Art Fundamentals
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Art Fundamentals Art Fundamentals Presentation Transcript

  • Art Fundamentals
    By: Benjamin Selfaison, Kaitlyn Meier, Pheng Her, Anna Ho, Vincent Lopez, and Teresa Le
  • Art of the Western world
    Hot, dry climate of the desert in Egypt enabled the preservation of delicate materials like papyrus
    Sealed atmosphere of a cave/tomb preserved contained objects for our enjoyment and awe later in centuries
    In contrast, humid climate of West Africa – perishable materials have little chance of surviving for long periods of time
    • Civilizations that are most often studied in art history courses are not necessarily those where the most or best were made
    • There are many sites that have not yet been explored, and many artworks have corroded throughout the years due to natural factors
  • Art of the old stone age
    Chauvet Cave paintings in southeastern France (found 1994)– we consider to be the oldest piece of art; dates back to 30,000 B.C.E.
    Consisted of drawings of animals, human hands, & even cavemen
    Supposedly drawn as a part of a ritual or ceremony
  • Art of the old stone age
    Well-known group of artworks – small stone female figures that have exaggerated bellies, breasts, and pubic areas
    Venus of Willendorf(c. 28,000-25,000 B.C.E.)
    About four and one-eighth inches high
    Facial features of the statue are undefined, arms are barely visible, and the feet are missing
    Scholars believe that these statues were fertility figures, though it is still unknown how they are used exactly
  • Uh oh O:
  • Art of the Middle Stone Age
    Culture was developed and produced art similar to cave paintings
    Moved their homes from caves to rock shelters
    Developed in rock shelter
    Portrays humans in groups or alone and humans dominating animals
  • Ancient Mesopotamian Art
    Tigris and Euphrates rivers developed writing and arts parallel with Egypt
    Sumerians created sculptures and building
    Built massive temples at the center of their cities
    Art tends to reflect emphasis on monarchy
  • Ancient Egyptian Art
    Recognizable works: the Sphinx, the great pyramids at Giza, the larger-than-life-statues of the Pharaohs, and portrait head of Queen Nefertiti
    Works determine relative sizes within a work
  • Greek and Roman Art
    Nude female figures were appealing to modern sensibilities
    Legend believed to be half man, half bull who devoured those who entered his maze
    Maze-Royal Place
    Two major forms
    A. Palace walls
    B. Pottery Designs
  • Ancient Greek Art
    During the Archaic period 660-475 B.C.E.
    Greek sculptures – based on Egyptian frontal pose, but were more dynamic and realistic
    Doric: style of column w/ shaft, capital, & entrablature
    Ionic: style of column w/ shaft, entrablature, & capital showing more dimension
    Corinthian: style of column w/ shaft, entrablature, and a more realistic capital
  • Ancient greek art
    Vase paintings
    Some portrayed black silhouetted figures & ornamented background
    Corinthian: set figures against floral
    Athenian: used black/red figure & are more linear and large on scale
    Contrapposto: to show the body to its best advantage
    Architectural decline during the Late Classical Period (400 – 323 B.C.E.) as Athene is defeated in Peloponnesian War
    Hellenistic Period (331 – 323 B.C.E.) blended Greek styles with Asian Minor arts
  • Etruscan art
    Located in what is now Italy in the 1st millennium B.C.E.
    Known for the arts of the tomb’s decoration because it’s the only surviving arts of theirs
    Buildings were made of brick and wood so there are no remains left
    Etruscan’s ceramic showed how their building looks like
  • Roman art
    Early Roman arts are similar to Etruscan
    2nd century – art style change to more of Greek
    Romans discovered concrete that allowed them to make more steerable structures
    Curved arch allowed Romans to build bridges & aqueducts
    Used the style of relief
    During Roman Republic, ppl. Carried portable carvings of their deceases
    Roman arts focused more on idealizing than naturalizing
  • Byzantine and medieval art
    Roman Empire separated into city-states; Byzantine was one of them
    Byzantine arts are best known for its mosaic
    Contructed of ceramic tiles, pieces of stone or glass that were set into a ground material to create large murals
    Hagia Sophia in Constantinople – considered one of the greatest architectural achievements in history
    Medieval Period
    Arts were mostly made for Churches because of civil strife
    Books were so valuable that they were chained to the tables
  • BYZANTINE AND MEDIEVAL ART
    Early Medieval Period (375–1025)
    Nomadic German arts were metal works
    Metal works were abstract, decorative, geometric & often portable
    Similar to Vikings art style
    Late Medieval Art
    Architecture were mostly churches
    Romanesque were stone vaulted buildings
    Barrel Vaulting: multi-vaulting of an arch-shaped structure that is used to support the roof
    Romanesque churches has very few windows so the church looks dim
  • The Renaissance in Southern Europe
  • THE TRANSITION
    Gothic and Renaissance couldn’t be identified during this period of transition.
