Art Fundamentals By: Benjamin Selfaison, Kaitlyn Meier, Pheng Her, Anna Ho, Vincent Lopez, and Teresa Le
Art of the Western world Hot, dry climate of the desert in Egypt enabled the preservation of delicate materials like papyrus Sealed atmosphere of a cave/tomb preserved contained objects for our enjoyment and awe later in centuries In contrast, humid climate of West Africa – perishable materials have little chance of surviving for long periods of time
Civilizations that are most often studied in art history courses are not necessarily those where the most or best were made
There are many sites that have not yet been explored, and many artworks have corroded throughout the years due to natural factors
Art of the old stone age Chauvet Cave paintings in southeastern France (found 1994)– we consider to be the oldest piece of art; dates back to 30,000 B.C.E. Consisted of drawings of animals, human hands, & even cavemen Supposedly drawn as a part of a ritual or ceremony
Art of the old stone age Well-known group of artworks – small stone female figures that have exaggerated bellies, breasts, and pubic areas Venus of Willendorf(c. 28,000-25,000 B.C.E.) About four and one-eighth inches high Facial features of the statue are undefined, arms are barely visible, and the feet are missing Scholars believe that these statues were fertility figures, though it is still unknown how they are used exactly
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Art of the Middle Stone Age Culture was developed and produced art similar to cave paintings Moved their homes from caves to rock shelters Developed in rock shelter Portrays humans in groups or alone and humans dominating animals
Ancient Mesopotamian Art Tigris and Euphrates rivers developed writing and arts parallel with Egypt Sumerians created sculptures and building Built massive temples at the center of their cities Art tends to reflect emphasis on monarchy
Ancient Egyptian Art Recognizable works: the Sphinx, the great pyramids at Giza, the larger-than-life-statues of the Pharaohs, and portrait head of Queen Nefertiti Works determine relative sizes within a work
Greek and Roman Art Nude female figures were appealing to modern sensibilities Legend believed to be half man, half bull who devoured those who entered his maze Maze-Royal Place Two major forms A. Palace walls B. Pottery Designs
Ancient Greek Art During the Archaic period 660-475 B.C.E. Greek sculptures – based on Egyptian frontal pose, but were more dynamic and realistic Doric: style of column w/ shaft, capital, & entrablature Ionic: style of column w/ shaft, entrablature, & capital showing more dimension Corinthian: style of column w/ shaft, entrablature, and a more realistic capital
Ancient greek art Vase paintings Some portrayed black silhouetted figures & ornamented background Corinthian: set figures against floral Athenian: used black/red figure & are more linear and large on scale Contrapposto: to show the body to its best advantage Architectural decline during the Late Classical Period (400 – 323 B.C.E.) as Athene is defeated in Peloponnesian War Hellenistic Period (331 – 323 B.C.E.) blended Greek styles with Asian Minor arts
Etruscan art Located in what is now Italy in the 1st millennium B.C.E. Known for the arts of the tomb’s decoration because it’s the only surviving arts of theirs Buildings were made of brick and wood so there are no remains left Etruscan’s ceramic showed how their building looks like
Roman art Early Roman arts are similar to Etruscan 2nd century – art style change to more of Greek Romans discovered concrete that allowed them to make more steerable structures Curved arch allowed Romans to build bridges & aqueducts Used the style of relief During Roman Republic, ppl. Carried portable carvings of their deceases Roman arts focused more on idealizing than naturalizing
Byzantine and medieval art Roman Empire separated into city-states; Byzantine was one of them Byzantine arts are best known for its mosaic Contructed of ceramic tiles, pieces of stone or glass that were set into a ground material to create large murals Hagia Sophia in Constantinople – considered one of the greatest architectural achievements in history Medieval Period Arts were mostly made for Churches because of civil strife Books were so valuable that they were chained to the tables
BYZANTINE AND MEDIEVAL ART Early Medieval Period (375–1025) Nomadic German arts were metal works Metal works were abstract, decorative, geometric & often portable Similar to Vikings art style Late Medieval Art Architecture were mostly churches Romanesque were stone vaulted buildings Barrel Vaulting: multi-vaulting of an arch-shaped structure that is used to support the roof Romanesque churches has very few windows so the church looks dim
The Renaissance in Southern Europe
THE TRANSITION Gothic and Renaissance couldn’t be identified during this period of transition. What is the Gothic painting style? Paintings that had relaxed forms. In the Gothic painting style, there is an emphasis on flowing, curved lines as well as refined decoration. Theme was mostly associated with the church and religion. What is the Renaissance style? Basically a better, improved version of the Gothic style. It was more realistic, had more depth and perspective. The themes of these art style strayed away from the religion.
