A soothing agent naturally derived from licorice. Disodium Cocoamphodiacetate A gentle, thorough cleansing and conditioning agent naturally derived from coconuts. Disodium EDTA A stabilizing agent that enhances the effectiveness of preservatives in skin and hair care products. An important com- ponent of Shaklee’s patented, non-irritating preservative system, originally developed for Enfuselle skin care products. Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate A compound that gently breaks up and holds oils and soil to be rinsed away. (Note: Enfuselle and ProSanté prod- ucts do NOT contain Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or Sodium Laureth Sulfate.) DL-Panthenol (Provitamin B5) See Panthenol. E Elastin The connective tissue present with collagen in the dermis (the skin layer under the surface layer or epidermis) that provides the skin with elasticity and resilience (see Collagen). Emollient Any non-water-soluble material that makes the skin softer, smoother, and/or more supple. Emulsifier Any material that helps other materials that are not soluble in one another “mix” and stay mixed. For example, to keep a non-soluble emollient or moisturizer dispersed in a water-based formula, emulsifying ingredients are used. Equisetum arvense (Horsetail) Extract A natural extract known for its invigorating and energizing properties. Ester A compound formed from an alcohol and an acid by eliminating water. Esterification of ingredients can help reduce their potential to cause skin-sensitivity reactions while providing a lighter, more pleasant skin feel than oils. Ethylene Glycol Distearate An emollient that imparts body and pearlescence to personal care products. Ethylene/VA Copolymer An ingredient that has binding, emulsion-stabilizing, and film-forming properties. Ethylhexyl Palmitate (Octyl Palmitate) A light, non-greasy, non-comedogenic emollient ester. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 8
    • Ethylhexyl (Octyl) Salicylate See Octyl Salicylate. Ethylhexyl Stearate (Octyl Stearate) A light, dry, non-comedogenic emollient ester that creates a smooth, silky feel on the skin. Ethylhexylglycerin A natural preservative sourced from vegetables. Euphorbia cerifera (Candelilla Wax) A highly refined, vegetable wax sourced from the candelilla plant. Has naturally emollient properties and adds body and texture to personal care products. Exfoliation The process of removing dull-looking, dry, and damaged cells from the surface of the skin, leaving it fresher, smoother, and brighter. Shaving also exfoliates the skin. Extract A concentrated solution that contains the essential components of a complex material, usually a botanical, obtained by an extraction process. F Fagus sylvatica (Beech Tree Bud) Extract A botanical extract that gently encourages cell turnover but does not trigger the irritation that is often associated with the use of alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs). Ferric Ammonium Ferrocyanide CI 77510 A coloring agent. Ferric Ferrocyanide CI 77510 A coloring agent. Follicles The portion of the skin that is responsible for the growth of hair. It is a complex structure commonly composed of a hair and its component parts, such as the hair bulb. It also includes a sebaceous gland and the follicular wall that separates the hair from the surrounding skin tissue. Fragrance Any natural or synthetic substance used solely to create a pleasant odor in a personal care product. Free Radicals When a molecule loses one electron, it becomes an unstable particle known as a free radical. Once a free radical is created, it seeks to restore molecular balance by taking an electron from another molecule, creating a new free radical in the process. As each newly generated free radical looks for a replacement electron, a chain reaction is triggered, creating many different kinds of free radicals that each possesses different skin, scalp, and hair- damaging potential. UV radiation and environmental pollutants are the primary sources of free radicals that can damage the surface of your skin and hair. The extremely damaging hydroxyl radical is generated when the iron in tap water reacts with the hydrogen peroxide naturally found in skin tissues. Fruit Wax See Rhus succedanea Fruit Wax. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 9