    What is the Gothic painting style?
    Paintings that had relaxed forms. In the Gothic painting style, there is an emphasis on flowing, curved lines as well as refined decoration. Theme was mostly associated with the church and religion.
    What is the Renaissance style?
    Basically a better, improved version of the Gothic style. It was more realistic, had more depth and perspective. The themes of these art style strayed away from the religion.
  • This is Jesus
  • This is not Jesus
  • Giotto diBondene (1267-1336.5)
    From Florentine
    Was known for his frescos.
    What are frescos?
     “A painting done rapidly in watercolor on wet plaster on a wall or ceiling, so that the colorspenetrate the plaster and become fixed as it dries.” (From Google)
    He used simple overlapping and modeling his figure in the round to create perspective.
    This figures gave powerful gestures/ emotional expressions.
    He had depth in his art.
    his gives a sense of looking into the event.
  • Impacts on the Renaissance
    Economy.
    Paper money
    Rich people would commission artists
    Greek and Roman examples were available.
  • The Role of Artists
    In earlier times, artists/sculptures were considered lower class.
    During the Renaissance, they were well respected and recognized as intellectual figures.
  • Lorenzo Ghiberti (1381-1446)
    Won the competition for the design of the doors for the city’s new baptistery. (< D: AN IMPORTANT EVENT!)
    Designed a door panel with some reference to the Greek style. It was depicted the sacrifice of Issac.
    He was then asked to make a second set for another entrance which took 25 years to complete.
  • This is Isaac
  • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446)
    He was the second place winner.
    He focused more on architecture.
    Won a competition for the dome of the Cathedral in Florence.
    He used a double-shelleddome design.
    Credited devolving linear (single vanishing point) perspective.
    What is linear (single vanishing point) perspective?
    Any perspective that lines up parallel or perpendicular to the viewer’s line of sight.
  • Masaccio (1401-1428)
    Put Brunelleschi’s theory (linear perspective) into practice.
    He used both linear and aerial perspective.
    What is aerial perspective?
    Aerial perspective is the perspective of when an object is viewed from adistance.
  • Donatello (1398-1466)
    He is considered to be the founder of modern sculpture.
    Best known work – “David”
    Put great emphasis on naturalism and expression of character and dramatic action.
  • Botticelli (1444-1510)
    His painting “The Birth of Venus” created an image of female beauty.
    This painting had been oneof thefirst paintings of a nude lady since the time before the Medieval Ages.
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
    He was a: inventor, architect, engineer, painter, sculptor, scientist, and musician.
    Designed locks that controlled movements along canals from one level to the next.
    Designed submarines and helicopters.
    Famous paintings: “Mona Lisa” and “The Last Supper”
    In the “Mona Lisa,” it had the use of sfumato.
    What is sfumato?
    It allows shades/colors to blend into one another, creating fuzzy forms or soft outlines.
  • Michelangelo (1475-1564)
    He was a sculptor.
    There was a competition to create a statue from a giant piece of marble.
    He got a piece with a crack, but he turned it into apiece now known as “David”
    It was originally supposed to go on the façade of the cathedral.
    Pope Julius II commissioned him twice:
    A tomb, but it was canceled.
    To decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
    Took him 4 years
  • Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520)
    He was a young painter.
    Commissioned by Julius II several times.
    He was influenced by Michelangelo, his rival.
    He had helpers.
    Known for the “Sistine Madonna.”
  • Giorgione (1477.5-1510)
    He was a painter from Venice.
    His subject matter was landscape.
    In the painting “The Tempest” the landscape in more important.
  • Titian Vecelli (1488-1576)
    Another painter from Venice.