This is Jesus
This is not Jesus
Giotto diBondene (1267-1336.5) From Florentine Was known for his frescos. What are frescos? “A painting done rapidly in watercolor on wet plaster on a wall or ceiling, so that the colorspenetrate the plaster and become fixed as it dries.” (From Google) He used simple overlapping and modeling his figure in the round to create perspective. This figures gave powerful gestures/ emotional expressions. He had depth in his art. his gives a sense of looking into the event.
Impacts on the Renaissance Economy. Paper money Rich people would commission artists Greek and Roman examples were available.
The Role of Artists In earlier times, artists/sculptures were considered lower class. During the Renaissance, they were well respected and recognized as intellectual figures.
Lorenzo Ghiberti (1381-1446) Won the competition for the design of the doors for the city’s new baptistery. (< D: AN IMPORTANT EVENT!) Designed a door panel with some reference to the Greek style. It was depicted the sacrifice of Issac. He was then asked to make a second set for another entrance which took 25 years to complete.
This is Isaac
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) He was the second place winner. He focused more on architecture. Won a competition for the dome of the Cathedral in Florence. He used a double-shelleddome design. Credited devolving linear (single vanishing point) perspective. What is linear (single vanishing point) perspective? Any perspective that lines up parallel or perpendicular to the viewer’s line of sight.
Masaccio (1401-1428) Put Brunelleschi’s theory (linear perspective) into practice. He used both linear and aerial perspective. What is aerial perspective? Aerial perspective is the perspective of when an object is viewed from adistance.
Donatello (1398-1466) He is considered to be the founder of modern sculpture. Best known work – “David” Put great emphasis on naturalism and expression of character and dramatic action.
Botticelli (1444-1510) His painting “The Birth of Venus” created an image of female beauty. This painting had been oneof thefirst paintings of a nude lady since the time before the Medieval Ages.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) He was a: inventor, architect, engineer, painter, sculptor, scientist, and musician. Designed locks that controlled movements along canals from one level to the next. Designed submarines and helicopters. Famous paintings: “Mona Lisa” and “The Last Supper” In the “Mona Lisa,” it had the use of sfumato. What is sfumato? It allows shades/colors to blend into one another, creating fuzzy forms or soft outlines.
Michelangelo (1475-1564) He was a sculptor. There was a competition to create a statue from a giant piece of marble. He got a piece with a crack, but he turned it into apiece now known as “David” It was originally supposed to go on the façade of the cathedral. Pope Julius II commissioned him twice: A tomb, but it was canceled. To decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Took him 4 years
Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520) He was a young painter. Commissioned by Julius II several times. He was influenced by Michelangelo, his rival. He had helpers. Known for the “Sistine Madonna.”
Giorgione (1477.5-1510) He was a painter from Venice. His subject matter was landscape. In the painting “The Tempest” the landscape in more important.
Titian Vecelli (1488-1576) Another painter from Venice. He was recognized as great colorist. He used backgrounds such as curtains/columns for his backdrops for portraits.
Tintoretto (1518-1594) Yet another painter from Venice. (Oh goody, tell me more. >-> ) He is often linked with the Mannerist style. What is the Mannerist style? It was a style that exaggerated human poses and had unrealistic backgrounds. He presented his figures from dramatic angles and used an technique called chiaroscuro. What is Chiaroscuro? It’s basically shading. (Light and shadows) His work was later identified by their spiritual subject matters and use of sharp perspective.
The Reformation The Reformation impacted the subject matter of 16th century art. What is the Reformation? A time where the Protestants were fed-up with all of the corruption happening within the Catholic Church. This caused people to move away from religious subject matters.
DominikosTheotokopoulos A.K.A. El Greco The Church launched something that was called a Counter Reformation. What is the Counter Reformation? It was literally a COUNTER to the REFORMATION. Artists would create powerful/dramatic images of religion and the church. El Greco was a person closely associated with the Counter Reformation. Was influenced by Tintoretto. Painted in Mannerist style. His paintings depicted the religious passion of the Counter Reformation.
The Renaissance in Northern Europe
Influences In the 15th century, the north was still in the Gothic Style. Less influences towards the classical styles of Greek and Rome. Many artists traveled to study at Italy. Engravers copied some of the Italian works. Many still had a traditional approach. Linear perspective traveled more southwards.
Matthias Grunewald (1475-1528) A painter noted for his religious scenes. His famous work was “Isenheim Altarpiece”
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) One of the most famous artists in Germany during the German Reformation. He was largely influenced to the late gothic style, but when Italian ideas spreaded north he started to use them. He wrote about art theories and published woodcuts and copper engravings.
Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) A very important portraitist. He worked for King Henry VIIIof England. He had a talent for presenting details and the psychological character of his subjects. He became a standard for more of the 19th century English art.