    • G Galactoarabinan A complex sugar molecule that has been shown to help reduce skin and scalp irritation. Gentiana luten Root Extract Natural extract with astringent properties. Ginger Root Extract See Zingiber officinale Root (Ginger) Extract. Ginger Root Oil See Zingiber officinale (Ginger) Root Oil. Ginseng Root Extract An extract of the root of the ginseng plant that leaves skin and scalp feeling soothed and refreshed. See Panax ginseng Root Extract. Gluconolactone A compound derived from a natural fermentation process used to enhance moisturization. Glucose Glutamate A naturally derived humectant from grape and corn sugars. Glycerin An excellent humectant that also helps skin care products to spread more easily. Glyceryl Isostearate An emulsifier and thickening agent. (The only Enfuselle product which contains Glyceryl Isostearate is Hydrating Moisturizer.) Glyceryl Oleate An emollient and emulsifier that adds body to skin and hair care products without feeling heavy or greasy. Glyceryl Polymethacrylate A skin-smoothing humectant. Glyceryl Stearate A non-comedogenic emollient and emulsifier that adds body to skin and hair care products without feeling heavy or greasy. Glycine soja (Soybean) Sterol A naturally derived emollient with dispersing and emulsifying properties. Glycol Stearate An emollient and emulsifier. Grape Extract A component of a mixture of natural extracts that have been shown to even and clarify skin tone. Grape Seed Extract See Vitis vinifera (Grape Seed) Extract. Green Tea Extract See Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extract. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 10
    • H 1,2-hexanediol A compound formulated from alpha lipoic acid, an antioxidant; chrysin, a bioflavonoid with anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and vasodilatory properties; diosgenin, a compound that helps maintain healthy blood-cholesterol levels; glucosamine hydrochloride, a naturally sourced compound that retards the progression of joint degeneration; and indole-3-carbinol, a nutrient believed to be helpful in the prevention of various forms of cancer in humans. Hair The proteinaceous structure that grows from a follicle of the skin. There are two types of hair, vellus hairs and terminal hairs. Vellus hairs are those short, transparent hairs covering areas like the forehead, nose, and eyelids. Terminal hairs are those that grow from the scalp and other areas of the body such as the arms, legs, trunk, etc. All hairs are composed of an external cuticle and an inner cortex. Some, but not all, hairs exhibit an innermost structure called a medulla. Hair Bulb The structure at the base of the follicle exhibiting the metabolic activity responsible for the growth of hair. Hair Shaft The full structure of a hair, from the hair bulb to the end furthest from the scalp. Hamarnelis virginiana (Witch Hazel) Distillate A purified extract of the leaves and bark of the Witch Hazel bush. A mild astringent and skin-soothing agent. Hayflower Extract Has skin-conditioning properties. Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) Seed Extract An extract of sunflower seeds that provides antioxidant protection to the hair and scalp. Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil See Equisetum arvense (Horsetail) Extract. Horsetail Extract An emollient and skin-protective agent. Hexyl Laurate A light, dry, non-greasy, non-comedogenic emollient ester and emulsifier. Humectant Any substance that attracts and holds water (hygroscopic). When applied, it will actually draw moisture from the atmosphere into the skin and then help the skin retain that moisture. Hydrogenated Castor Oil (Castor Wax) An emollient derived from the oil of the castor bean (Ricinus communis), which has been modified to eliminate the potential for rancidity. This process creates a wax that thickens and gives “body” to personal care products. Hydrogenated Jojoba Oil (Polished Jojoba Beads) Tiny spheres formed from jojoba oil, which has been modified to create a gentle wax that can be shaped. These unique beadlets are perfectly smooth and round to buff away dulling dry skin cells without irritation. Helps gently unclog pores so skin feels smoothed, refined, and refreshed. Hydrogenated Lecithin A form of lecithin that has been modified to create unique emulsifying and thickening properties in personal care products. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 11
    • Hydrogenated Polyisobutene An emollient and skin-protective agent. Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil A form of vegetable oil — such as soybean oil, corn oil, or sunflower oil — used as an emollient in personal care products. Hydrolized Soy Protein Rich in phytoestrogens and isoflavones, has skin-conditioning properties. Hydroxyethylcellulose A naturally derived thickening agent that adds body to skin and hair care products. Hypoallergenic A claim that indicates that cosmetic, skin care, or personal care product has been tested on individuals with normal and sensitive skin and has demonstrated a minimal risk of irritation or sensitivity. While no product can guarantee that it will never cause allergic reactions, products carrying this claim are less likely to cause reactions than other products. I Iron Oxides CI 77489, CI 77491, CI 77492, or CI 77499 A mineral-based coloring agent. Isoceteth-20 A mild emulsifier and stabilizing agent. Isocetyl Stearate A light, non-comedogenic emollient. Isododecane An emollient and carrier for long-wearing makeup products. Isoeicosane An emollient and carrier for long-wearing makeup products. Isopropyl Lanolate An emollient ester of lanolin. Isopropyl Palmitate An emollient ester of palmitic acid. J Jojoba Seed Oil See Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil. K Kaolin A natural clay (also known as China clay) which absorbs excess skin oils. Keratin The primary protein found in hair, skin (including the scalp), and nails. This protein is characterized by a high number of disulfide (-S-S-) bonds, especially in the case of hair and nails. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 12