    He was recognized as great colorist.
    He used backgrounds such as curtains/columns for his backdrops for portraits.
  • Tintoretto (1518-1594)
    Yet another painter from Venice. (Oh goody, tell me more. >-> )
    He is often linked with the Mannerist style.
    What is the Mannerist style?
    It was a style that exaggerated human poses and had unrealistic backgrounds.
    He presented his figures from dramatic angles and used an technique called chiaroscuro.
    What is Chiaroscuro?
    It’s basically shading. (Light and shadows)
    His work was later identified by their spiritual subject matters and use of sharp perspective.
  • The Reformation
    The Reformation impacted the subject matter of 16th century art.
    What is the Reformation?
    A time where the Protestants were fed-up with all of the corruption happening within the Catholic Church.
    This caused people to move away from religious subject matters.
  • DominikosTheotokopoulos A.K.A. El Greco
    The Church launched something that was called a Counter Reformation.
    What is the Counter Reformation?
    It was literally a COUNTER to the REFORMATION. Artists would create powerful/dramatic images of religion and the church.
    El Greco was a person closely associated with the Counter Reformation.
    Was influenced by Tintoretto.
    Painted in Mannerist style.
    His paintings depicted the religious passion of the Counter Reformation.
  • The Renaissance in Northern Europe
  • Influences
    In the 15th century, the north was still in the Gothic Style.
    Less influences towards the classical styles of Greek and Rome.
    Many artists traveled to study at Italy.
    Engravers copied some of the Italian works.
    Many still had a traditional approach.
    Linear perspective traveled more southwards.
  • Matthias Grunewald (1475-1528)
    A painter noted for his religious scenes.
    His famous work was “Isenheim Altarpiece”
  • Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)
    One of the most famous artists in Germany during the German Reformation.
    He was largely influenced to the late gothic style, but when Italian ideas spreaded north he started to use them.
    He wrote about art theories and published woodcuts and copper engravings.
  • Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543)
    A very important portraitist.
    He worked for King Henry VIIIof England.
    He had a talent for presenting details and the psychological character of his subjects.
    He became a standard for more of the 19th century English art.
  • Baroque Art
    The term “baroque” is generally used to refer to artworks from the late sixteenth century through the mid-eighteenth century.
    Baroque artworks tended to be less static than Renaissance.
    For example, baroque is characterized by a greater sense of movement and energy.
    It appealed largely to the emotions, and thus, these artists, influenced by the Counter Reformation, aimed at dramatic and moving appeals to faith.
  • Baroque Art
    Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680):
    Rembrant van Rijn (1606-1669):
    Most important Baroque artist
    Son of a sculptor
    Was a child prodigy who received recognition from the Pope at age 17
    Was a : sculptor, talented architect, painter, and draftsman
    Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
    Dutch artist
    Created some of the best known works of the baroque period
    Was a painter, printmaker,draftsman
    The Night Watch
  • Baroque Art
    Under the rule of Louis XIV that the Académie Royal de Peinture et de Sculpture was established and it soon became a means for imposing aesthetic standards and principles of taste.
    The Spanish Court of King Philip IV of Spain tried to imitate the court of France
    Diego Velázquez( 1599-1660) was a contemporary of Bernini and his work had an influence on the movement we call Impressionism
  • Rococo
    The emphasis was on light-hearted decoration with the use of gold and pastel colors
    Three artists who were considered the masters of the Rococo style
    Jean-Antoine Watteau( 1684-1721)-was the leader of a new generation and the innovator of a new genre of painting called the fête galante
    This depicted members of nobility in elegant contemporary dress enjoying leisure time in the country side.
  • Rococo
    Francois Boucher ( 1684-1721)
    Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806)
    Influenced by Watteau’s delicate style
    His works transformed the characters of classical myth into scenes of the courtly gallantry
    He studied with Boucher, and his works strongly reflect Boucher’s influence
  • Neoclassicism
    The revolution of 1789 in France ushered an era of great change throughout Europe.
    In attempt to hearken back to the democratic ideals of the ancient world, art of this period demonstrated a revival of interest in the art of classical Greece and Rome.
    One artist from this period was Jacques Louis David (1748-1825)- whose paintings, such as the Oath of the Horatiiillustrated republican virtues.