Baroque Art The term “baroque” is generally used to refer to artworks from the late sixteenth century through the mid-eighteenth century. Baroque artworks tended to be less static than Renaissance. For example, baroque is characterized by a greater sense of movement and energy. It appealed largely to the emotions, and thus, these artists, influenced by the Counter Reformation, aimed at dramatic and moving appeals to faith.
Baroque Art Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680): Rembrant van Rijn (1606-1669): Most important Baroque artist Son of a sculptor Was a child prodigy who received recognition from the Pope at age 17 Was a : sculptor, talented architect, painter, and draftsman Ecstasy of Saint Teresa Dutch artist Created some of the best known works of the baroque period Was a painter, printmaker,draftsman The Night Watch
Baroque Art Under the rule of Louis XIV that the Académie Royal de Peinture et de Sculpture was established and it soon became a means for imposing aesthetic standards and principles of taste. The Spanish Court of King Philip IV of Spain tried to imitate the court of France Diego Velázquez( 1599-1660) was a contemporary of Bernini and his work had an influence on the movement we call Impressionism
Rococo The emphasis was on light-hearted decoration with the use of gold and pastel colors Three artists who were considered the masters of the Rococo style Jean-Antoine Watteau( 1684-1721)-was the leader of a new generation and the innovator of a new genre of painting called the fête galante This depicted members of nobility in elegant contemporary dress enjoying leisure time in the country side.
Rococo Francois Boucher ( 1684-1721) Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806) Influenced by Watteau’s delicate style His works transformed the characters of classical myth into scenes of the courtly gallantry He studied with Boucher, and his works strongly reflect Boucher’s influence
Neoclassicism The revolution of 1789 in France ushered an era of great change throughout Europe. In attempt to hearken back to the democratic ideals of the ancient world, art of this period demonstrated a revival of interest in the art of classical Greece and Rome. One artist from this period was Jacques Louis David (1748-1825)- whose paintings, such as the Oath of the Horatiiillustrated republican virtues.
Romanticism Eugéne Delacroix (1798-1863) was a proponent of Romanticism. Romantic painting tended to be highly imaginative and was characterized by an emotional and dreamlike quality. Romantics favored feeling over reason.
Realism and impressionism Realism was a recreation to Neoclassicism and Romanticism Realistic style showed the life of ordinary people Impressionism largely grew out of dissatisfaction with the rules to be considered a good artist ÉdouardManet (1832-83), an impressionist, urged other artists to work “outside the box” This lead to technical advances in painting and the style of brushstroke
Artists who followed Impressionism took its features in various directions Impressionists at this time were not getting enough attention Post-Impressionism Other Late Nineteenth-Century Developments
Post-Impressionism Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) Georges Seurat (1859-1891) Dissatisfied w/ lack of solid form Suggested that paintings could be reduced to their simplest underlying forms Ideas later influenced Cubism in the early 20th century Artwork – placed emphasis on the scientific rules of color Optical mixing
Post-Impressionism Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) Night Café (1888) Dutch painter – captured the “bright light” of southern France Many well-known works though career was short Thought that colors should be intensified to show emotions Night Café (1888)
POST-impressionism Paul Gauguin (1843-1903) Outside influences affect the world of art The invention of the camera challenged the works of artists even more than before Left his wife & family to pursue art career Searched for more intense light, clear color, and a more “unschooled” style of art Went to Tahiti and painted works that depict the island’s tropical land a native people
POST-IMPRESSIONISM Edgar Degas (1834-1917) In England, artists were dissatisfied w/ the Industrial Revolution & created a new type of art – Art Nouveau A mixture of Romantic, archaic, and moralistic elements Characterized by depiction of leaves/flowers in flowing, sinuous lines Made use of the new influences Combined the snapshot style with a Japanese-like perspective
The Emergence of modernism Henri Matisse (1869-1954) 20th century – artists are still trying to discover ways to present ideas Post-Impressionists attempted to extend the boundaries of color Led a group of artists that used intense coloring technique Wild use of arbitrary color Earned the name of “fauves”
Les toits de Collioure(1905) Woman with a Hat (1905)
The Emergence of modernism Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Georges Braque (1882-1963)
Germany – art developed that emphasized emotional responses
Worked to develop new system of art Broke down & analyzed form in new ways in style – Cubism Influenced by the natural African art Favored abstract forms over lifelike figures Die Brüke Includes Ernst Ludwig Kirchner(1880-1938) and Emil Nolde(1867-1956) Took Cubists’ ideas and combined it w/ intense feelings of the work of Edvard Munch(1863-1944) Became known as Expressionism
The emergence of Modernism DerBlaue Reiter Modern Art in U.S. Expressionist group led by Russian artist Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944) 1933 – painted totally abstract pictures without subject Fellow abstract painters: Russian painter Kazimir Malevich (1878-1935) and Dutch artist Piet Mondrian (1872-1944) 1913 – The Armory Show (arranged by the Barnes Foundation) Caused a sensation Artworks that were to become landmarks of various European art movements
The emergence of modernism Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) Added a mustache to a reproduction of the Mona Lisa and gave it an insulting title (LHOOQ, 1919) Exhibited a common porcelain urinal (Fountain, 1917)
Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon (1907) Nude Descending a Staircase (1912)
Both pieces of art shocked viewers with their challenging approaches to the figure and space.