    • L Lactic Acid A naturally derived acid commonly used as a buffer to adjust pH in skin care products. Lanolin Alcohol See Lanolin Oil. In this case, the fraction collected is lanolin alcohol, which has emollient and moisturizing properties. Lanolin Oil A natural moisturizer with emulsifying and emollient properties. Lauramine Oxide Has a mild cleansing action. Lauroyl Lysine An ingredient with high oil-absorption value that is used to coat the pigments. This maximizes the coloring powder of pigments and their dispersibility in oils. Lauryl Pyrrolidone A conditioning agent for hair that provides body, shine, and manageability while helping protect against over-processing and damage from perming, bleaching, and coloring of the hair. Lavender Essential Oil A natural essential oil that provides a subtle fragrance to the product and to the body. This essential oil is also known for its healing and soothing properties. Lecithin A natural material derived from the cell membranes of plants such as soy, where it is a component of a mixture of materials responsible for the selective permeability of the cell membrane. Purified lecithin is commonly used to form liposomes. Leptospermum scoparium (Manuka) Oil The oil extracted from the leaves and stems of the Manuka plant with natural skin purifying properties. Manuka Oil helps balance the skin’s microflora and supports the skin’s natural protective system against P. acnes, the organism associated with acne breakouts. Linoleic Acid An omega-6 fatty acid naturally derived from corn and sunflower seed oil. In cosmetics, it is used for its pigment- dispersing, lubricant, and emollient properties. Liposomes Microscopic spheres commonly made of lecithin that act as a delivery system for other ingredients in skin care products by helping to penetrate the surface of the skin. Locust Bean Gum A natural thickening agent derived from the extract of the seed of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). Lysine Hydrochloride The natural salt of lysine (one of the 21 essential amino acids that form the building blocks of protein). Scientific studies have shown that this ingredient soothes and reduces irritation when applied to the lips. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 13
    • M Magnesium Aluminum Silicate A natural mineral used as a thickening and stabilizing agent in skin care products. (The only Enfuselle product that contains Magnesium Aluminum Silicate is Infusing Mineral Masque.) Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate A form of vitamin C that remains stable in water-based skin care products. Vitamin C is an important component of Vital Repair+, the triple-patented nourishing complex exclusively found in Enfuselle products. Magnesium Stearate An ingredient that provides texture and hardness to wax sticks. Manganese See Minerals. Manganese Violet CI 77742 A coloring agent. Manuka Oil See Leptospermum Scoparium Oil. Medulla The innnermost layer of some terminal hairs, such as those of the scalp. This layer of the structure of hair is composed mostly of debris from the formation of the keratin protein of the hair during its growth in the follicle. Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Leaf Oil The essential oil obtained from the leaves of the Australian Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia). Penetrates quickly and supports the skin’s natural healing processes. Also soothes the skin and scalp as it helps reduce the redness caused by acne. Supports a natural balance of microflora found on the scalp. Additionally, It acts as an emollient and moisturizer on the scalp and hair. Melanin The substance found in skin and hair that is responsible for its coloration. Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract Has calming and soothing properties. Menthol A soothing and cooling agent that leaves a refreshing feel when applied to the skin or scalp. Gently stimulates the scalp to energize the skin cells and hair follicles. Soothes scalp irritation. Methyl Stearoxy Dimethicone An emollient that provides spreadibility and soft-skin feel. Mica CI 77019 A natural mineral used to provide shine and some color properties in cosmetics. Microcrystalline Wax A highly refined wax used as a thickening agent in personal care products. Minerals (Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Sodium, and Potassium) Essential minerals necessary for healthy skin, scalp, and hair. Montmorillonite A naturally occuring mineral clay, used in cosmetics for its body, oil-absorption, and soothing properties. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 14