  • Romanticism
    Eugéne Delacroix (1798-1863) was a proponent of Romanticism.
    Romantic painting tended to be highly imaginative and was characterized by an emotional and dreamlike quality.
    Romantics favored feeling over reason.
  • Realism and impressionism
    Realism was a recreation to Neoclassicism and Romanticism
    Realistic style showed the life of ordinary people
    Impressionism largely grew out of dissatisfaction with the rules to be considered a good artist
    ÉdouardManet (1832-83), an impressionist, urged other artists to work “outside the box”
    This lead to technical advances in painting and the style of brushstroke
  • Artists who followed Impressionism took its features in various directions
    Impressionists at this time were not getting enough attention
    Post-Impressionism
    Other Late Nineteenth-Century Developments
  • Post-Impressionism
    Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
    Georges Seurat (1859-1891)
    Dissatisfied w/ lack of solid form
    Suggested that paintings could be reduced to their simplest underlying forms
    Ideas later influenced Cubism in the early 20th century
    Artwork – placed emphasis on the scientific rules of color
    Optical mixing
  • Post-Impressionism
    Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
    Night Café (1888)
    Dutch painter – captured the “bright light” of southern France
    Many well-known works though career was short
    Thought that colors should be intensified to show emotions
    Night Café (1888)
  • POST-impressionism
    Paul Gauguin (1843-1903)
    Outside influences affect the world of art
    The invention of the camera challenged the works of artists even more than before
    Left his wife & family to pursue art career
    Searched for more intense light, clear color, and a more “unschooled” style of art
    Went to Tahiti and painted works that depict the island’s tropical land a native people
  • POST-IMPRESSIONISM
    Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
    In England, artists were dissatisfied w/ the Industrial Revolution & created a new type of art – Art Nouveau
    A mixture of Romantic, archaic, and moralistic elements
    Characterized by depiction of leaves/flowers in flowing, sinuous lines
    Made use of the new influences
    Combined the snapshot style with a Japanese-like perspective
  • The Emergence of modernism
    Henri Matisse (1869-1954)
    20th century – artists are still trying to discover ways to present ideas
    Post-Impressionists attempted to extend the boundaries of color
    Led a group of artists that used intense coloring technique
    Wild use of arbitrary color
    Earned the name of “fauves”
  • Les toits de Collioure(1905)
    Woman with a Hat (1905)
  • The Emergence of modernism
    Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
    Georges Braque (1882-1963)
    • Germany – art developed that emphasized emotional responses
    Worked to develop new system of art
    Broke down & analyzed form in new ways in style – Cubism
    Influenced by the natural African art
    Favored abstract forms over lifelike figures
    Die Brüke
    Includes Ernst Ludwig Kirchner(1880-1938) and Emil Nolde(1867-1956)
    Took Cubists’ ideas and combined it w/ intense feelings of the work of Edvard Munch(1863-1944)
    Became known as Expressionism
  • The emergence of Modernism
    DerBlaue Reiter
    Modern Art in U.S.
    Expressionist group led by Russian artist Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944)
    1933 – painted totally abstract pictures without subject
    Fellow abstract painters: Russian painter Kazimir Malevich (1878-1935) and Dutch artist Piet Mondrian (1872-1944)
    1913 – The Armory Show (arranged by the Barnes Foundation)
    Caused a sensation
    Artworks that were to become landmarks of various European art movements
  • The emergence of modernism
    Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968)
    Added a mustache to a reproduction of the Mona Lisa and gave it an insulting title (LHOOQ, 1919)
    Exhibited a common porcelain urinal (Fountain, 1917)
  • Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon (1907)
    Nude Descending
    a Staircase (1912)
    • Both pieces of art shocked viewers with their challenging approaches to the figure and space.