The emergence of Modernism Duchamp’s New Idea: Surrealists: New art category – Ready-mades Taking an ordinary object and giving it a new context Includes Salvador Dali (1904-89), Rene Magritte (1898-1967), and Joan Miro (1893-1983) Portrayed the inner workings of the mind in their art
The emergence of modernism Bauhaus – school of design Established standards for architecture and design that would have a profound influence on the world of art Attempted to reconcile industrial mass-manufacture w/ aesthetic form Closed by Nazis in 1933 Many of its faculty, including Josef Albers (1888-1976), a well-known painter, graphic artist, and designer, came to the U.S. and contin. to teach
ABstraction WWII – Main focus was war, not art Artists did serve in military New center for international art had emerged – New York Abstract Expressionist Movement -1940s Willem de Kooning (1904-97), Lee Krasner (1908-84), and Franz Kline (1910-62) Aimed at direct presentation of feeling w. an emphasis on dramatic colors & sweeping brushstrokes
Feat. Broad areas of color and simple, often geometric forms
Mark Rothko & Josef Albers were color field artists
Other artists began to return to the style of naturalism Jasper Johns (1930-?) Robert Rauschenburg (1925-2008)
Created works that featured common things Created sculptures from cast-off objects he found around him to make “combines” Hung his own bed clothes on the wall like a canvas & painted them Bed (1995) Abstraction Jasper Johns (1900- ? ) Robert Rauschenburg (1925-2008)
POP ART, Minimalism, & photorealism 1960s Pop Art – incorporation of images of mass culture Violated traditional unspoken rules regarding what was the appropriate subject matter for art Andy Warhol (1928-87) – Icon of Pop Art Popularity – “Rockstar status” Soup cans, Brillo boxes, & images of movie stars were created w/ a factory-like silkscreen approach that he used to mock the art world
Pop art Roy Lichtenstein (1923-97) Robert Indiana (1928- ? ) Adopted imagery of books & recreated them on such a large scale that the pattern of dots used to print them was made massive Used stencils that had been originally used to produce commercial signs to create his own artistic messages
Minimalism Sought to reduce art to its barest essentials Emphasized simplication of form and often feat. Monochromatic palettes Invention of acrylic paint & airbrush enable Minimalists painters to achieve very precise outlines – “hard-edged painting” Frank Stella (1936- ? ) – best known for these entirely non-objective paintings David Smith (1906-65) – used stainless steel to sculpt Dan Flavin (1933-96) – used neon tubing to sculpt Sculptors created large pieces that reflected the sensibility
Photorealism Hyper-real quality results from the depiction of the subject matter in sharp focus – photograph Technique offered a clear contrast to the use of sfumato, developed in the Renaissance, which added a haziness to the contour of painted objects Chuck Close (1940 - ? ) – portraits Duane Hanson (1925 - 1996) – sculptures
Earthworks, installations, and performance 1970s – art no longer limited to gallery/museum spaces, and many important works of art are departures from traditional formats Artists have taken their work to a new scale & developed their artworks in new venues, often out of doors Also challenged conventional ideas about art and its function
Earthworks Christo (1935- ? ) and Jeanne-Claude (1935-2009) worked together – created much interest in Earthworks Christo wrapped several well-known monuments in fabric, built a 24 mile long cloth fence in CA, surrounded 11 Florida islands with pink plastic, and set up orange fabric gates on pathways thoughout Central Park Requires years or decades of preparation
EARTHWORKS Christo designs the projects, Jeanne-Claude handles the logistical details that must be addressed to do the work
Performance art A combination of theater and art in which the artists themselves become the work Point is to create a real event in which the audience can participate but that does not result in a fixed, marketable artwork for a museum or living room wall
Guerilla Girls NY artists that began to work together in 1985 Wore gorilla masks to conceal their identities Used guerilla-warfare tactics – posters, flyers, and public speeches to challenge what they see as an art world dominated by white men
Postmodernist art Takes many forms across a variety of media Tend to reintroduce traditional elements or exaggerate modernist techniques – using them to the extreme Often return to earlier styles/periods/references Philip Johnson (1906-2005) – leading proponent in Postmodern architecture Was known as one of the leading modern architects of the International style Suggested idea – one of the functions of art was decoration Led to the building of the AT&T (now Sony) building