    • Mulberry Root Extract A component of a mixture of natural extracts that have been shown to even and clarify skin tone. N Nasturtium officinalis (Watercress) Extract A botanical extract that helps reduce skin impurities and normalize sebum levels on the surface of the skin. Neopentylglycol Dicaprylate/Dicaprate A light, dry, non-comedogenic emollient ester that provides a rich skin feel without oiliness. Non-Comedogenic A product that will not cause pimples or blackheads by blocking or clogging pores. Nylon 6 An ingredient that provides good color development to coloring pigments. Also provides texture and silky feel to cosmetics. It has great absorption capacity for oil and sebum. Nylon 12 An ingredient that provides good color development to coloring pigments. Also provides texture and silky feel to cosmetics. It has great absorption capacity for oil and sebum. O Oat Beta Glucan See Beta Glucan. Oat Flour A finely milled powder made from oat grain with exceptional skin-soothing properties. Oat Kernal Extract See Avena sativa (Oat) Kernal Extract. Oat Kernal Flower See Avena sativa (Oat) Kernal Flower. Occlusive Occlusive ingredients literally coat the skin and prevent moisture from escaping. Unfortunately, these same moisture sealants (most often oils, including mineral oils and the same vegetable oils used in cooking) also seal up pores, causing the backup of natural oils and dead skin cells that scientists call comedones. Occlusive oils can also interfere with skin’s natural respiration. Octinoxate (Octyl Methoxycinnamate) A highly efficient, waterproof sunscreen that absorbs UVB rays (see Ultraviolet Light). Listed as an “active ingredient” according to over-the-counter drug labeling regulations. Octisalate (Octyl Salicylate) A highly efficient, waterproof sunscreen that absorbs UVB rays (see Ultraviolet Light). Listed as an “active ingredient” according to over-the-counter drug labeling regulations. Also used in hair care products to protect the hair from UV damage. Octyldodecanol A conditioner and emollient that aids in the smooth application of the product. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 15
    • Octyldodecyl Neopentanoate A moderately dry, non-comedogenic emollient ester. (The only Enfuselle product that contains Octyldodecyl Neopentanoate is Hydrating Moisturizer.) Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate A skin-conditioning emollient. Octyl lsononanoate A light, dry, non-comedogenic emollient ester. Ozokerite A highly refined, naturally occurring mineral wax with emollient properties. Used as a thickening agent to provide body in personal care products. P Panax ginseng (Ginseng) Root Extract An extract of the root of the ginseng plant that provides energy to the skin and scalp. Panthenol (Pro-vitamin B5) An antioxidant that dramatically increases the natural ability of the skin and scalp to retain moisture and achieve a smoother appearance. It strengthens the hair and nails, and provides softness and shine to the hair. Panthenol is an important component of both Vital Repair+, the patented nourishing complex exclusively found in Enfuselle products. It also is an important component of Scalp Health Complex, the unique complex of 10 vitamins, minerals, and herbs found in ProSanté products. PEG-10 Dimethicone A skin-conditioning emollient. PEG-100 Stearate An emulsifying and thickening agent. PEG-120 Methyl Glucose Dioleate An emulsifying and thickening agent derived from glucose. PEG-5 Soya Sterol A modified extract of soybeans used as an emollient in personal care products. PEG-6-32 A humectant and moisturizer. PEG-7 Glyceryl Cocoate A mild emulsifying and cleansing agent and emollient derived from coconuts. PEG-7M A humectant and thickening agent. (The only Enfuselle product that contains PEG-7M is Hydrating Moisturizer.) PEG-75 A humectant and stabilizing agent. pH The system used to measure acidity and alkalinity on a scale of 1 to 14, with a truly neutral solution, such as water, at 7. An acid is less than 7 (lemon juice = 2.3), while an alkali is more than 7 (lye = 13). Buffering agents are some- times used to create or maintain a relatively constant pH in a skin care product. The degree of acidity or alkalinity is important in skin care products because pH levels at either end of the spectrum can be irritating to skin. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 16