  • The emergence of Modernism
    Duchamp’s New Idea:
    Surrealists:
    New art category – Ready-mades
    Taking an ordinary object and giving it a new context
    Includes Salvador Dali (1904-89), Rene Magritte (1898-1967), and Joan Miro (1893-1983)
    Portrayed the inner workings of the mind in their art
  • The emergence of modernism
    Bauhaus – school of design
    Established standards for architecture and design that would have a profound influence on the world of art
    Attempted to reconcile industrial mass-manufacture w/ aesthetic form
    Closed by Nazis in 1933
    Many of its faculty, including Josef Albers (1888-1976), a well-known painter, graphic artist, and designer, came to the U.S. and contin. to teach
  • ABstraction
    WWII – Main focus was war, not art
    Artists did serve in military
    New center for international art had emerged – New York
    Abstract Expressionist Movement -1940s
    Willem de Kooning (1904-97), Lee Krasner (1908-84), and Franz Kline (1910-62)
    Aimed at direct presentation of feeling w. an emphasis on dramatic colors & sweeping brushstrokes
  • abstraction
    Abstract Expressionists
    Action paintings
    • Employed dramatic brushstrokes
    Color field paintings
    • Feat. Broad areas of color and simple, often geometric forms
    • Mark Rothko & Josef Albers were color field artists
    Other artists began to return to the style of naturalism
    Jasper Johns (1930-?)
    Robert Rauschenburg (1925-2008)
  • Created works that featured common things
    Created sculptures from cast-off objects he found around him to make “combines”
    Hung his own bed clothes on the wall like a canvas & painted them Bed (1995)
    Abstraction
    Jasper Johns (1900- ? )
    Robert Rauschenburg (1925-2008)
  • POP ART, Minimalism, & photorealism
    1960s Pop Art – incorporation of images of mass culture
    Violated traditional unspoken rules regarding what was the appropriate subject matter for art
    Andy Warhol (1928-87) – Icon of Pop Art
    Popularity – “Rockstar status”
    Soup cans, Brillo boxes, & images of movie stars were created w/ a factory-like silkscreen approach that he used to mock the art world
  • Pop art
    Roy Lichtenstein (1923-97)
    Robert Indiana (1928- ? )
    Adopted imagery of books & recreated them on such a large scale that the pattern of dots used to print them was made massive
    Used stencils that had been originally used to produce commercial signs to create his own artistic messages
  • Minimalism
    Sought to reduce art to its barest essentials
    Emphasized simplication of form and often feat. Monochromatic palettes
    Invention of acrylic paint & airbrush enable Minimalists painters to achieve very precise outlines – “hard-edged painting”
    Frank Stella (1936- ? ) – best known for these entirely non-objective paintings
    David Smith (1906-65) – used stainless steel to sculpt
    Dan Flavin (1933-96) – used neon tubing to sculpt
    Sculptors created large pieces that reflected the sensibility
  • Photorealism
    Hyper-real quality results from the depiction of the subject matter in sharp focus – photograph
    Technique offered a clear contrast to the use of sfumato, developed in the Renaissance, which added a haziness to the contour of painted objects
    Chuck Close (1940 - ? ) – portraits
    Duane Hanson (1925 - 1996) – sculptures
  • Earthworks, installations, and performance
    1970s – art no longer limited to gallery/museum spaces, and many important works of art are departures from traditional formats
    Artists have taken their work to a new scale & developed their artworks in new venues, often out of doors
    Also challenged conventional ideas about art and its function
  • Earthworks
    Christo (1935- ? ) and Jeanne-Claude (1935-2009) worked together – created much interest in Earthworks
    Christo wrapped several well-known monuments in fabric, built a 24 mile long cloth fence in CA, surrounded 11 Florida islands with pink plastic, and set up orange fabric gates on pathways thoughout Central Park
    Requires years or decades of preparation
  • EARTHWORKS
    Christo designs the projects, Jeanne-Claude handles the logistical details that must be addressed to do the work
  • Performance art
    A combination of theater and art in which the artists themselves become the work
    Point is to create a real event in which the audience can participate but that does not result in a fixed, marketable artwork for a museum or living room wall
  • Guerilla Girls
    NY artists that began to work together in 1985
    Wore gorilla masks to conceal their identities
    Used guerilla-warfare tactics – posters, flyers, and public speeches to challenge what they see as an art world dominated by white men
  • Postmodernist art
    Takes many forms across a variety of media
    Tend to reintroduce traditional elements or exaggerate modernist techniques – using them to the extreme
    Often return to earlier styles/periods/references
    Philip Johnson (1906-2005) – leading proponent in Postmodern architecture
    Was known as one of the leading modern architects of the International style
    Suggested idea – one of the functions of art was decoration
    Led to the building of the AT&T (now Sony) building
  • The End.
    Thank You!