    • pH Balanced Having or exhibiting a pH in the range of the skin, specifically having a pH in the range of 5.0 to 6.5, so that it does not disturb the natural pH of the skin, hair, or nails. Phenoxyethanol A compound used to keep products safe and fresh, it can be sourced from roses and grapefruit. Also called Rose Ether. Phenyl Trimethicone A silicone-based, “waterproof” emollient that helps protect the skin and scalp, as well as condition and protect the hair. Phospholipids Have emollient properties and are essential components of liposomes. Photo-Aging See Accelerated Aging. Phytantriol A humectant and protectant that helps protect the hair from heat damage from sources such as blow dryers. It also provides long-lasting moisturization of the hair, as well as enhanced strength and resistance to breakage, especially in regards to split ends. Phytic Acid A naturally derived botanical ingredient that neutralizes the free radicals generated when the iron in tap water contacts skin. Polyacrylamide A compound that protects the skin by forming a non-occlusive (see Occlusive) film. Polyglycerol-3 Beeswax An ester of polyglycerol that has emulsifying, moisturizing, and emollient properties. Polyglyceryl-3 Diisostearate An ester of polyglycerol that has emulsifying, moisturizing, and emollient properties. Polyglyceryl-4 Isostearate An emollient and emulsifier. Polyhydroxystearic Acid An emollient and stabilizing agent. Polyisobutene An emollient with moisturizing and water-repellent properties. Polyquaternium-10 (Guar Gum) A natural skin-conditioning agent. Polysilicone 11 A versatile, silicone-based emollient that creates a soft, silky-smooth feel to the skin and helps the skin retain natural moisture. Polysorbate 20 A mild emulsifier and stabilizing agent. Polysorbate 80 A mild emulsifier and stabilizing agent. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 17
    • Polysorbate 60 A mild emulsifier and stabilizing agent. (The only Enfuselle product which contains Polysorbate 60 is Infusing Mineral Masque.) Potassium See Minerals. Potassium Dimethicone Copolyol Panthenyl Phosphate A specialized conditioning agent and emollient for hair containing a derivative of panthenol (panthenyl phosphate). Helps prevent pollution, heat styling, sunlight, and chemical damage to the hair. Potassium Sorbate A preservative and stabilizing agent derived from a natural fermentation process; widely used in skin care products. PPG-15 Stearyl Ether An emollient and stabilizing agent. PPG-20 Methyl Glucose Ether An emulsifier and skin conditioning agent. (The only Enfuselle product that contains PPG-20 Methyl Glucose Ether is Hydrating Moisturizer.) Preservative Any material that helps to slow down or prevent the growth of microorganisms. Propyl Gallate An antioxidant used to stabilize color in cosmetic products. Propylene Glycol A humectant, skin conditioner, and viscosity modifier. In mascara, it helps keep the film on the lashes flexible so that it doesn’t flake. Pro-Vitamin B5 See Panthenol. Propylparaben A preservative and stabilizing agent widely used in personal care products. An important component of Shaklee’s patented, non-irritating preservative system, originally developed for Enfuselle skin care products. PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) A water-soluble, film-forming polymer used in hair styling products to help retain a desired style. Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6) Helps reduce excess oiliness of the skin, scalp, and hair. Q Quaternium-82 Not to be confused with Quaternium-15, this ingredient is a naturally derived conditioning and moisturizing agent for hair. It detangles, allows for improved wet and dry combing, and provides manageability and static control without excess buildup. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 18
    • R Red 40 CI 16035 A coloring agent. Red 27 CI 45410 A coloring agent. Red 30 Lake CI 73360 A coloring agent. Red 6 Lake CI 15850 A coloring agent. Red 7 Lake CI 15850 A coloring agent. Resting Hairs Hairs that are not actively growing. In scientific terms, this is called the telogen phase of the hair-growth cycle. Retinyl Palmitate (Vitamin A Palmitate) Increases skin’s and scalp’s ability to retain moisture, and improves skin elasticity. An important antioxidant that helps minimize damage to the surface of the skin, scalp, and hair caused by exposure to ultraviolet light. Vitamin A is an important component of Vital Repair+, the patented nourishing complex found exclusively in Enfuselle products. Rhus succedanea Fruit Wax An emollient and moisturizer. Ricinus communis (Castor) Seed Oil A natural emollient and lubricant. S Saccharomyces Ferment Natural enzyme made by fermentation of vegetable protein and used to neutralize body odor. Salicylic Acid A gentle exfoliating agent that occurs naturally in the leaves of white willow, wintergreen, sweet birch, and other plants. (The only Enfuselle products that contain Salicylic Acid are Infusing Mineral Masque and Acne Clarifying Complex.) Listed as an active ingredient on Acne Clarifying Masque according to the over-the-counter drug-labeling regulations. Saxifraga stolonifera (Strawberry Geranium) Extract A component of a mixture of natural extracts that have been shown to even and clarify skin tone. Saw Palmetto Fruit Extract See Serenoa serrulata (Saw Palmetto) Fruit Extract. Scalp The skin of the head exhibiting an abundance of follicles from which the hair grows. Scalp Health Complex A combination of 10 important vitamins, minerals, and herbs that creates an environment for healthy hair and comprehensively counterbalances the potential stressors that can interfere with normal, healthy hair follicles. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 19
    • Skullcap See Scutellaria (Skullcap) Root Extact. Scutellaria Extract (Skullcap) Root Extract A component of a mixture of natural extracts that have been shown to even and clarify skin tone. SD Alcohol 40 A special form of Ethyl Alcohol used in formulating the Enfuselle Acne Clarifying Complex™ as a carrier agent to deliver the active ingredient Salicylic Acid. In this targeted treatment formula, SD Alcohol 40-B also helps to remove excess sebum from the surface of the skin and dry up acne blemishes. Also helps balance the skin’s and scalp’s microflora and supports the skin’s protective system against P. acnes, the organism associated with acne breakouts. It is also used in ProSanté Nourishing Scalp Serum and Finishing Spray to deliver these products without stickiness or tackiness, and to improve drying of these products on the scalp and hair. Sea Water Water in which the numerous minerals found in the sea are dissolved. These minerals are present in the form of ions that nourish the skin, such as sodium ions, copper ions, magnesium ions, selenium ions, zinc ions, manganese ions, potassium ions, chloride ions, and sulfate ions. Sebum The natural oil produced by the skin and scalp. It also helps lubricate hair. Too much sebum causes oily skin and hair; too little causes dry skin and scalp, and is one of the sources of dry hair. When mixed with sweat and the microflora of the skin and scalp, it can produce undesirable odors. Serenoa serrulata (Saw Palmetto) Fruit Extract Helps prevent excess oiliness and flaking of the scalp. Sesame Seed Oil See Sesamum indicum (Sesame) Seed Oil. Sesamum indicum (Sesame) Seed Oil A natural oil with emollient and soothing properties. Silica A naturally occurring mineral composed of sodium silicate and used as a stabilizing agent. Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil A lubricant, emollient, moisturizer, and soothing agent. Sodium See Minerals. Sodium Benzoate A natural salt found in a variety of fruits, including cranberries, apples, and plums. Sodium Bicarbonate Also known as baking soda. Used to absorb odor and control the acidity of the product. Sodium Chloride Also known as common table salt, sodium chloride is used in skin care products as a thickener. This salt is naturally present on skin, and is not drying to skin. Sodium Coco PG-Dimonium Chloride Phosphate A preservative and stabilizing agent. An important component of Shaklee’s patented, non-irritating preservative system, originally developed for Enfuselle skin care products. (See also Coco Phosphatidyl PG-Dimmonium Chloride.) Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 20
    • Sodium Cocoyl Amino Acids Amino acids obtained from coconuts that help condition the hair as they bind moisture to the hair. Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate A very mild cleansing agent derived from coconuts. Used in bar cleansers instead of soap because its pH is similar to skin’s natural pH and it lathers well in hard water. Sodium Dehydroacetate A preservative that improves the shelf life of the product. Sodium Hydroxymethylglycinate A special material derived from amino acids and used to keep the product fresh and safe. Sodium Isostearoyl Lactylate A very mild cleansing agent used in bar cleansers instead of soap because its pH is similar to skin’s natural pH and it lathers well in hard water. Sodium Lactate A buffer commonly used to adjust pH in skin care products. Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate A very mild cleansing agent used instead of soap because its pH is similar to skin’s pH. (The only Enfuselle product that contains Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate is Infusing Mineral Masque.) Sodium Lauryl Sulfoacetate A compound that gently breaks up and holds oils and soil to be rinsed away. (Note: Enfuselle and ProSanté products do NOT contain Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or Sodium Laureth Sulfate.) Sodium Methyl Cocoyl Taurate A gentle, thorough cleansing and conditioning agent naturally derived from coconuts. Sodium PCA A humectant that occurs naturally in skin. In skin care products, it boosts skin’s ability to retain natural moisture and helps maintain skin’s natural, slightly acidic pH. Sodium Polyaspartate A protein with excellent humectant properties, capable of binding even more moisture than humectants naturally found in skin, such as hyaluronic acid or pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA). Sodium Stearate A natural vegetable soap that adds structure and allows the product to be shaped into sticks. Sorbic Acid A preservative and stabilizing agent used in skin care products. Sorbic Acid is an important component of Enfuselle’s patented, non-irritating preservative system. Sorbitol A humectant that attracts and binds moisture to the skin. Soybean Oil A natural skin emollient derived from soybeans that is used to create extracts of many botanicals used in skin care products. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 21
    • Split Ends A condition of the hair where the cuticle has been substantially removed, thereby revealing the protein chains of the cortex of the hair. Because these chains are not strongly linked to one another, they tend to split apart making the hair less manageable and less shiny. SPF (Sun Protection Factor) When you wear a sunscreen with an SPF of 15, you have 15 times more protection from the sun than you’d have if you weren’t wearing any sunscreen at all. In other words, if you would burn after 10 minutes in the sun with no protection, an SPF of 15 would allow you to stay in the sun for 150 minutes (two and a half hours) before burn- ing. SPF values are not cumulative; if you combine a moisturizer with SPF 15 with a sunscreen product with SPF 15, your sun protection factor is still 15, not 30. Squalane A natural, non-greasy emollient and moisturizer obtained from olives. Stearamidopropyl Dimethylamine A conditioning agent that binds to the hair without buildup while it improves the substantivity of proteins and conditioners to the hair. Stearamine Oxide An emulsifying and cleansing agent known for its mildness and gentleness on the skin. Steareth-2 An emulsifying and thickening agent. Steareth-21 An emulsifying and thickening agent. Stearic Acid An emulsifying and thickening agent. Stearyldimonium Hydroxypropyl Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein A naturally derived humectant and conditioning agent for hair that provides body, manageability, and static control for improved wet and dry combing. Stearyl Alcohol An emollient, stabilizing, and thickening agent. The “alcohol” in personal care products that sometimes causes concern is Ethyl Alcohol. In this form (also known as Ethanol or SD Alcohol 40), alcohol is used as a solvent and can cause drying and skin sensitivity. The only Enfuselle product to include alcohol in this form is Acne Clarify- ing Complex™. The only ProSanté products to include alcohol in this form are Nourishing Scalp Treatment and Finishing Spray. Another group of ingredients (see C12-22 Alkylalcohol, Cetearyl Alcohol, Coconut Alcohol, and Cetyl Alcohol) is comprised of called “fatty alcohols”, which are used as emollients to actually help moisturize the skin, scalp, and hair. Benzyl Alcohol is an important component of Shaklee’s patented, non-irritating preservative system, originally developed for Enfuselle products. Srawberry Geranium Extract See Saxifraga stolonifera (Strawberry Geranium) Extract. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) An enzyme that is a natural component of the skin’s antioxidant system. Neutralizes the hydroxyl radical (see Free Radicals). Also a source of essential minerals copper, manganese, and zinc. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) is an important component of Vital Repair+, the triple-patented nourishing complex found exclusively in Enfuselle prod- ucts. It is also an important component of Scalp Health Complex, a combination of 10 vitamins, minerals, and herbs found in all ProSanté products. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 22
    • Sunflower Seed Extract See Helianthus annus (Sunflower) Seed Extract. Sunflower Seed Oil See Helianthus annus (Sunflower) Seed Oil. Sweat A fluid composed primarily of water, minerals, and small, water-soluble organic compounds produced by glands in the skin. Although this fluid is primarily intended to help regulate body temperature, when it mixes with sebum and the microflora on the surface of the skin or scalp, undesirable odors often result. Swertia Extract See Swertia japonica Extract. Swertia japonica Extract Gently stimulates blood circulation to the scalp to energize scalp cells and hair follicles. Synthetic Wax, Zea Mays (Corn) Gluten Protein Binder and filler for color cosmetics. T Tea Extract See Camellia oleifera (Tea) Extract. Tea Tree Leaf Oil See Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Leaf Oil. Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate A stable form of vitamin C. Titanium Dioxide A naturally occurring mineral that absorbs and reflects ultraviolet light. Protects against both UVB and UVA rays. Titanium Dioxide CI 77891 A mineral coloring agent and opacifier that also provides some sun protection. Tocopherol (Vitamin E) The front line of your skin’s natural antioxidant defense system. Promotes visibly youthful softness and suppleness. Vitamin E is an important component of Vital Repair+, the triple-patented nourishing complex found exclusively in Enfuselle products. Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E) A form of vitamin E that is more stable than other forms of this vitamin (See Tocopherol). Vitamin E is an important component of Vital Repair+, the triple-patented nourishing complex found in Enfuselle products. It provides frontline antioxidant defense and moisturization for the skin, scalp, and hair. Tribehenin An emollient ester and skin conditioner. Tridecyl Stearate A light, dry, non-comedogenic emollient that provides a rich skin feel without oiliness. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 23
    • Tridecyl Trimellitate A light, dry, non-comedogenic emollient ester that provides a rich skin feel without oiliness. Triethanolamine A highly purified buffer used to adjust pH in personal care products. Trifluoromethyl C1-4 Alkyl Dimethicone A silicone-based emollient and skin protectant. Trilaureth-4 Phosphate An emollient and emulsifier that adds body to skin and hair care products without feeling heavy or greasy. Trisodium EDTA A chelating agent that stabilizes and enhances the effectiveness of preservatives in skin and hair care products. U Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q-10) Powerful antioxidant and important factor for production of energy in cells, including those of the hair follicle. Ultramarines CI 77007 A coloring agent. Ultraviolet Light/Ultraviolet Rays That portion of sunlight that most seriously affects the skin, scalp, and hair, and can even cause permanent damage. Often simply called UV light or rays. UVA rays (the “aging” rays) penetrate the skin and scalp deeply, damaging the underlying dermal collagen and elastin structure that supports the youthful firmness of skin. UVB rays (the “burning” rays) don’t penetrate as deeply, but they are the cause of sunburn. UV rays are now believed to be a major contributing factor in solar-induced skin cancer. These wavelengths are responsible for damage to hair, as well as bleaching of hair color. Undecylenoyl Glycine A naturally derived humectant and emollient for skin that helps maintain the natural pH of the skin and scalp while helping to maintain the natural microflora balance of the skin. V Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilbery Fruit) Extract Grown in the Alps and Scandinavia, the extract of the fruit and leaves of the bilberry provides antioxidant protection and helps to promote a rosy glow. Vertical Cracks in Cuticle Cracks in the cuticle platelets of the hair that run across the platelet. These cracks are most commonly caused by stretching the hair when it is wet, particularly by combing or brushing. Vitamin A See Retinyl Palmitate Vitamin B6 See Pyridoxine Hydrochloride. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 24
    • Vitamin C See Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbyl Palmitate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate Vitamin E (See Tocopherol, Tocopheryl Acetate) Vitis vinifera (Grape Seed) Extract An extract from the seed of grapes (Vitis vinifera). A powerful botanical antioxidant shown to block the production of enzymes that break down collagen. Supports skin’s ability to recapture firmer-looking contours. Grape Seed Extract is an important component of Vital Repair+, the triple-patented nourishing complex exclusively found in Enfuselle products. W Water The ultimate humectant. The living cells of the skin and scalp are composed of 80% of this material. Watercress Extract See Naturtium Officinalis Extract. Wheat Amino Acids A mixture of amino acids from wheat that permeate the hair shaft to improve moisture retention and shine of the hair. Wheat Germamidopropyl Dimonium Hydroxypropyl Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein A substantive conditioning agent and emollient that leaves the hair soft and silky while protecting it from combing, heat styling, and environmental damage. Witch Hazel Distillate See Hamarnelis virginiana (Witch Hazel) Distillate. X Xanthan Gum A thickening agent naturally derived from corn starch. Y Yeast Beta Glucan See Avena sativa (Oat) Kernel Extract. This is the same material, but is obtained from yeast instead of oat. Yeast Extract A natural source of beta glucan. Note: This material is an extract of yeast, not the yeast themselves. Yellow 6 Lake CI 15985 A coloring agent. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 25
    • Z Zea mays (Corn) Gluten See Synthetic Wax. Zea mays (Corn) Starch Corn starch powder is used for its thickening, feel-modifying, and absorbant properties. Zinc See Minerals. Zinc Gluconate A soluble form of the mineral zinc that helps reduce excess oiliness. Zinc Oxide A naturally occurring mineral that absorbs and reflects ultraviolet light. Protects against UVA rays. Zinc PCA (Zinc Pyrrolidine Carboxylate) Helps prevent excess sebum production and moisturizes the scalp and hair. Zingiber officinale (Ginger) Root Extract An extract of ginger root that gently stimulates blood circulation to the scalp in order to energize the cells of the scalp and hair follicles. Zingiber officinale (Ginger) Root Oil The pressed oil of the root of ginger that gently stimulates blood circulation to the scalp to energize the scalp cells and hair follicles. Updated 8/09 09-377 Personal Care Products Ingredient Glossary 26